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Martin Untbtv: 





<i Tim. iii. 1 . 




The memory of the just is blessed : but the name of the wicked shall rot. ProT. 7, 7. 

He being dead yet speaketh. Heb. zi. «. 


fLonBon : 

Crane Court, Fleet Street^ 


stationers' hall GOVBT) 
and sold bt 



• • • 

• * • • 

' * • w * 

• • • • 

« • 

• • 











These my homilies concerning the prayer of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, which St. John has delivered down to qs 
in his seventeenth chapter, I not only saw with plea- 
sure printed and brought forth into public, but my- 
self requested my particular friend, M. Caspar 
Cruciger, to undertake the labour of collecting them 
and reducing them into a regular form, (for I had not 
time and leisure to do it myself,) that he might put 
them into Ihe hands of others. For I was fully per- 
suaded, that this crumb and this cup of cold water 
would he useful and acceptable unto godly Christians 
who hunger and thirst after righteousness ; whom alone 
I desire to serve in these labours. But as to those full 
and over-wise spirits who loathe my writings, they have 
more than enough already, and do not want my help ; 
whom in this labour of mine I do not study to gratify 
one jot ; excepting it be, that they might have some- 
thing new, to furnish them with an occasion for exhi- 
biting some flaming specimen of their own great teaching 
abilities. — But, these homilies I commend to be read by 
all the beloved members of Christ, commending myseLf 
to their prayers. The grace of God be with us I 





These words spake Jesusy and lifted up his eyes to 
heaven and said, Fat her y the hour is come; glorify thy 
Sohj that thy Son also may glorify thee, S^c. 

Among all the works of our Lord Jesus Christ, we 
ought to have a desire to know what state of body, or 
what gestures he used, when he prayed and spoke with 
his dearest Father. For, in other respects, many parti- 
culars are committed to writing and handed down to 
memory, — how he preached when he addressed the 
people, and how he wrought his signs and miracles ; but 
very few particulars concerning the manner in which he 
prayed. But this very manner is here described in many 
words, which he made use of in praying to the Father 
for his disciples, and which he left them, as it were, for 
a memorial ; which, nevertheless, are not regarded by 
them. Whereas, iif the same did not stand recorded in 
writing, we should perhaps be ready to go in search for 
them even to the ends of the world, if it were possible, 
without weariness. For this ptayer is fervent, and pro- 
ceeding from the inmost soul; wherein he opens and 
wholly discloses to us the secret recesses of his own 
heart, and the will of the Father most sweetly inclined 
towards us. The words of this very prayer, however, are 
such, that if heard in our ears without the Spirit, sound 
like childish nothings ; and as having neither power nor 
savour, nor being worthy of mention. For reason and 
hiiman wisdom accounts all those things that are hot 
sounded forth in grand and great expressions, and thajt 

do not with their grandeur rivet the minds of all with ad- 
miration, as nothing at all. But if we could but see an'd 
duly conceive of the authority and greatness of the Maxi 
here praying, and the majesty of him who is prayed to, 
together with the importance of the things prayed for, 
we should not look upon them as so trifling and worth- 
less, but should find, in the plain proofs of felt experience, 
how much power and consolation these simple words 

For, Christ is here himself a diligent observer of his 
own rule, which he has delivered to us concerning our 
prayers, — that there is no necessity for using long and 
pompous words, but, that simple words coming forth 
from the heart are the most effectual. Wherefore, let no 
one be offended at this prayer, nor Jet him through sleepy 
unconcern negUgently disregard it, nor pass it by with- 
out heed, as containing words that are useless, or com- 
monly spoken by men. For it may appear to any one, 
that he could make a much better prayer ; whereas, if 
he were to attempt it, he would soon feel that the matter, 
the words, and the manner would fail him. 

But the sum and cause of this introductory head is 
to shew, that a good prayer ought to follow a good ser- 
mon or discourse : that is, that, after the Word is sown 
among the people, we are to groan and humbly beg of 
God, that the Word heard might be effectual, and might 
bring forth fruit. For when Christ had discharged his 
office, and had consoled and refreshed his disciples with 
a long sermon, and had taken his leave of them, it re- 
mained for him to pray both for his disciples and for all 
Christians ; in order that he might in all things fulfil his 
pffice as our high and only JPriest, and might leave no- 
thing unfinished that was necessary for their confirma- 
tion and support; since he was to leave them in the 
world behind him. And hence I have ever sedulously 
testified, how necessary Christian prayer is; without 
which, faith cannot subsist and endure. 

For, those who teach, or hear, or know the Word, 
and yet pray not, sufficiently declare, that they are yet 
secure and presumptuous, and are as though they neeaed 

not divioe grace, and see not their necessities and perits, 
but think uiat all their affairs shall be established, and 
that they have enough and an abundance of all that 
they want. And then it comes to pass, that the devil 
creeps on them slily and overturns them before they are 
aware. It is for this reason, that Christ by his own 
example, in his office of teaching and prayer, instructs 
us to take heed that the Word be not preached without 
fruits. But what power and virtue there is in this prayer, 

1 fear I shall never be able sufficiently to set fordi : for 
the more simple the words are in which it is clothed^ in 
the more deep, rich, and fiill mysteries does it abound ; 
so that no one can fully enter into its contents. 

First of all, when the Evangelist says, 

These wards spake Jesus ^ and lifted up his eyes to 
heaven andsaid^ 

he gives an honour to the using of external gestures 
in prayer: whereby he stops the mouths of fanatical 
praters, who affirm that these external things are of no 
moment But in this place, you plainly perceive that 
Christ himself not only prayed with his mouth for his 
disciples to hear him, but used certain gestures, which 
persons in prayer are wont to use, of whom some pray 
with bended knees, some fall on their face to the 
ground, some stand and lift up their eyes to heaven : 
and these three forms or manners of praying are all 
exemplified in the scripture. For how King David fell on 
the earth and prayed for his son seven days, is recorded 

2 Sam. xii. And Christ himself prayed both on his- 
knees and on the earth in the garden. And Peter with 
many others cast themselves down at the feet of the 
Lord. Again, Luke xviii. speaks of standing. 

But it matters not much, whether we stand, or bend 
our knees, or fall on the ground : for they are external 
forms that are neither rejected, nor commanded as 
being necessary to be observed: and there are many 
other forms of the same kind, such as lifting up the 
head and eyes to heaven, folding the hands, and 
striking the breast, &c. which indeed are not to be 

condemned, since Christ approved of them. Therefore 
Paul to the Ephesians, speaks oT his prayer thus, ^' For 
this cause I bow my knees unto the Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ." And to Timothy, i. 2, " I will therefore^ 
that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands," &c. 
Although I should not think it wrong if a person 
prayed unto God even while picking up sticks, if it were 
but fix>m the heart. 

This however is most certainly true, that if there be 

only an acting like a stage-player, consisting of murmuring 

and vociferation, just as we have hitherto stood in the 

churches, day and night counting the grains of rosaries, 

(as they call it) turning over the leaves, and howling in 

the choir like wolves, that is certainly no prayer at all. 

For such prayers as these are without the heart and the 

soul, nor does any one who prays in this manner ever 

once think of asking or obtaining any thing from God. 

But where these gestures are used in praying, speaking, 

singing, or reading, with a view to rouse the spirit that 

it might feel a pleasure and devotion in praying, then 

they are good and useful. For it is to this end, that the 

Psalms are appointed to be sung and read daily among 

Christians, that by the Word heard or used bodily, the 

devotion may be raised to speak forth or sigh in 


Moreover, we have not a few examples of this way 
of praying, and of these external incitements in the 
scripture : as that of the prophet Elisha, 2 Kings iii. 
whose custom it was, as we read, when he found that he 
was not sufficiently devout, ready, and alive, that he 
caused a minstrel to be sent to him,*at the sound of 
whose harp he was revived and roused to prophesy. 
How powerful others are in the Spirit, I for my part 
cannot tell, but as for myself, when I am without the 
Word, or do not remember it, or am not speaking from 
it, I find Christ no where, see him no where, and have 
k)st all my devotion and spiritual mind too. But as soon 
as ever I propose to myself, any one of the Psalms, or 
any sentence of the scripture,, then by its light my 
heart is quickened, and immediately another mind and 


another feeling are begotten in me: and I know that 
every one experiences the same in himself daily. 

And the cause of this is, that which we all find in 
ourselves, — that our ideas and thoughts are so slippery 
and unstable, that although we begin to offer up any 
serious prayer or enter upon any meditation concerning 
God, without the Word and the scripture, we generally 
find that before we can look around us, our mind has 
run away from our first thought above six hundred miles. 
Let any one try this if he will, and then tell me how 
long he can remain fixed in one thought. Or choose out 
any one hour of thy life, and promise to tell me all thy 
thoughts during that hour. I will be bound to venture 
any pledge, that thou wilt be ashamed of thyself, and wilt 
be afraid to speak out those things which have happened 
unto thee, and that men would think thee worse than a 
mad dog while uttering the whole, and such as should be 
bound in chains : and this has often been my experience 
even when engaged in the best of meditations : — so 
shattered and depraved a thing is the human heart, that 
it is evident that no water or wind is so moveable and 

I may as well give an example of this. It is read 
concerning St. Bernard, who continually experienced 
this, that at a certain time he complained to a particular 
friend of the difficulty that he found in praying rightly, 
and that he could not say the Lord's Prayer once over 
without wandering thoughts. Which thing filled his 
friend with the greatest wonder, who thought it to be a 
matter of no such trouble and difficulty. St. Bernard 
began to say, that he would offer as a pledge a high- 
bred horse, if he would make the trial, and would agree 
to tell him the truth of the result. His friend refused 
not the offer, hoping that he should without difficulty 
accomplish the matter, and therefore he begins to pray, 
* Our Father,' &c. ; but, before he had got through the 
first petition, a thought came into his mind, — ' But, if I 
win the horse I shall have the bridle and saddle along 
with him!' And in a short time, he found himself 
wandered away so widely, that he was obliged to leave 

off on a sudden, and declare that Stv Bernard had gained 
his point, and was ri^t. 

And, in a word^ if thou art able to repeat the Lord's 
Prayer without any wandering thoughts, then I will 
adjudge thee a perfect master in this matter. I, for my 
part, cannot do it : nay, I am truly glad, if the inter- 
rupting thoughts even go away as they came. 

I have mentioned these things, that we may not pass 
by this text negligently, as the fanatical spirits do, but 
may rather learn how much those external words and 
gestures serve and profit, as tending to assist in collect- 
ing the thoughts of the heart that are scattered and 
dispersed, that it might not slip away and be taken with 
other things, and tnat we might not stray from our 
proper thoughts and wander out of the way ; even as 
we take hold of a tree or a wall with our hands to sup- 
port ourselves from falling. And this is where our fana- 
tical spirits fail. — They think that all is then excellently 
well with them, when they are enrapt in their sublime 
and spiritual thoughts ; but they see not that they are 
without the Word, and wandering entirely out of the 
way. Wherefore, beware of such high-flying tlioughts, 
and be assured within thyself, that nothing can be 
transacted with God without the external Word and 
prayer. Nevertheless, a right distinction is to be made ; 
that is, that the prayer be not altogether external, 
wherein nothing else but the work itself is sought after, 
and where it is believed, that if the prayer be only said or 
read it is an excellent prayer, although the heart may not 
have once felt what the mouth was speaking, or have 
thought what was going on — but, prayer must so be 
offered up, that the heart may begin, and then the 
words follow, accompanied with suitable gestures. 
And, in a word, the prayer that comes forth from the 
heart is good and effectual, with whatever gestures it 
may be accompanied. 

Father y the hour is come : glorify thy Son. 

Here we see the virtues of the prayer. First, there 
are in this prayer three principal things : and especially, 

VOL. II. c 


that which is of the greatest importance in prayer, — 
that we give thanks unto God; and that, with an 
honouring thanksgiving,, we extol and enumerate the 
blessings he has already bestowed upon, us ; as Christ 
does here, recounting those things which the Father had 
given him and bestowed upon him ; whose example we 
ought also to imitate at this day, and say, * O Almighty 
and dearest Father, thou hast given unto us thy pre- 
cious and holy Gospel ; wherein thou hast abundantly 
poured upon us unspeakable grace.' Then, are to be in- 
troduced prayers and a mention of our necessity, ^ Grant 
therefore, O dearest Father, such a portion of. grace, 
that we may hold fast the Gospel which thou hast 
thus communicated unto us, and may. abide therein.' 
And then, we are to remember others in our prayers,. 
* That he would condescend to give his help unto aU.' 

In this way every prayer is to be offered up, evea 
where it is on acccMint of temporal necessities, and 
with this exercise of the graces ; and also with con- 
fession, whereby we may confess thajb all the blessings 
which we enjoy are God's; for which cause also we 
ought to pray, that he would preserve and increase 
them both unto ourselves and others. This is the way of 
rightly entering upon prayer, and of making a proper' 
access and approach whereby to gain the favour of God, 
that he might willingly and freely hear us. And an 
example of the same kind you will meet with also in 
another place, where he highly extols and preaches the 
Father, and speaks forth a great sermon in the midst of 
his prayer, as it were ; as in Matt. xi. towards the end. 

And thus he here begins, — ^' Father, glorify thy 
Son, that thy Son may also glorify thee." These words 
are in appearance so trifling and simple, that, in the 
judgment of human ears, th^ do not seem to be worth 
a straw ; but who can by searching find out unto the full 
the weight of the matter contained iff them, and the 
solemnity with which they were uttered by Christ ? The 
meaning of them is, briefly this : — * I entreat the 
O Father, to glorify me." But not content with this he 
adds, — ' that I also may glorify thee.' 



1 li 

Toi*^ ^orifyj" signifies to praise, to extol, and 16^ 
magnify and malce of great fame ; that his name and 
fame Inay become every where renowned, and may be 
spoken of and hbnoarea by all. But in this expre^ion, 
hb shews in what a situation he is now placed, and with' 
what a necessity he is now urged to put up this prayer.'^ 
The hour, (as he would say,) is how approaching, and 
is at hand, in which I atn to suffer, and to die a, death' 
the most ignominious of all deaths; by which, all my 
r^iown, the splendour of my life and name, and my dig- 
nity, will be obscured and darkened. For Christ had* 
now done great things, had preached with great autho- 
rity, had wrought most miraculous signs, and had given^ 
a splendid proof of his excellency, so that he in just 
right deserved to be praised, honoured, and adored by^ 
all. Whereas, he meets with just the contrary : and instead • 
of having honour aiid glory shewn and given unto himj- 
he is loaded with ignominy and disgrace. For be is 
compelled to hang on the cross, to die between two* 
thieves as the worst and most abandoned of malefactbri^ 
that ever the earth produced, and to be treated with 
greater ignominy and turpitude than any criminal was 
ever treated. 

For the most part, the world has that feeling of hu- 
manity, that, when even the most depraved and desperate 
mffians and murderers are led to punishment, there is no 
one who does not pity their state, grieve for tfieir misery, 
and feel sorrow for them. Biit, Christ the Saviour of 
the world is the only one who is destined to see his 
death a matter of gratification and joy to all. Nor were 
the Jews, even when they had had all their hearts* desire 
in putting him brutally to death, satisfied after all. And^ 
ia a word, there was no one engaged in the scene, who 
did not think that the highest and most acceptable ser^ 
vice would be done unto God, and the world reduced to 
safety and tranquillity, if this man were killed and taken 
out of the way. For they considered hii?a to be the 
most pernicious and poisopous worm that ever wa5 
upon the face of the eartli, and worthy to suffer every 
bitterness, affliction, and fdague. — And this was indeed 



tbrustniK that ever worthy, glorious, and great Man 
into darknesftv Thus was Christ, the light and salvation 
of the whole world, to be received and honoured by the 
world ! — be was excommunicated and thrust out of the 
world like the worst of devils ! And so it is even unto this 
day. The Jews still go on to 611 up the measure of their 
&tners : for they would rather bear any kind of bitter- 
M68, yea, even all, the devils together, than hear the 
name of Christ and of his mother Mary mentioned. 

And it fares the same with our Gospel. For there is 
no devil, no pest, no destruction, against which the Pope 
and his sects, together with all our enemies, are so 
much enraged, as against our Gospel and doctrine. 
. These must be condemned, execrated, devoted to the 
furies, and excommunicated : so that nothing is to be 
asttemed more infamous, ignominious, and detestable, 
than Christ and the Gospel. This is what Christ says, 
^ the hour is come," or, the hour is at hand. For he 
prays with such a feeling, and so urgently, as though he 
were now hanging on the cross, and wished to say, I am 
now r in the midst of ignominy and death, and lie buried 
in the deepest darkness ; now the time is come for thy 
delivering me, that thou mightest exalt me and raise me 
to honours, now that the light of my glory is so utterly 
darkened, and the world tramples me under their feet, 
and all hate and- spurn me, so that I have no help or 
counsel whatever, but thy caring for me and under- 
taking my cause. For, that I may escape from the jaws 
of death and from the power of the devil, who is the 
]Mrince df darkness, an eternal, omnipotent, and divine 
power must be put forth. 

And how was this glorification accomplished? 
Surely, when the Father raised him again from the 
dead, laid the devil at his feet, and made him King and 
Lord over all creatures ; and when he ordained all these 
things to be spread abroad and proclaimed by the 
Gospd, to the intent that they might be openly shewn 
to the whole world. And even as this once took place 
at the feast of the passover, so will it be preached 
milo the end of time, that it might be known unto our 


children and our children's cfaildreii throughout all 

That thy SofP also may ghrify thee^ 

Here, in this particular expression in the exercise of 
his graces, " thy Son,'' he at once discloses himself; 
wherein he confesses and glories, that he is the Son of 
God, and has all things from the Father ; which same 
particular he shortly after unfolds in more fiill expres- 
sions. He is the Son of God from everlasting, in the 
same majesty, power, and honour: but now in the 
world, he is in exile, in infirmity, in death, in ignominVr 
as though deserted by his Father and by all men. The 
world plies all its powers, efforts, endeavours^ and 
labour, and the devil directs all his arts and devices, to 
bring him to nothing, and that no remembrance of hioi 
might remain ; as it is said in the Psakn, '^ When shall 
he die, and his name perish ? " thinkfng, that all was at 
an end with him when he hung on the cross and was 
dying. And therefore it is> thatlie thus prays, * I know^ 
Father, that I came into the world by thy mission, 
and that therefore, thou wilt not suffer thy Son to remain 
buried in his darkness. Wherefore be thou pleased to 
glorify me, not that I might thereby please myself, but 
do it for thine own honour and glory.' 

For he was for that end sent into the world, that he 
might proclaim the praise and glory of the Father far 
and wide with the loudest voice. And hence, he alone is 
that Man, by whose preaching the Father is to be known 
and honoured^ If he therefore had not been honoured^ 
the dignity and glory of the Father also would have 
been obscured and extinguished.; nay would have re.- 
mained buried with him in disgrace and ignominy;, (for 
whatever the Son suffers, the same ako must the^Fadier 
bear and suffer;) and from this, the worfiL would have 
taken an occasion to revile and accuse. — ^ Lo! where 
is now this God, and his Father in whom he gloried 
^vith so much boasting f How excellently has he upheld 
him!' Therefore, that there mig|at be no place for such 
reviling and blasphemingi, the strength and power of the 


Father were to \^ diisplayed 'In glorifying his Son ; and 
the Son was to be made manifest in so much honour, 
that the whole world, with all their prepared ignominy 
and disgrace, should be compelled to fall down at his 
feet and adore hiiQ ! 

And at length, the Father is glorified by the Son. 
Tliat is, iie is made known and preached, as being able 
to ' bring help in infirmity, in death, in ignominy ; and, 
, out of them to bring strength, life, honour, and glory ; 
which then began to be done when Christ arose from 
the dead unto his glory, and ascended into heaven, and 
sent down his Holy Spirit ; and which still continues to 
be done by his permitting his Gospel to be preached far 
and wide, as long as the world shall stand. For this is 
the office of the Holy Spirit — to manifest by the 
preaching of the Gospel, how great and unspeakable 
things God has done for us through Christ — that he has 
delivered us from sin, death, and the power of the devil, 
and l)a^ received us into his grace and protection, anc 
whAlty giveniiim'self unto us ! 

[ And such a glorifying or magnifying were just 
as necessary for 3ie Father, as for our Lord Jesus 
Christ himself. For if we consider the Father, we 
shall see that he was as deeply immersed in darkness 
and hidden from the world, with respect to the glory 
and honour of his name, as Christ himself was when 
hanging upon the cross. For what was the state of 
things at that time in the world ? All wras full of impious 
and blasphemous idolatries; so much so, that there 
were some who worshipped the sun and the moon, and 
even fishes and birds ; and the most holy name of the 
divine Majesty had to endure seeing adoration paid 
to his creatures, but none to himself. Nay, the Jews 
feven, who were called the people of God, practised their 
idolatries .under his name, by trusting in their own 
works and righteousness. 

And the same is going on at this day : for every one 
forms to himself a God according to his own imagina- 
tions, under various kinds of a false worship of God, 
and each under a form of godliness : not to mention 

didse open and atrodoub blasphemies against God with 
which die world is wholly filled. Wherefore, there is the 
fflreateat need to pray that the Father may be ^orified ; 
mat is, that he may be known by the preaching of the 
Gospel, and be thereby honoured as he desires and 
ought to be honoured ; that all erroneous doctrines and 
fidse worshippings of God, together with all human trar 
ditions and dreams, may cease and be abolished'; and 
tiiat the Gospel alone may prevail and shine. 

From fliis view of things you may see, how the 
heart of the Lord Christ bums, and with what ardent 
feelings of his inmost soul he utters this prayer. — It 
grieves him that the most holy name of God should be 
obscured in such darkness, and that the whole world 
should lie in unbelief and blindness of mind : and so 
deeply does he griieve, that he desires speedy death^ 
and to endure every kind of insult and ignominy, so 
that the honour of the Father's name might be vindi- 
cated, and his glory brought forth to the light. 

But, as I have already observed, the Father cannot 
be glorified, unless the Son be first glorified. That is, 
unless the Holy Spirit first come and preach the 
Gospel, with^t which, no one can know the Father. 
For, before that, he can only be preached and known as 
a rewarder and dealer in good works, and as one who is 
to look upon us according to our religion and holiness. 
But this is to praise, not the Father, but ourselves and 
our own merits. Whereas, when Christ diesires to be glo- 
rified by the Father, and to glorify the Father in return, 
it is, that men, leaving all confidence in themselves, 
should glory only in his grace and benefits. 

Such words as these, therefore, does Christ speak 
for our sakes, to strengthen our faith against the 
greatest ofience that can be opposed to the Gospel in 
4e world. For it brings no small grief to Christians, 
that they hear and see the name of God blasphemed 
and insulted on every side, while he himself also per- 
mits his' Christians to be oppressed by persecutions and 
driven to every extremity, and so carries himself as 
though he could not bring them any help, or would not, 


in order that the world might fiercely triumph over 
them and shout the song of victory. Hence it is, that 
Chjist not pnly prays for himself, but that he fnight be 
glorified in all and by all that believe in him, and that 
he might gjorify the Father : who, being g^ned over 
and softened by this prayer, still now and then displays 
the same power in Christians which he openly mani- 
fested in Christ himself; to the intent, that as he was 
glorified by him, so also he might be glorified by us. 

Therewre although we may suffer many afflictions, 
and may die for his Word's sake, yet, through this igno- 
miny of death, this turpitude, and this bitterness, we 
shall pass away into eternal glory. On the other hand, 
our enemies, although they now rule and lord it over 
all things, shall at last be cast down from on^high, and 
shall ignominiously so away into eternal disgrace. And 
this has been abunaantly fulfilled in the most evident 
examples; and the same has been testified by expe- 
rience down from the times of the apostles in many 
martyrs. And John Huss also was most ignominiously 
condemned in the council of Constance, and put to 
death ; yet he has obtained these honours ; — the Word 
which he taught has openly come forth and now shines 
throughout the world, condemning and shaming Popery 
with all its honours, pomp, and riches. 

And the same also shall come upon all our enraged 
enemies who wish to suppress the Gospel and to extir- 
pate Christians, a great part of whom they have already 
burnt and murdered. For, kings and potentates much 
more powerful and fierce than they are, have come to 
destruction, and have been hurled headlong to perdi- 
tion for the Gospel's sake, which tliey would not endure ; 
in a comparison with whom, all the princes of this day 
would appear but as the common beggars of the street. 
How often was the Roman empire terribly laid waste, 
plundered, harassed, and overthrown, at the times when 
it thought itself the most powerful and most secure, 
while it knew not how to cease from blaspheming and 
raging, and venting its fury against Christians, and from 
shedding their blood ? And all those tyrants arid perse- 



cators, to a mas, fell by a base and igocuniiiiotts death : 
so that now, nothing is more disgustful, impure, detes*- 
table, and contemptible, than the sound of their names ; 
whereas, the names of the holy martyrs shine and are 
held in honour. And why ? — ^This prayer is heard, and 
has weight and poorer with God, breaking in pieces all 
the rage and power of the whole world. And, in a 
word, as this glorifying or magnifying began, the 
same power and effects does it still shew forth in 
Christendom, through the influence and efficacy of this 

This also is to be observed from this passage — that 
Christ hereby declares of himself, that he alone is that 
Mai\ through whom the Father is to be glorified. By 
this, he wishes to take from the Jews, his people, who 
had the law and the worship of God, their glory, and 
their boasting in their own righteousness ; that they 
might know, that neither of these things contain that 
wtereby the Father can be glorified, or whereby any 
one can attam unto the knowledge of grace, and unto 
that righteousness which will avail before God. For if 
the glorifying and knowledge of God could have been 
known and revealed by the law, there would have been 
no need of the coming, the preaching, the suffering; 
and the death of Christ, much less would they have 
been necessary that he might glorify the Father. And 
by this same saying, he also benefits us; that we might 
learn, in what way God must be sought and appre- 
hended by us, if we would do it aright, and how we are 
to hold communication with him. — For to glorify the 
Father, (as I have already observed,) is to know and 
to apprehend who he is, and how his will is inclined 
towards us. Unto this knowledge, no one can attain or 
arrive, but through Christ; for he will manifest himself 
no where hut through and in him, so as for us to dis- 
cover his heart and will. — In Christ we see nothing but 
ineffable love, and inexhaustable grace; and, on the 
contrary, out of him, nothing but wrath and indigna- 
tion, or that in which there is no mercy. And, to sum 
up the whole in a few words, whoever seeks God, or do- 


sires to serve him, otli^rwise than in Christ, — that man 
will not find God, nor serve the true God ! 

Wherefore, I have continually protested and de- 
dared, that whoever desires to walk safely, must beware 
of all those high imaginations and contemplations, 
whereby we attempt to seek God in the divine majesty 
without any medium, and wish to search into his works^ 
will, and counsel, and then run away with soiae very 
deep and especial revelations; because, by such we are 
BOt only deceived and seduced, but carried away and 
precipitated headlong into an abyss. And, it is upon 
this account that all other doctrines and faith through- 
out the whole world are damnable, of what kind soever 
they may be, whether of Jews, Turks, monks, popes, 
bishops, and all the rest of them, who serve God for 
the sake of obtaining grace, and wiping out their sins 
through some other medium than through Christ ; that 
is ito say, through their own works, or their singular 
devotion and their spiritual thoughts. For it is irrevo- 
cably decreed of God, that he will not be known nor 
found, out of the one Mediator, Christ. Therefore, 
where Christ is not, there the true God is not, nor the 
true worship of God. — But of this we shall say more 

As thou hast given him power over alljlesh^ that he 
should give eternal life to as many as thou Hast given 

In these words he embraces the second and third 
parts of his prayer : for he both gives thanks unto the 
Father, and shews what the Father had given him, i& 
the reason why he extended his prayer over. the whole 
world. For you plainly hear, that he did not pray for 
himself that he might have all the glory to himself, but 
that he might benefit £^id serve us tinto our attainment 
of eternal life. And it is on this account that he glories^ 
that power is given unto him of the Father over all 
flesh ; that is, over all who are in the earth, the great^ 
the mighty, the possessors of wealth, and the highest in 
honour ; and that his design is^ and that he is able, to 


londurfais miserable ^followers who cleave unto him and 
vho iBtre loaded with shame and ignominy, so highly, as 
'JO bring them to the eDJoyment of an eternal and im« 
nottal life. — I have (saith he) all kings, and princes, 
ind whatsoever liveth in the flesh, in my hand, that I 
might have it in/ my power to deliver my Christians fitmi 
sin, death, and all evils ; nor is any thing wanting, ex- 
cept that this is not !yet made manifest while I thus re* 
main m this infirmity and ignominy ; wherefore, I pray, 
that thou wouldst ^orify ine, that I might be able to 
make this plain and openly manifest. 

Here, then, Centres eh our hope, consolation, and 
trust— that we, who believe in Christ and cleave to his 
word, are his own, whom the Father gave unto him as 
his peciiHar portion. And Christ 'has undertaken the 
care of us to defend and keep us; that, how high soever 
the world may be above us in honour, in dignity, in 
glory, and ih power, yet, it might still be compelled to 
remain iii the powerful hand of Christ, that it might not 
be able to hurt us, and that the more determinately and 
deeply it may oppress us, he might with the greater dis- 
play of power bring us forth into eternal life. 

Therefore,' our hands should be lifted up without in- 
termission, and God be unceasingly praised, and thanks 
be rendered unto him, that he has condescended to 
make us of that number of those who are " his own :" 
since we knbw, that we have his Word, and for its sake 
suffer persecution and have the world our enemy : for 
he that is certain and persuaded of this, ought to enter- 
tain no doubt that he is of that flock for whom eternal 
I life is prepared and ordained. 

And finally, you may draw this inference and con- 
dusion — ^that, since it is the work and gift of Christ that 
we should be brought unto eternal life, it will certainly 
80 be, that the whole world, with all their wisdom, 
power, dignity, and honours, will, for our sakes, fall into 
everlastmg shame, and that our weakness and helpless- 
ness will be exalted to inestimable glory, And thisy 
Christ mdde abunbantly manifest in his enemies when 
he arose from the deepest ignominy to the highest glory. 


For he exposed all their glorying and boasting in their 
own righteousness and holiness, (from their reliance on 
which they persecuted Christ,) to everlasting shame and 
contempt. For, since it is most certain that he alone is 
Lord of the heavenly kingdom and of eternal life, it 
follows without a doubt, that the world who persecute 
both him and his Christians, cannot attain unto it, 
although they desire with a foolish presumption of miqd 
to become partaker of it by great efforts, and by their 
own powers and works. And where Christ freely gives 
eternal life, there, of necessity, must be eternal great- 
ness and glory; and on the contrary, where (^hrist 
gives not eternal life, there can be nothing else but eter* 
nal shame, ignominy, and contempt. — Wherefore, know- 
ing these things, let us suffer our enemies to blaspheme 
and revile as long as they can, since the rage and fury 
of their reviling will shortly come to an end : for neither 
thirty, nor forty, nor sixty years, are to be compared to 
eternity, even as the twinkling of an eye is not to be 
compared to the whole of this life which we live upon 

But observe what words John here uses, who has a 
particular manner of confirming this article above the 
r«st of the Evangelists, — that Christ is truly God 
equally with the Father. For these words, " As thou 
hast given him power over all flesh that he should give 
eternal life," &c. will not admit of the conclusion that 
he is only man : for such power, even of ruling over all 
flesh an4 of giving eternal life, can be given to no crea- 
ture ; a creature can receive and lay hold of eternal life, 
but, to give eternal life unto others, is the work and 
power of God alone. For the angels, although they 
enjoy immortality, yet cannot communicate the same to 
any other. When therefore Christ confesses that he has 
the power of giving eternal life unto his own, and that 
he has received the same from the Father, he indicates 
with sufficient clearness, that he is of the same power 
and essence with the Father, though their persons are 
different. — And that he might set this still more clearly, 
before our eyes, he adds, 


• ' • • ^ ■ 'I. 

And this is life eternal, that theyi might knew thee 
e one true God^ and Jesus Christ whom thou hast 

In these words, Christ shews what eteraal life i^, 
id what the nature of it is. For since he testifies that 
; has received the power to give eternal life ; some one 
ay ask, in what eternal life consists, or, how we can 
ceive it. To this objecting inquiry, Christ, by a cer- 
in anticipation, gives an answer ; and says, ^ Eternal 
Fe is thus, and my disciples shall receive it in this way, 
-" that they might know thee the one true God, and 
5SUS Christ whom thou hast sent." * This passage was 
3werfully brought forward by the fathers and teachers 
f old against the heresy of the Arians, who denied the 
ivinity of Christ, and the passage is indeed beautiful 
ad incontrovertible. 

Every Christian, indeed, ought to give all diligence 
) read ov6r the Gospel of St. John most carefully 
jain and again, in order that he may rightly compre- 
end and understand it, and may arm and fortify him- 
df with such mighty scriptures, on account of the 
eresies that will come. For in every age, the Jews, the 
urks, and the heretics, have fought against this article ; 
nd the same devil is beheld in many at this day ; and, 
nay God avert such an evil !) if he could find an oppor- 
mity and the power of breaking forth, he would burst 
)rth directly with intolerable fury. 

Wherefore, let him who would walk safely, flee and 
void all those things which natural reason and human 
houghts are accustomed to advance concerning this 
uticle ; for there is no counsel or wisdom that can avail 
igainst the seducing delusions of the devil, nor any 
hing but our having a steady faith in the plain and 
ample words of the scripture, not at all relying upon our 
wn thoughts and speculations ; but saying, * Whatever 
Christ has said must be true, although it may be beyond 
flie comprehension of me, or of any otHer mortal, how it 
can be true. He knows well what he himself is, and how 

to speak of himself/ He that. does not this, stumbles and 
falls into 6rro)ns; and at fast rushes headlong to perdition., 
Forij it' is utterly impossible tliat' hmnan' reason should 
apprehend even the least article of faith. Nor can any 
mortal have any right thought or sure l^nowl^ge' of 
God whatever, without the Word of Qod; and that, 
even the gentUes are compiled to confess* For they 
relate this particular of an excellent poet of theirs, named 
Simonides. — On a certain day Hiero, tyrant of Syra- • 
cuse, asked him what, pr what kind of an object, God 
was; or what opinion he held or receivjsd concerning 
God. Upon which he requested to have three rdays 
allowed him to consider of it. And when, at the expira- 
tion of three days, the tyrant asked him the same ques- 
tion, and he had to give the answer, he requested 
impther three days to tlmk upon it more deeply. When 
these three days had expired, he repeated the same re- 
quest again and again^ until he could delay the answer 
no longer, nor find any farther means of evading it 
And when Hiero wondering, asked him why he did so, 
he saidj ^Because, the longer I consider it, the more 
deeply obscure the matter appears to me.' From which 
example we derive this proof— ^that the farther and Ae 
more deeply human reason goes in the investigation of J: 
God, his works, his will, and his counsel, the farther it 
. gets from the knowledge of them, until it comes at last 
to know nothing and to believe nothing of God at all^ 
Of which kind of men, not a few are found among the ^ 
wise and prudent in this day. And this ought to be the 
lot of all, who, leaving the Word, follow the guidance 
reason, and bring her first of all into their counsels w 
all articles of faith, that they might see how they agree « 
with her. b 

Therefore, since we have here a text so powerful and | 
so plain, we must take heed that we wilfully obscure it Jb 
not by the blinded eyes of reason, nor wrest it, nor suffer [. 
it otherwise to be interpreted. For here you see thd '^ 
words are plain, and any one may comprehend and un- \ 
derstand them. — Christ giveth to all that believe et^^ . 



Dal life.: but, name can gi^ eterlMil. life save God 6nly : 
wherefore, it most iocontroveilibly follow,. thauGhiistris 
truly and natoraJfy God. ' m i 

And moreoyer, as he saitUp that eternal life: steiiida in 
our knomng: him and the Father;, it plamlj fidlbws; 
that no one; can attain nnto eternal life :widioat> thct 
knowledge of him; And dieiefore, the knowtetlge' 'by 
which both himself and the Father are known, tamt^ tae 
die jsame. And hence it must also follow, that he-is o£ 
the same essence and nature with the Father: thati9, 
that he is equally God with, but of a difiermt person 
bom J the Fadier. These 'things are so' clearly proved in. 
this text, that even reason herself cannot deny or gain- 
say them. 

. ; But the worst of all is here — that reason is not ccm- 
tent with the words, but, leaving them, rashly runs into 
anothec direction. She refuses to believe at once thiat the 
words themselves are true, but wishes to search out and" 
comprehend how they can be considered as: true and 
possible. And when she cannot comprehend that, she 
leaves the words, and forms out to herself new imagi- 
nations ; and then, wrests the words themselves accorcl- 
ing to her own pleasure, and interprets them according 
to the imaginations she has formed. 

Hence, the Arians also have wickedly and malici- 
ously twisted and perverted this text, while they laid the 
stress upon that part of Christ's words where he said^^ 
" that they might know thee the one true God," a» 
diough he excluded himself and ascribed divinity tO the 
Father only. But this is not proving or making plain>' 
but interpreting the scripture falsely, and not observing 
what the sense of the words is in their proper connexion 
with each other.- — We also affirm that it is truth and: 
ri^tly said, that there is none other God but him' only. 
Bhttt they will not see what is immediately subjoined to 
it,-^that Christ makes himself in all things equal to the 
Fatber, and so expresses himself as though he himself 
were the true God : seeing that, (as it is there said,) he 
{daces eternal life in the knowledge of himself and of the 
Father equally, and thus of the two makes one. 


And when he orders his words thus, — ^' thee the 
one true God;'' he does it, that he might always give. 
Jionour unto the Father, as having received au things 
from him ; and that he might thus lead and draw us unto 
the Father through himself. Of this, there are testimonies 
to be seen throughout St. John. And he unites himself 
to the Divine essence, assuming to himself the same and 
ail equal power, when he says, that he will be known 
togetheir with the Father as the giver of eternal life ; 
which is the work of God alone. 

Wherefore, these words make the most powerful of 
ail against the Arians and all other heretics, and also 
against the Jews and infidels ; who say, and boast, that 
ihey believe in the one God only that made the heavens 
and the earth ; and who on account of this their faith, 
condenm us Christians as adoring another God, &c. — 
For Christ's intention is to shew, tnat they know not the 
true God, how strongly soever they may be of that opi- 
nion, and may glory iii it ; and that they do not appre- 
hend who he is, nor understand how he is to be known ; 
seeing that, he alone is the one true God, who ^^ sent " 
Jesus Christ. In which his intention is to say, that he 
who would not err in the one true God, must seek him 
only in Christ the Lord ; for that none other is the true 
(pod, but he who sent Jesus Christ. Hence, he who has 
not this Christ, errs from the true God, (although he 
may know and believe that there is only one true God,) 
because he does not believe in him who sent Christ, and 
who by him giveth eternal life. Wherefore, all the force 
lies in the word " thee " — " that they might know thee 
the one true God." Which "thee?"— Who "sent" 
Jesus Christ! As though he had said, The Jews and 
many others have, as they imagine, the one only true God ; 
but " thee," who art the only true God, they know 
not; because they know not Jesus Christ whom thou hast 
sent. And yet, they all the while paint out to them- 
selves a God according to their own imaginations: 
which is not the true God, but a mere nothing at all ! 
Hence you see that Christ does not here use the word 
** one," that he might separate himself from the Father, 


[>r make himseli^ distinct from the Divine essence; 
[which is guarded against with sufficient caution by 
other words,) but, more especially, that he might join 
himself with the Father, and make the Father to be one 
in union with himself; against all those who form out 
to themselves another God, or seek God some where 
else than our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Let it suffice to have spoken thus concerning the 
manner in which the Evangelist has firmly established 
this article, the divinity of Christ. Now let us more at 
large speak of that knowledge in which eternal life con- 
sists — what it is, and how it avails ; that we may learn 
to understand this text rightly and thoroughly, as being 
the sum and substance of the New Testament. 

Our old teachers have referred these and the like 
sayings to the life to come, as though they did not all 
concern us as to this life. We, however, will dwell upon 
these and the like sayings here below, and will endeavour 
to make them profitable unto us : seeing that, they are 
written for the doctrine of faith, and pertain most espe- 
cially above all other unto this life. For that which we 
are to inherit and to possess in the life to come, must be 
known and apprehended here by faith. Now this know- 
ledge is, knowmg how we are to think of the Father and 
of Christ : concerning which Peter speaks, 2 Epis. iii. 
where he says, " Grow in grace, and the knowledge of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." That is, give all 
diligence that this may be your only concern, your only 
care and thoughts, — to. learn and know righdy this Man 
Christ : and let no one of you seek after any thing as 
better than this. For this only is our wisdom and our 
knowledge; which is called the Christian knowledge 
and doctrine ; and whatever is taught or learnt besides 
this, is not to be considered the Christian doctrine. 

And now, if any one should ask, * What ought 
Christians to know and teach ? ' no other answer is to be 
gjven than this — ' that Christ is to be known as sent 
by the Father : ' and let not him, who neither knows, 
nor has learnt, nor taught this by any means, glory in 
being a Christian. For although a person should know 



. all things under the sun — ^how God made the heavens 
and the earth, and how he wrought all his signs and 
wonders ; moreover, although he should know and keep 
the Ten Commandments ; and, in a word, althou^ he 
should be endued with the knowledge and power of all 
the angels ; yet all this together would not make him a 
Christian ! Wherefore, all things that can be preached 
or known, commanded or performed, concerning all the 
good teaching and lives of men, must be kept exclu- 
sively separate, and no other knowledge whatever must 
be left to remain and to avail unto the constituting of a 
Christian, than that only which is here spoken of— 
" that they might know thee, and Jesus Christ whom 
thou hast sent." Concerning this knowledge and the 
effective power of it, the holy prophets have also spoken 
gloriously and clearly ; as Isaiah liii. " By the know- 
jdge of him, shall my righteous servant justify many." 
That is, he shall deliver them from their sins, and rescue 
tbem from the Jaws of the devil, by this only — the un- 
derstanding and knowing who aiid what he is ! To the 
^a^ie effect are the words of Jeremiah also, chap. ix. 
*' Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let 
the mighty man glory in his might, let not the rich man 
glory in his riches : but let him that glorieth glory in 
this, that he understandeth and knoweth me, that I am 
ij^: Lord which exercise loving-kindness, judgment, and 
lightepusness^ in the earth." And it is the same thing 
that this text also is intended to. set forth — * If thou wilt 
Ijiaye eternal life, there is no other way whatever for thee 
to attain unto it, than in knowing the one true God the 
Father, through Jesua Christ his Son whom he has sent. 
And if any man shall set before thee any thing else 
whatever out of Chsist he will deceive thee.' 

Therefore^ the old teachers before mentioned have 
done injury and violence to this most beautiful text; yea 
ratha*, have taken from it all its tirtue and marrow ; by 
i^arating it from the doctrine of faith, and taking it 
MJiy a3 a prophecy concerning the life to come. The 
eau^eof which. error was^. their not understanding what 
tbat ts which is called the knowledge of Christ: for they 

hevcr went any deeper, not taught any fatther than that 
we mast live so and so, and must becottie good people, so 
that we mi^t by our works obtain eternal life. And 
licreby they drew us into a vain confidence in our own 
works, by which we utterly lost Christ and wandered 
wholly out of the way of eternal life. For thou must 
most carefully separate all things else that can be men- 
tioned from this knowledge. Whatever is not called the 
knowledge of Christ, cannot lead unto eternal life, nor 
deliver from sin and death. For as this is true — that he 
alone gives eternal life through the knowledge of him- 
self; so, on the contrary, this must be true also— that 
whatever is not thiis knowledge, must remain under death 
and damnation. ^ 

And now, what is this which is called knowing 
' the Father and Christ ? Or how is such a knowledge 
obtained? The whole stands in these Words— ^" whom 
thoo haist sent." He that understands and midoubtingly 
believes this, hath, most certainly, eternal life. Bat 
what is to be understood by " whom thou hast sent?" 
Consider thou and fully weigh the reason why Christ 
canie, and ^Vhat he did here in the world. — He came 
down from heaven, cltid was made man, that he mi^t 
finfeih the wbfk which the Father gave him to do, (as 
ou H-ili find he himself hereafter saith;) that is, that 
e might take the* sins ctf the whole world upon himseU^ 
and mi^t die to blot them out, and to appease the 
wrath of the Father; and that he might in his own pen- 
soif overcome death and the devil, and i^deeni as anto 

For, as hfe was '* serit'' df God, it could not be a 
li^t or trifling uhdertaking, but must be so great and 
so necessary; Aat no one of the ssAtits or of the angels 
coald dcK it, wor any one but the Son of God. That 
which wais to be accomplished by such a person oiriy, 
must, Ti^ithotft dotibf, be' of some eternal moment tw- 
Mem us men atfti ©od . Therefoi^, this whole trdasuW 
lie* couched in- these wrtrds-^^* whom thou hetet sent.*' 
Ffar these Vcwpds' reveil amd^opeti up to Us the mtnd,^ the- 

D 2 



heart, and the will of God ; and comprehend every thing 
that Christ accomplished by preaching and by suffering, 
or that he brought unto us apd bestowed upon us. And 
this also proves and confirms that these words were not 
spoken concerning the life to come. For to know that 
Christ was sent by the Father, is nothing less than 
knowing and believing, how Christ came into the world ; 
and that he died for our sins, that he rose again, and 
obtained for us, and gave unto us the forgiveness of 
sins ; all which things pertain unto this life. 

These things therefore are most diligently to be ex- 
ercised, and deeply pondered and laid up in our hearts 
and minds, in order to draw out and establish our faith, 
and not, as they have been hitherto, to be removed from 
our eyes. For in these things, most truly, our salvation 
fitands, and our surest consolation in all our afflictions — 
our knowing, that there is no other counsel nor help 
either in heaven or in earth against sins and temptations, 
than tbi3 knowledge and this faith. For do thou only for 
a moment consider a little attentively, what there is that 
9uch a faith cannot effect and attain unto. For if I know 
that Christ was sen^ down from heaven of the Father 
for my sake, and given unto me, I conclude with a 
cheerful and gladdened mind, that the Father in heaven 
is merciful and favourably inclined towaitls me, and 
knows no farther any wrath or indignation. Because, in 
sending his own Son, he hae abundantly manifested his 
mind and will, (as I have before observed,) so as to 
leave nothing for us to behold but an immeasurable and 
inexhaustible ocean of love and mercy. And then, if I 
have the heart of the Father, I have him altogether, with 
all his divine power and grace. What then shall I fear 
or dread ? And even if sin, death, and the devil assail 
me, and ply all their power to take my confidence 
from me, and to drive me to despair, still 1 know 
tfiat the merciftd and Almighty Father is mine through 
Christ, each of whom stands for my help and supports 
me. Staying myself in these, I can with great boldness 
and liberty resist the devil, and hold him up to ridicule 


and laughter. — Behold, therefore, what an omnipotent 
and efficacious thing faith is against all power that 
opposes us. 

But, however, only make an attempt in this matter, 
and thou wilt soon find by experience, how arduous and 
difficult a thing this knowledge of Christ is. For here, 
every one will feel how little faith he has, how weak he 
is in this life, and how ignorant of this doctrine all those 
teachers of works are who thus lightly esteem faith, and 
also all those satiated spirits who in so short a time 
thoroughly learn all things, and go on to seek still 
higher and higher things to search into. This is the 
school, as I have deeply experienced to my own sorix)w, 
where we have to sweat and toil ; and wherein I still 
feel by experience, how vain all our human works and 
powders are to overcome sin, death, and other tempta- 
tions. And therefore it is, that the devil, knowing this, 
rages against this doctrine with so much fury, raising up 
all his sects, his Papists, and his heretics ; who, although 
they hear and preach much about faith, yet know and 
experience nothing of it whatever, for they know and 
teach nothing else than good works, and man's own 
/righteousness, which alone they understand and preach. 
— That it is indeed true I cannot deny, and have myself 
always taught, that God will have men to liv% well, to 
walk honestly in this life, and to be saints and blameless 
before the world. But this honest conversation cannot 
make a man a Christian before God : that is, it cannot 
bring him eternal life. This glory I give to no works nor 
external righteousness whatever of men : it must be set 
above all human works, and all life, how honestly and 
uprightly soever it may be passed. Let our works and 
life remain here beneath in this world, that they may 
be called human honesty, or civil righteousness, and 
that they may enjoy t^is life, (as the scripture saith, 
* he that performed them let him live in them,') and let 
them end with it. But this, concerning which we speak, 
is a heavenly and divine righteousness, which procureth 
eternal life ; for it was not founded on human strength 
and transitory works, but it has another and an eternal 


ibundatioD, on whidi also it will stand for ever. There- 
fore, I look lupon this text as being one of the most for- 
cible of those that utterly exclude all works and leave 
th^QQL.herc below: because it makes the knowledge of 
Christ the only way unto salvation. For what woric can 
there be in knowledge ? It is not fasting, nor watching, 
nor afflicting one's body, nor any thing that can be done 
or endured by the body, but is seated internally in the 
inmost recesses of the heart. And, to sum up the whole 
in a few words, knowledge is not a work, but precedes 
:aU works ; for works follow from knowledge. Moreover, 
that is called works which we do ; but knowledge is 
that which we receive. Therefore, by this one expres- 
sion, " that they might know," as by a certain tre- 
mendous thunder and lightning, all doctrines that main- 
tain human wocks, religious orders, and human wor- 
shippings of God, are utterly destroyed ; because, nothing 
of these things can deliver from sins and please God. 

And here attend and take heed that thou forget not 

that which I said before — that Christ in these words 

Joins and unites the knowledge of himself and of die 

Father together ; so that the Father can be known only 

through and in Christ. For I have often said, and i say 

imd repeat it again and again, as it as what I would have 

to be fixed in Ihe minds of aU even after I am dead<^— 

that we should beware of all those teachers, as we would 

of .the devil, .who, by their high and towering specula- 

ticNQS, begin to teach conc^ning God nakedly, and 

without Christ : just as our sophists and great masters 

have done in our schools in their pryings into the w^rks 

<)f God in 2ieaven--^what he is, what he is thinking of, 

,aad what he is doing with ^imself, &c. But if thou if'iUt 

xiralk safely, and wilt apprehend God and find in him 

grace and help, then believe /no one who .would persuade 

mee that .thou canst find Ood any where h^i in Christ 

iNor be jdiou engaged in any other ithougbts pf him, nor 

seek thou any ouier works of his, hut this one only — his 

sending of Christ ! 

With the learning of Christ let all thy studies and 
pucsuits iConmienGe^ tod wander not frpm.that point. 

but stand fast thereia : and if either diine own imi^inaf 
tioDS or reason, or any other person shall wish to 
seduce thee, then shut thine eyes and say, ^ I must noV 
and desire not to know any other God, than in Ciurist 
my Lord.' And here behold his face, where he widi so 
much plainness and so much sweetness reveals himself 
in this word of Christ, " that they might know thee the 
one true God and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent." 
In which words Christ draws the Father wholly to him* 
self; so that no one can apprehend the one true God^ 
but according to that very word which he speaks. For 
in what other way can he draw nigh unto thee, or thou 
draw nigh unto him, so as to apprdiend and receive 
him ? 

Wherefore, all thy faculties are to be employed in 
contemplating his countenance, to which he leads thee; 
and thou art to observe how he leads thee by the Word^ 
and works the whole in thee. -Yet no one will believe, 
how indispensably necessary this is, nor how difficult an 
exercise it is ; with which, even many great and excel- 
lent men have been but little acquainted, and which 
even now is hidden from the wise and learned ones ; for 
they know not that all their £eu:ulties and thou^ts are 
to be directed to the Man Christ alone, that they are to 
contemplate Christ only, and solely to consider what he 
speaks of the word, and works of the work of God in 
heaven. And this is the reason why they do not keep 
their minds upon the words, " whom thou hast sent*'* 
If they saw these with right eyes, and believed them, 
then would their ears, their eyes, and their mind, be 
directed towards them ; and they would say, * Behold, tf 
he came into the world as sent by the Father, we must 
believe that he came to fulfil some charge committed 
to him, and to make it known unto us ; and therefore, we 
ought to listen to him as we would to the Divine Majesty 
himself.' Now then, we hear no other word than that 
he brings help into the world, and communicates unto 
us the Father's grace ; nor do we see any other woric 
but his going forth, taking upon him the charge of the 
Father, wad fulfilling it by teaching, by suffering, and at 


last by dying on the cross. — Behold here, the mind, the 
will, and the work, are clearly set before me, wherel)y 
J plainly know him : but out of this way, no one will 
ever see him or apprehend him by any sense or reason, 
how acutely soever he may pry into him, and how 
highly soever he may soar in speculative and sophistical 

When we are in possession of this knowledge, it is 
easy to judge what a miserable calamity, yea, what an 
execrable abomination, the doctrine of the Pope and of 
the monks is ; who impudently prate, that Christ did 
not by any means teach, say, do, and finish all things, 
but left many things to be taught, commanded, done, 
and ordained after him ; which is directly contrary to 
the authority of this scripture now before us ; and is as 
though they should say, * Ye are not to look at Christ 
only, as sent of God, but to observe us also ; to whom 
^any more things are given and committed to be done 
and taught than he commanded.' — Christ asserts and 
affirms &at eternal life stands in the knowledge of him. 
Whereas, they say, that that knowledge is not sufficient, 
but that many things more are necessary ; such as the 
listening to councils, imitating the examples and lives of 
the holy fathers, and a thousand other things of the 
same kind. 

Here then, it is high time that all godly Christians 
should separate themselves from them ; and say, ' We 
would willingly, ye excellent sirs, hear whatever ye say, 
comm^id, or do, but we will pay no more regard to it . 
than we would at seeing a maid sweep the pavement with \ 
a brush, or a cow giving milk when she was milked. 1 
We will leave to the work its value and its dignity ; but, 
that it ought to perform and accomplish as much as the 
Word of Christ does, we flatly deny. For Christ does 
not speak thus — This is life eternal if we live and do so 
and so ; or, if ye conclude and ordain this or that ; bat, 
* that ye may know Christ as sent of the Father.' Nor 
will he endure that we should look to Moses or others^ 
(who were sent themselves and had great charges com- 
mitted unto them, and did many things,) because, no 


one of them was sent unto the end, that by the know* 
ledge of himself, he might give eternal life; nor any 
other but Christ alone/ 

Here is the point of contention and controversy, 
wherein we dissent from the doctrine of the Pope. — He 
has taken away from us this knowledge^ and will not 
leave it pure and uncorrupted. If he would do this, I 
would never say one word against him, for we will wil- 
lingly permit him to conclude, to decree, and to com- 
mand, and to say that it is all right; and they shall 
therein have us as their helpers if they will ; but \et them 
leave this free unto us — that those things which they 
conclude shall not be considered useful or necessary 
unto eternal life. For this would be an insult to the ho- 
nour of Christ, and not to be borne : because, his Word 
would be thereby denied and trodden under foot 

But this text still more plainly shews what lost and 
desperate vagabonds they are, who boast of, and preach 
their orders and religious state, as being a state and 
works of perfection, and far more excellent than the 
common life and state of Christians : which is a doc- 
trine and assertion of no man, but of Satan himself, and 
one of the most horrible blasphemies. Wherefore, all 
monasteries are to be shunned and execrated, as the 
gates of hell. But, which way have we come into so 
great a calamity, that that self-chosen life, and those 
self-chosen works of thine, are greater and more excellent 
than the life and works of Christ ? For my part, I 
think that he will ever stand superior in holiness to all 
the Carmelites, yea to all saints, together with their 
works, even though they should fast daily, live only 
on bread and water throughout their whole life, and 
never sleep more than one hour a-night ; nay, if they 
should daily pray the dead out of hell. In a word, what- 
ever of a holy life thou wouldst praise or boast of, or 
canst attain unto, it cannot hold up the finger to the 
common life of Christians ; nay, is not worthy in any 
way to be compared with it. Therefore, the old doctrine 
and thoughts are to be put off and trodden under foot ; 
because, it is by them that so many diiferepces, have 


arisen Jn Christianity, and that the Christian life has 
been divided into so many states and orders. In the 
world, indeed, and in an earthly kingdom, things are so. 
There, the states and conditions are different, and some 
works are greater and more excellent than others. But 
the Christian life is very far above all these, and they 
remain at a greater distance beneath it than the earth 
does beneath the heaven, nor can any thing on earth 
bear any comparison with it ; for it contains a far more 
exalted and sublime treasure, whereby we apprehend, 
through Christ, the Father and eternal life ; and that is 
what the mind of no natural man can ever attain unto. 
And therefore it is, that men embrace these things with 
so much difficulty, and that almost every one is offended 
and turns himself unto other things that are more agree- 
able unto reason. For to her, these things ever remain 
foreign and obscure; and hence, she does not make them 
of much consequence, nor believe them to be true, nor 
can she simply trust to those things which ^tie canned 
feel nor see. She always wants to have something on 
which ^he may lean as a foundation, that she hasc^r 
finds in herself, or that she can bring forward as her own, 
and say, — I have laboured and wrought so many and 
great things ; and therefore, I hope I have not undergone 
the labour altogether in vain. 

Something not unlike this is related also of the holy 
fathers; as that concerning Hilary the hermit; from 
whom, on his death-bed, this evil word fell, — * O my 
soul (said he) why dost thou dread thy departure. Thou 
hast now served thy Lord for seventy years, and dost 
thou now fear death ?' — If he died in that state of mind 
which the words would indicate, then, certainly, he died 
badly and unhappily. For this is not building upon 
Christ sent of the Father, as the foundation, in which 
way only he giveth unto us eternal life, but it is trusting 
in our own righteousness and our own worshipping ci 
God. And this is the evil of our nature, whereby all 
holiness of life and good works, which would otherwise 
please God and be acceptable UQto him, are defiled ; and 
thus we lose both Chiist imd eternal life. 


I have said lliese things, tkat no one midit be 
seduced by ihese and the like examples ; though Jerom, 
who was Mm&elf planged into that sink, most highly 
praises and extols them, and knew oot bow to praise 
them enough. I hope, howev^, that ano^er light of 
faitib dione into the heait of lliis good father ^ring the 
last moments of his life. I, for my part, would not and 
durst not die trusting to sujch woras of commendation ; 
nor would I willingly be his companion therein. For if 
any one had put these (juestions to him, ' Why, our 
dear Father, dost thou so long live m the woods, feed 
OB roots and herbs, and lie naked on the bare ground ? 
Thinkest thou that God will give thee eternal life for so 
doing, and reward thee with a signal crown in heai^en ?' 
He would certainly not say, No ! but would confess that 
he hoped, that God would not suffer any thing that he 
did to be in vain. * For (he would answer; to what 
other end have I thus so severely afflicted myself with 
the greatest laj:>Qurs, watchings, fastings, prayings, aod 
the like, here in the desert ? '—Behpld then, where is now 
Christ with his works and merits ? Here, as you see, all 
lihose things are to be accounted as nothing at all, which 
Christ did for the ohtainiHg of eternal life and giving it 
nnto ns, apd it is to be bou^t of him by us first of aM 
with our Oiwn works i Wherefore, such legends (as they 
call them) and exan^ples of the fathers, are the most 
deadly poisons ; by which, faith and the J^nowledge of 
Christ are suppressed and extinguis(hed. Whereas, (with- 
cmt these,) we are all by najture contaminated with this 
evil, and jt drives many to despair because they have not 
don^ so and so, or, because they qanoot do it. 

Ijleie xthen, you se;^ how necessary it is diligently to 
exercise and inculcate diese /words, as the sum and sub- 
stance, and so, the foundation of our doctrine : diat is, 
bow we are to become Christians, and to ^.ttain unto 
eternal life. And this indieed is a sublime and wonderful 
knowledge, and an arduous thing it is to hold this know- 
ledge pufe, and to tiust whdly unto it. We have indeed, 
(tbanks be to God 1) this doctrine in word, but \^^ have 
it but in a amaU degree and weal^ly in our hearts. But 


the rest, that is, the Papists, and tne fanatical spirits, 
have lost both the word and the knowledge together ; 
aind, in addition to that, draw away both themselves and 
others by their own cogitations. 

Thus then, you have this full and golden sentence, 
as an article, asserting that Jesus Christ is the Son of 
God ; and moreover, teaching and setting forth the be- 
nefits and blessings of him ; that we might know what we 
have in him, and might through him rightly know God 
and learn the way that leadeth unto him ; in order that, 
we might with a glad and joyful mind trust in him only; 
which is what no other doctrine under heaven ever 

I have glorified thee on earth : I havejinished the 
work which thou gavest me to do. 

We have here then three gloryings. He prayed 
above, that the Father would glorify him ; in order that, 
by that glorifying or magnifying he might again come 
forth powerful and glorious : these are two glorifyings. 
And he now here says that he has glorified the Father ; 
and then, (directly afterward,) asks that the Father would 
glorify him with himself. What the two former glorify- 
ings signify has been already sufficiently explained : by 
which this text also is rendered quite clear and plain. — 
Christ our Lord during his life upon earth glorified the 
Father by highly preaching, and extolling liis praise and 
glory ; oi which there are testimonies to be found every 
where throughout the Gospels, where he continually 
teaches and glories that he was sent of the Father, and 
refers to the Father, and ascribes to the Father, the 
whole of his life and all that he possesses or has power 
to do. And the whole life of a Christian, ought to be 
just as we behold this life of Christ to have been. He 
ought to praise God alone, and to acknowledge and 
implore, with a thankful heart, his grace and merits. 

This work and this glorifying are now accomplished, 
saith he, and now, glorify thou me. This seems to be 
nothing else than if he had said again what he said 
above.: — \ If thy glory, praise^ and honour are to be 


proclaimed abroad, and declared by ine, then I must of 
necessity be buried in darkness and ignominy.' For all 
the time that he was doing the will of the Father by 
preaching and working stgns and miracles, and was 
engaged in those works which were approved of God, and 
well-pleasing unto him, the world was bitterly enraged 
ag^nst him, and could not endure him. Therefore, for 
the Father's sake he was oppressed, obscured, and con- 
demned to the most ignominious death. And it was 
thus that he finished the work which was given him to 
do. While therefore he knew and felt, that for the 
praise, honour, and glory of the Father, he must lose all 
the mreatness of his own name ; he prays and asks that 
the Father would not permit him to be buried in dark- 
ness, but would rescue him from ignominy and death, 
and would bring him forth to the light crowned with the 
highest honours : that is, that he would make him King 
and Lord. And then the third thing ought to follow, for 
which he prayed at the beginning, — that he might glorify 
the Father throughout the whole world in his Christians, 
that his praise might become much more widely ex- 
tended than it was before his death. 

Hence, you see that all these three things agree in 
one. First, that he might glorify the Father in his life ; 
and, on account of this glorious office of teaching, 
come to an ignominious death, that he might be in turn 
glorified by the Father ; in order that, he might be able 
to extend the glory of his Father still more widely, and 
render it still more great by his kingdom and Gospel. 
For if Christ, as has been observed before, had remained 
unglorified, the Father's glory would not have been 
more widely extended, but would have perished with 
Christ. Therefore the glory of Christ and of the Father 
are intimately connected together, so that the Father in 
glorifying the Son, glorified himself ; and, when Christ 
was glorified, then was the Father also glorified. For 
the glory whereby the Father is glorified by the Sodj 
and me Son by the Father, are inseparable. 

And now, as Christ our head prays, so ought ^e 
also who cleave to him to pray, that he Would glorify 


the rest, that is, the Papists, and tne fanatical spirits, 
have lost both the word and the knowledge together ; 
and, in addition to that, draw away both themselves and 
others by their own cogitations. 

Thus then, you have this full and golden sentence, 
as an article, asserting that Jesus Christ is the Son of 
God ; and moreover, teaching and setting forth the be- 
nefits and blessings of him ; that we might know what we 
have in him, and might through him rightly know God 
and learn the way that leadeth unto him ; in order that, 
we might with a glad and joyful mind trust in him only ; 
which is what no other doctrine under heaven ever 

I have glorified thee on earth : I have finished the 
work which thou gavest me to do. 


We have here then three gloryings. He prayed 
above, that the Father would glorify him ; in order that, 
by that glorifying or magnifying he might again come 
forth powerful and glorious : these are two glorifyings. 
And he now here says that he has glorified the Father ; 
BXid then, (directly afterward,) asks that the Father would 
glorify him with himself. What the two former glorify- 
ings signify has been already sufficiently explained : by 
which this text also is rendered quite clear and plain. — 
Christ our Lord during his life upon earth glorified the 
Father by highly preaching, and extolling his praise and 
glory ; oi which there are testimonies to be found every 
where throughout the Gospels, where he continually 
teaches and glories that he was sent of the Father, and 
refers to the Father, and ascribes to the Father, the 
whole of his life and all that he possesses or has power 
to do. And the whole life of a Christian, ought to be 
just as we behold this life of Christ to have been. He 
ought to praise God alone, and to acknowledge and 
implore, with a thankful heart, his grace and merits. 

This work and this glorifying are now accomplished, 
saith he, and now, glorify thou me. This seems to be 
nothing else than if he had said again what he said 
above.: — \ If thy glory, praise^ and honour are to be 


proclaimed abroad, and declared by me, then I must of 
necessity be buried in darkness and ignominy/ For all 
the time that he was doing the will of the Father by 
preaching and working sfgns and miracles, and was 
engaged in those works which were approved of God, and 
well-pleasing unto him, the world was bitterly enraged 
ag^st him, and could not endure him. Therefore, for 
the Father's sake he was oppressed, obscured, and con- 
demned to the most ignominious death. And it was 
thus that he finished the work which was given him to 
do. While therefore he knew and felt, that for the 
praise, honour, and glory of the Father, he must lose all 
the mreatness of liis own name ; he prays and asks that 
the Father would not permit him to be buried in dark- 
ness, but would rescue him from ignominy and death, 
and would bring him forth to the light crowned with the 
highest honours : that is, that he would make him King 
and Lord. And then the third thing ought to follow, for 
which he prayed at the beginning, — that he might glorify 
the Father throughout the whole world in his Christians, 
that his praise might become much more widely ex- 
tended than it was before his death. 

Hence, you see that all these three things agree in 
one. First, that he might glorify the Father in his life ; 
and, on account of this glorious office of teaching, 
come to an ignominious death, that he might be in turn 
glorified by the Father ; in order that, he might be able 
to extend the glory of his Father still more widely, and 
render it still more great by his kingdom and Gospel. 
For if Christ, as has been observed before, had remained 
unglorified, the Father's glory would not have been 
more widely extended, but would have perished with 
Christ Therefore the glory of Christ and of the Father 
are intimately connected together, so that the Father in 
glorifying the Son, glorified himself ; and, when Christ 
was glorified, then was the Father also glorified. For 
the glory whereby the Father is glorified by the Son^ 
and me Son by the Father, are inseparable. 

Atid now, as Christ our head prays, so ought #e 
also who cleave to him to pray, that he would glorify 


the rest, that is, the Papists, and tne fanatical spirits, 
have lost both the word and the knowledge together ; 
and, in addition to that, draw away both themselves and 
others by their own cogitations. 

Thus then, you have this full and golden sentence, 
as an article, asserting that Jesus Christ is the Son of 
God ; and moreover, teaching and setting forth the be- 
nefits and blessings of him ; that we might know what we 
have in him, and might through him rightly know God 
and learn the way ihat leadeth unto him ; in order that, 
we might with a glad and joyful mind trust in him only; 
which is what no other doctrine under heaven ever 

I have ghri/ied thee on earth : I havejinished the 
work which thou gavest me to do. 


We have here then three gloryings. He prayed 
above, that the Father would glorify him ; in order that, 
by that glorifying or magnifying he might again come 
forth powerful and glorious : these are two glorifyings. 
And he now here says that he has glorified the Father ; 
wid then, (directly afterward,) asks that the Father would 
glorify him with himself. What the two former glorify- 
ings signify has been already sufficiently explained : by 
which this text also is rendered quite clear and plain. — 
Christ our Lord during his life upon earth glorified the 
Father by highly preaching, and extolling his praise and 
glory ; oi which there are testimonies to be found every 
where throughout the Gospels, where he continually 
teaches and glories that he was sent of the Father, and 
refers to the Father, and ascribes to the Father, the 
whole of his life and all that he possesses or has power 
to do. And the whole life of a Christian, ought to be 
just as we behold this life of Christ to have been. He 
ought to praise God alone, and to acknowledge and 
implore, with a thankful heart, his grace and merits. 

This work and this glorifying are now accomplished, 
saith he, and now, glorify thou me. This seems to be 
nothing else than if he had said again what he said 
above.: — \ If thy glory, praise, and honour are to be 


proclaimed abroad, and declared by me, then I must of 
necessity be buried in darkness and ignominy.' For all 
the time that he was doing the will of the Father by 
preaching and working signs and miracles, and was 
engaged in those works which were approved of God, and 
well-pleasing unto him, the world was bitterly enraged 
ag^st him, and could not endure him. Therefore, for 
the Father's sake he was oppressed, obscured, and con- 
demned to the most ignominious death. And it was 
thus that he finished the work which was given him to 
do. While therefore he knew and felt, that for the 
praise, honour, and glory of the Father, he must lose all 
the mreatness of liis own name ; he prays and asks that 
the Father would not permit him to be buried in dark- 
ness, but would rescue him from ignominy and death, 
and would bring him forth to the light crowned with the 
highest honours : that is, that he would make him King 
and Lord. And then the third thing ought to follow, for 
which he prayed at the beginning, — that he might glorify 
the Father throughout the whole world in his Christians, 
that his praise might become much more widely ex- 
tended than it was before his death. 

Hence, you see that all these three things agree in 
one. First, that he might glorify the Father in his life ; 
and, on account of this glorious ofl&ce of teaching, 
come to an ignominious death, that he might be in turn 
glorified by the Father ; in order that, he might be able 
to extend the glory of his Father still more widely, and 
render it still more great by his kingdom and Gospel. 
For if Christ, as has been observed before, had remained 
unglorified, the Father's glory would not have been 
more widely extended, but would have perished with 
Christ Therefore the glory of Christ and of the Father 
are intimately connected together, so that the Father in 
glorifying the Son, glorified himself ; and, when Christ 
was glorified, then was the Father also glorified. For 
the glory whereby the Father is glorified by the Sonj 
and me Son by the Father, are inseparable. 

Atid now, as Christ our head prays, so ought ^v^e 
also who cleave to him to pray, that he would glorify 


the rest, that is, the Papists, and tne fanatical spirits, 
have lost both the word and the knowledge together ; 
and, in addition to that, draw away both themselves and 
others by their own cogitations. 

Thus then, you have this full and golden sentence, 
as an article, asserting that Jesus Christ is the Son of 
God ; and moreover, teaching and setting forth the be- 
nefits and blessings of him ; tnat we might know what we 
have in him, and might through him rightly know God 
and learn the way that leadeth unto him ; in order that, 
we might with a glad and joyful mind trust in him only ; 
which is what no other doctrine under heaven ever 

I have glorified thee on earth : I havejinished the 
work which thou gavest me to do. 

We have here then three gloryings. He prayed 
above, that the Father would glorify him ; in order that, 
by that glorifying or magnifying he might again come 
forth powerful and glorious : these are two glorifyings. 
And he now here says that he has glorified the Father ; 
wid then, (directly afterward,) asks that the Father would 
glorify him with himself. What the two former glorify- 
ings signify has been already sufficiently explained : by 
which this text also is rendered quite clear and plain. — 
Christ our Lord during his life upon earth glorified the 
Father by highly preaching, and extolling his praise and 
glory ; of which there are testimonies to be found every 
where throughout the Gospels, where he continually 
teaches and glories that he was sent of the Father, and 
refers to the Father, and ascribes to the Father, the 
whole of his life and all that he possesses or has power 
to do. And the whole life of a Christian, ought to be 
just as we behold this life of Christ to have been. He 
ought to praise God alone, and to acknowledge and 
implore, with a thankful heart, his grace and merits. 

This work and this glorifying are now accomplished, 
saith he, and now, glorify thou me. This seems to be 
nothing else than if he had said again what he said 
above.: — \ If thy glory, praise^ and honour are to be 


proclaimed abroad, and declared by me, then I must of 
necessity be buried in darkness and ignominy/ For all 
the time that he was doing the will of the Father by 
preaching and working signs and miracles, and was 
engaged in those works which were approved of God, and 
well-pleasing unto him, the world was bitterly enraged 
ag^nst him, and could not endure him. Therefore, for 
the Father's sake he was oppressed, obscured, and con- 
demned to the most ignominious death. And it was 
thus that he finished the work which was given him to 
do. While therefore he knew and felt, that for the 
praise, honour, and glory of the Father, he must lose all 
the ^eatness of liis own name ; he prays and asks that 
the Father would not permit him to be buried in dark- 
ness, but would rescue him from ignominy and death, 
and would bring him forth to the light crowned with the 
highest honours : that is, that he would make him King 
and Lord. And then the third thing ought to follow, for 
which he prayed at the beginning, — that he might glorify 
the Father throughout the whole world in his Christians, 
that his praise might become much more widely ex- 
tended than it was before his death. 

Hence, you see that all these three things agree in 
one. First, that he might glorify the Father in his life ; 
and, on account of this glorious office of teaching, 
come to an ignominious death, that he might be in turn 
glorified by the Father ; in order that, he might be able 
to extend the glory of his Father still more widely, and 
render it still more great by his kingdom and Gospel. 
For if Christ, as has been observed before, had remained 
unglorified, the Father's glory would not have been 
more widely extended, but would have perished with 
Christ Therefore the glory of Christ and of the Father 
are intimately connected together, so that the Father in 
glorifying the Son, glorified himself; and, when Christ 
was glorified, then was the Father also glorified. For 
the fflory whereby the Father is glorified by the Sonj 
and me Son by the Father, are inseparable. 

And now, as Christ our head prays, so ought ^ite 
also who cleave to him to pray, that he would glorify 


the rest, that is, the Papists, and tne fanatical spirits, 
have lost both the word and the knowledge together ; 
a;nd, in addition to that, draw away both themselves and 
others by their own cogitations. 

Thus then, you have this full and golden sentence, 
as an article, asserting that Jesus Christ is the Son of 
God; and moreover, teaching and setting forth the be- 
nefits and blessings of him ; that we might know what we 
have in him, and might through him rightly know God 
and learn the way that leadeth unto him ; in order that, 
we might with a glad and joyful mind trust in him only; 
which is what no other doctrine under heaven ever 

I have glorified thee on earth : I have finished the 
work which thou gavest me to do. 


We have here then three gloryings. He prayed 
above, that the Father would glorify him ; in order that, 
by that glorifying or magnifying he might again come 
forth powerful and glorious : these are two glorifyings. 
And he now here says that he has glorified the Father ; 
wid then, (directly afterward,) asks that the Father would 
glorify him with himself. What the two former glorify- 
ings signify has been already sufficiently explained : by 
which this text also is rendered quite clear and plain. — 
Christ our Lord during his life upon earth glorified the 
Father by highly preaching, and extolling liis praise and 
glory ; of which there are testimonies to be found every 
where throughout the Gospels, where he continually 
teaches and glories that he was sent of the Father, and 
refers to the Father, and ascribes to the Father, the 
whole of his life and all that he possesses or has power 
to do. And the whole life of a Christian, ought to be 
just as we behold this life of Christ to have been. He 
ought to praise God alone, and to acknowledge and 
implore, with a thankful heart, his grace and merits. 

This work and this glorifying are now accomplished, 
saith he, and now, glorify thou me. This seems to be 
nothing else than if he had said again what he said 
above.: — \ If thy glory, praise^ and honour are to be 


abroad, and declared by mey then I must of 
necessity be buried in darimess and ignominy.' For all 
the time that he was doing the will of the Father by 
preaching and working signs and miracles, and was 
engaged in those works which were approved of God, and 
well-pleasing unto him, the world was bitterly enraged 
against him, and could not endure him. Therefore, for 
the Father's sake he was oppressed, obscured, and con- 
demned to the most ignominious death. And it was 
thus that he finished the work which was given him to 
do. While therefore he knew and felt, that for the 
praise, honour, and glory of the Father, he must lose all 
the greatness of his own name ; he prays and asks that 
the Father would not permit him to be buried in dark- 
ness, but would rescue him from ignominy and death, 
and would bring him forth to the light crowned with the 
highest honours : that is, that he would make him King 
and Lord. And then the third thing ought to follow, for 
which he prayed at the beginning, — that he might glorify 
the Father throughout the whole world in his Christians, 
that his praise might become much more widely ex- 
tended than it was before his death. 

Hence, you see that all these three things agree in 
one. First, that he might glorify the Father in his life ; 
and, on account of this glorious office of teaching, 
come to an ignominious death, that he might be in turn 
glorified by the Father ; in order that, he might be able 
to extend the glory of his Father still more widely, and 
render it still more great by his kingdom and Gospel. 
For if Christ, as has been observed before, had remained 
unglorified, the Father's glory would not have been 
more widely extended, but would have perished with 
Christ Therefore the glory of Christ and of the Father 
are intimately connected together, so that the Father in 
glorifying the Son, glorified himself; and, when Christ 
was glorified, then was the Father also glorified. For 
the glory whereby the Father is glorified by the Sonj 
and the Son by the Father, are inseparable. 

And now, as Christ our head prays, so ought "ite 
also who cleave to him to pray, that he would glorify 


himself ittfus. For as it wfifs wit!b him on earth, so also 
it is with us; that, for his sake, (when we glorify hitia, 
and exalt his name by our life and doctrine,) we must 
submit to be loaded with ignominy, and to be con- 
demned to, and pimished with, death : even as for oQjr 
sakes, his most holy name and word suffer persecution, 
and are loaded with every reproach and insult. Btit that 
he might retain his honour and dignity, and defend! his 
word against vile calumniators and i)lasphemous ac- 
cusers, he must rescue us, and quite reverse the scene, 
making the world to be unjust and condemned to the 
deepest shame, while we are translated intoglory and 
Vernal life. And then, his glory comes to light,- beaifis 
forth, and is spread throughout the world by the Holy 
Spirit and the mouth of Christians. And this is what 
he calls the work which the Father gave him to do — to 
load himself with all reproaches and insults, endure 
dreadful tortures, and suffer death for the glory of the 
Father; and all this for our sakes, that we might be 
delivered from death and from the devil, and might have 
eternal life : as we have shewn before. 

And 7iow, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own 
selfy with the glory which I had with thee before the 
world was. 

Here again, is a' great and' expressive text con- 
cerning the divinity: oi Christ, against the Arians: 
though even herd, they have found a gap or chink 
througjb which to escape. Here Christ expressly says, 
that he had honour, and was glorious with the Father^ 
before the foundation of the world. What the meaning of 
this is, those who believe can easily see. — " Before the 
worid was," nothing could have existence but God only, 
£6r there is nO medium between the world and God, or 
between the creature and the Creator. Thus, the mouth 
of the Holy Spirit, speaks simply, without any colouring 
of words^ and yet speaks things so great and sublime, 
that no mortal whatever can comprehend th^. For 
nifhat else is-here said, than that ii4iich others might have 
expiessed with HftnuUStude of wordai thus — * Dear Fathei^ 



doBify me who jmdi thine cmly Son ih)m everitf$tmg« of 
ttie same divinity, essence, and glory with thyself It is 
this that he says here and includes it in his prayer ; that 
he might shew, lum he wishes to be glorified, that is, 
manifested, preached, and believed on ; namely, as being 
he who had his ^ory from all eternity ; that is, as being 
truly God, and naturally Son of the Father. 

But heretics have cast their clouds over, and per- 
verted this text also, as tfiey are accustomed to pervert 
the whole scripture. And although this same heresy jnay 
break out again hereafter (which may God prevent !) 
I have entreated, and I entreat again and again, that we 
exercise ourselves in this Evangelist most diligently, that 
by his help we may withstand such heretics : for they will 
artftiUy and wickedly pervert all such passages of the 
scripture, and will say as they have done before, ^ It is 
true that Christ had his glory before the world was ; but 
it does not from that follow, that he is therefore to be 
consider^ eternally and naturally God. He might have 
been some creature, higher and exalted above all the 
rest of the creatures, before the world was, and so, a 
medium in the world between God and all other crea- * 
tures.' For when they see that they cannot answer these 
plain words, they are driven to the necessity of framing 
the thought, that Christ is the highest and most exited 
of all creatures, and in dignity and excellence surpassing 
the greatness even of the angels, and that he was created 
before all other creatures. Thus must the daub of 
colouring be thrust upon and cast over the scriptures, that 
tl^y may agree with our cogitations, lest those impious 
cogitations and figments should be detected. And thus 
does it deservedly happen unto them who wish to un* ' 
ravel, the mystery in those sublime articles by their own 
reason, and. to be considered masters of the scriptures. 

And monsover, as we handled tbis(articLe above, and 
proved that Christ must be truly God, since he alone 
has. tfao power of giving eternal life, and this is obtained 
alone.throx^ the knowledge of him; so, we most sted^- 
f»tly bdieve.and xest on: the present words also, not suf- 
fSBrin^men-to wiest the wordis froni us^nor to m^ciously 


pi^rvert them, nor to itnagine or frame any thing me^ 
dium between God and the world ;* for no such medium 
can be framed. And this is the most certain of ail cer^ 
tainties — that Christ, as he had his glory before the 
world was, cannot be a creature. For the term " world" 
comprehends all things that are created, or every thing 
that is called a creature that was not from eternity, but 
had a beginning: as Moses, Gen. i. ^^ In the beginning 
God created the heaven and the earth." Therefore, it 
cannot be, that Christ existed before the world or before 
time, and yet, was only a creature. Moreover, Christ 
himself says in plain words, the greatness, or, " the ^ory 
which I had with Mee," not which was witib the crea- 
tures, or in the power of the creatures. Since, therefore, 
he was no where but with the Father, the glory must, of 
necessity, have been in divinity. 

A king or a prince has also his glory, but it is before 
his people, it can be no where else. The glory of Christ, 
however, must have been wholly in God, apart froni all 
creatures. And if it were in God, or with God, then the 
glory of ChrivSt and of the Father is one and the same in 
' an indivisible essence. Thus, in the words " with thee,** 
are comprehended an union of nature and a distinction 
of persons in the Godhead. — And now, mark the sum of 
this ,prayer. * My most beloved Father, I have now 
finished my work in the world unto which I was seat of 
thee. And now for thine honour s sake I die, and am to' 
be oppressed and to be condemned as the most wicked 
of all men that the earth ever bore since the memory of 
man. Therefore, at length glorify me, that the world may 
hear it, and declare that I was thy Son from everlasting.* 
For if the Father himself had not done this, no mortal 
man would ever have known or found out his glory. For 
into the heart of what man would it ever have come, or 
who would ever have believed, that the Christ, who was 
crucified and humbled below all men, was the trae 
Almighty God. But now, this prayer was heard,^ and 
its efficacy now prevails abmad ; Avhereby, this Christ is 
believed and worshipped as truly Man bom of a Virgin, 
and truly the Son of God, who had his glory with the 


Father from everlasting, aqd who now by the preaching 
of ihe'^ospel reveal& the Father and draws men unto 
the knowledge of him ; as it now follows, 

/ have manifested thy name unto the men which 
thou gavest me out of the world. 

Here Christ himself explains what he means by glo- 
rifying the Father and finishing his work ; shewing how, 
and ^r what, it was finished. For *^ I have manifested 
thy name unto the men which thou gavest me,** means 
nothing else but his glorifying the Father, which is ma« 
nifesiting his name: and thus what he preached con* 
ceming him, the same he has revealed to our hearts — 
that he is a kind and merciful Father, that he receives us 
into his grace ; pardoning all our sins, delivering u4 
from deam and the devil, defending and bringing us nelp 
in all perils and straits, and that without any regard to 
our works or merits, but only of his fatherly goodness 
through Jesus Christ his beloved Son. He that praises, 
glories in and preaches, believes and confesses, these 
things, he makes the Father glorious, he magnifies and 
manifests his name, that men may know what he is to 
be called, how he is to be looked upon, and how he is to 
be worshipped. For the right way of coming at the 
name whereby he is to be known, is to have an under- 
standing of the will of his heart and of his works, which 
are hidden from the whole world. For all who have not 
this faith and this confession, know not the Father,, 
although they may hear and talk much of the Father : 
like the Jews, who glorified that they only were the peo- 
ple and the worshippers of God : and yet, they-had no 
better thought of him, than as if he were a certain man, 
who ought to have respect unto all their legal insti- 
lutions, their sacrifices, and their splendid ceremonies, 
and ought to permit tfiem to please him, and to be 
merciful and favourable unto them on account of them*. 
Whose* example 6ur monks and orders of religious ones 
also imitate ; imagining, that God has respect unto their 
Words, Iheir fastings, and their severe manner of life, 
and will give unto uiem eternal Kfi because of Uiem. * * 



tnd^ we fipjd. this la be in aH mea by imi(w% 
tiyat a^. soon as Qve^ we bear of God» ^cuinft oitf 
to himself his own imaginations and thoughts;; whjer^qik 
he would attempt to arrive at knowing the form of God 
and his colour, who or what he is, what his though^ 
are, what he is meditating in his mind, and by what 
things he ii^ to be worshipped* Nor can reason ascend 
imy hid)er, even ^hen it haS; mvented the very best way 
it^can tor worshipping God, than that he is:to be served 
}fy w,qrks: and that so much must he done» thait tl^ejf 
iltiy have a fair appeai^ance in his sig^^ a^d tb^t . lif 
i9ay for them give such a reward as he shall be pleaaeij 
to ^aut And it is from th^, that ^U th^ different form 
of ^olatry have spread themselves over dxe world* J^i^ 
if ^ e, would know him aright,, we rnv^t come ta Chii^t, 
^ati he would reveal the, ^thei; upto us by hi$ WchxI ; 
md here» our reason an^ cogit^tiooi;^ will bi$ o^ no ayai), 
Fqr who would ever have thought^^ or iajta whose mipd 
wpi^ld it ever have entered, that theSoi^ of God himi 
^^ should descend from hqayen, become; Viw^f ^UifiW 
4^th upon the crpss fqr our sii^s, i^nd obt^ii^ for us.tjiM 
^ce. an4 miercy of the Fatheri without any maritft cht 
wprks of our own ? And^ in a word, Christ alone, qtupt 
li^^tl^t MtW? and n^ist at onco: receive the honour a^d 
^prcof i^orifying wd manifesting^ the father* 

And to these y^jords h^ a^ds, ^^ whiipb thqu gavest ma 
<mt of the world." For, as no one manifests , the. name 
of the Father, or permits it to be preached, but himself; 
30>,iiQ oue cc^n undersjta^ or appreheo^^ thajt noanijS^ 
t^ixoii, hut those who c^re given unto him;^ Othf?r3>-a4e< ojl^ 
fe^djed at it^.a^d^ eyeu dispute it ; and with suc^: wk)^ad«' 
ne^^e. they fitfe^f tha^ they even persecute aa<j[ blus^ 
E^meit For it rmiiikes -directly a^inst all Uieir wisdom 
^gqld. sanctity) awl again^tt all tho§^, things, up^n wlufqh 
t]^y, pride . tiiemselyes*. 

l0w, aJJ[ th^^e , tl^^^ w &wil for- op? sftl?e9t ^h^ 
^^ fl^AYiqrd.oif^Cl^ l^9r4-a»d:^lH^<:i«V^Wl» 

l»j^]hj.i9|t^;; andthj^yaifawi^ndspC^thftfun^^^ 
tiiMi^ and, e^CjiajLy Aiseful t^ M;eak.apd ti^ml^lv^gr COOr: 
scien^f^: b,uti above aljli t^. t^)9s#. who^ri^ temptW awl 



■» ' 


listfeMed with that hi^est of all temptations, concern- 
ing dieir election. — If any is concerned to know whether 
le is dectedy or what the mind of God is toward him^ 
et.him consider the words of Christy and especially the 
present, and all like it. And although we cannot for a 
sertainty affirm, who shall stand in that day and shall 
indure unto the end, yet, this is most true, — that those 
1^ .are called and have come to a partaking of the 
!jospel, and to this mainifestation, that is, to the Word of 
Christ, so as to embrace it seriously, that is, to be in^' 
rardly persuaded of it,, and to believe it, are certainljf 
hose who were given unto Christ by the Father out of 
he world. And those who were given unto him, those 
le vrill safely guard, and will take care that not one of 
hem shall perish. Even as he himself saith, John vi* 
^ This is the Father's will which hath sent me, th^t of 
lU which he hath givaa me I should lose nothing.** 
&nd he saith also a little below, in this same chapteTi 
^ Those that thou gavest me I have kept,^ and none oi 
hem is lost but the son of perdition." And again, Joha 
:. where he is speaking of the sheep whic^ h^tr his 
^e» he says^.^' I give unto them eternal life, and they, 
hall never parish, neither shall any man pluck them 
Ntt of my band." 

I would have thee believe this, as the most certaid 
rath,-^that there is no greater display of grace^ nor any 
greater work of God^ than that by whidi any one id 
irought to bear with desire, and from the heart, tne Word 
f Christ, ^and to embrace it seriously and maj^ify it^ 
'or, aa I have said before, this is not in the natiire or 
atural disposition of any one, nor do&3 it arise from 
ny human reason or choice : for, to the embracing of 
lis, mach more i& necessary than reason and free-wil{ : 
s Christ saith) John vL ^^ l^o man can come unto me^ 
xcept the Father which hath sent me draw him." And 
gguo, '^ Eleery- man therefore that hath heard and 
earned of the Fa|hQr (Cometh unto me." Which wbrds^ 
l^ugh they may appear to be ^^ hard sayings'' to 
ilse Christians^ yet, unto godly hearts that love his 
rmidd, they ace sweet to hear: and ipost consolator}fy> . 

E 2 


when they look into the mind and heart of Christ from 
whence they flow. For what he wishes to shew, (lis I 
have said,) is, that, to cleave unto Christ, and to be made 
his disciples, is not of human will or purpose, but of the 
will and power of God ! 

This is most abundantly exemplified if any one will 
look into the world, how few there are of those who 
love and magnify the Word of Christ; and especially, 
where great power, wisdom, and sanctity are found. 
There, nothing is held in greater contempt, nothing 
more execrated than the Gospel. This Gospel the wise 
children of this world have learnt so insultingly to harass, 
so dogmatically to condemn, so jeeringly to grin at and 
deride, so to arraign and besoil with sdl the virulence ci 
words, and to persecute with such severity and bitter- 
ness, diat nothing can equal it. And, in a word, there is 
ho madness be it ever so great, no vice, no crime be it 
ever so nefarious and abominable, no error be it ever so 
absurd and impious, no devil be he ever so bad, against 
whom the devil is so much enraged as against Christ. . 
All sects, all blasphemies, be mey ever so impious 
against God, all vices and open profanities, can* be put 
up with and even kept secret and covered, but this Man 
Christ cannot be endured ; he must bear and endure all 
things, and against him every one must pour out the 
insatiable vehom of his mind. Wherefore, consider it by 
no means as a trifling matter, but take it for the greatest 
consolation, if thou feel that Christ and his Word are 
loved by thee, and that thou desirest from thy inmost 
soul to cleave unto him, and to be found in tliat poor 
foolish flock, who are Christ's, and who shall never 

And, if thou shalt be assailed with such temptations 
^ these, — ' Although I love Christ and delight to hear 
of him, yet, who is to know how the Father which is in 
heaven is aflected toward me?* This cogitation of mind 
Christ would take away from thee, and say, * Thou 
foolish one, thou couldst not cause thyself to rind a de- 
light in my Word and manifestation ; nor couldst thou feel 
it unless it were given thee of the Father. Dost thou 

.fiptliear that this is his i¥ork.and grace? For he has 
-HOW takep thee out of the world, . and has given thee 
•mato me, and has granted unto thee this grace to hear 
me with a willing mind, and to love and magnify my 
Word. In having this, thou hast all things : nor hast 
thou any need to seek any thing farther, man to pray 
. continudly that thou mayest not basely depart from the 
Word/ And, in a word, whosoever cleaveth unto Christ, 
has an abundance of grace, and can never perish, al- 
though he may be led aside by the infirmity of the flesh 
and fall, (as it happened unto St. Peter,) provided that, 
he despise not the Word ; as the fanatical spirits do, who 
boast of the Gospel and yet care nothing for it whatever. 
Let none, however, arrogate this consolation to them- 
selves, but those miserable, afBicted, and in many ways 
wounded consciences ; who, when they would willingly 
be under grace, and held in the love of Christ, do not 
desire to oppose his Word, but feel the greatest grief 
that it is every where so maliciously and wickedly im- 
pugned and oppressed. 

Behold, thus does Christ always endeavour to draw 
us upward through himself, and to reveal unto us the 
mind of the Father, and to set the same forth in the 
most lovely and friendly point of view, that we might 
not be afraid of him, but look up to hinvwith a happy 
countenance, and approach him with all confidence. 
And Aese words of his are to be most fervently loved 
by us ; for no one believes how great the wickedness and 
malice of the devil are, and especially in temptations of 
that sort, whereby he endeavours to seduce men by 
those ^cute and subtle thoughts and imaginations of 
their own ; wherein, they endeavour to separate, divide, 
and disunite Christ the Lord from the Father, that they 
might seek the Father nakedly without Christ, or loc^ 
upon Christ as a mere man. > 

Hence it appears to me, that .there is not a more 
difficult article of faith than to believe that this !^Ian 
Christ is also truly the Son of God. And the reason is 
this — when we believe thi§, then we have .gained the 
victory : for we think thus — Whatever Cmrist does„ 

#jbateyer he ipeaks to me, promises me, or giv^es ^MIk 
M^ with M^hatever thing he draws, calls me forth, cqm^ 
iforts me and strengthens me, or when he pardons myaii 
^s and bears with me, &c. all these same things tlM|| 
Father does, as being that one God. What hurt, then,^ 
4)an death and the devil, together with all afflictions and 
'Adversities, do me ?rr-But this, reason cannot apprehend ; 
and here the. devil comes in and helps it on, by saying, U 
-that a line and a difference must be drawn between God L 
and Christ, and that, by two different considerations ; k 
that we are to look for Christ upon the cross, but for I 
God in tl^ heaven above; and thus at las( we are \ 
brought to torment ourselves by saying — Who knows 
what God is thinking above, or what he is meditating 
ip his mind concerning me ! 

While such cogitations occupy the heart, it is impos- 
sible that it can be still and stand fast : for in this way, 
the person God-Man is divided and separated. On the 
cross, or in the bosom of the mother, nothing else is be- 
held but the Man Christ, in whom there is neither wrath 
nor terror, but mere kindness and good-will, and also 
an incredible and overflowing charity ready to help us. 
But, if this view be left, and thou climb up to the 
Divine Majesty, then thou must of necessity run against 
It and be thunderstruck and confounded; and thus, 
thou £dlest back the moment thou beginnest to with- 
draw thyself from the view of grace, and to look at the 
naked Divine Majesty, which is too sublime and mighty 
for thine eyes to behold. For, out of Christ, nature can 
see and attain unto no grace or lov^ in God ; because, 
out of him, thete is nothing else but wrath and damna- 
tion. And this is what I call separating the Father and 
Christ, or separating the man from the Son of God ; 
that is, dividing and separating the one person Christ ; 
and this is the worst of all the devil's cunning and craft 
For the rest, such as the Sabellians and Manichees, are 
stupid and clownish devils ; who teach, that it is not to 
be believed, either that God is a maq, or that a man is 
truly God. For that these things are called only objects 
ei speculation, and mere imaginations and subtle 


lindllts of the so^Wslis, Nvhich kre bp^ti^t forwarit Sft 
pjpiuttftioii in tills schools. But, however, when (Sti& 
mtOst cotees to experience, i^i^here We have to stand by 
IMi, atid "whert the heart has to fight agamst tempta!^ 
bns, then is the time to find and feel what these 
lib M are4 

^ Wie fitad, John tiv. that Philip alsb was under thiK 
Itaipcation, where he says^ '^ Lord, shew us the Fathet, 
lid it sufficeth us." As though he had said, Thou 
beidcest unto us many and great things concerning t!he 
bttielr. We S)6e, hear, and well know thee ; but wtefi 
HI it be that we shall once see the Father ? Behold, 
lestf great apostles, who had Christ fot so long a titoie, 
M had been daily in his society, are still immers^ ih 
Ikmi carnal thought, and seek God oiit of Christ, atld 
ilmrate him from the Father. Wherefore, Christ i^ 
tOves his furiosity, and draws him down to himseKf, 
nd says, '^ Philip, he that seeth me seeth the Fathcir 
Iso. Why feayest thou then. Shew us the Father ? Be- 
leVest not thou that I am in the Father, and the Farikeir 

Thenefore^ these words are to be diligently impressed 
n otif mindi^ and contemplated, that we may aecustoak 
furselVes so to behold and hear Christ the Lord, tis 
sost eertainly beholding and hearing th<$ Father at ^tit 
UM tim^ ; and that we may wholly hide and ^hihroil^ 
ttrselves in hini \ vea^ that we may wrap ourselves Up 
I the same swaddlmg clothes, and offer ourselves uj) ys 
enaited and bound together with him on the tr^6, aiid 
y no means suffer ourseTves to be allured without tdWard 
)e leaked Majesty, lest the devil should catch us ^d 
talpower Us ; whose whole aini id, to dissolve '^ Chfisi 
lanfifest in the^sh," (as the blesSed Johii, ihap. i; lljld 
, mifsX wisely discourseth upoh this subj^t,) that 1n€ 
lay separate the Ood-head ftota thei M&n-hc>dd ^ 

I hav^ giv«b admotiitioliis 6% bHA handled this pdinl 
le 'ttldr« diligently, bedausig ther« are fiisUiy drrODitoflld 
»irftd wll6 i&«dftee \Mi tlMimselvef) s»id biS&^H by thiiiif 
igitAtioM; atid hl/^ tHirtifeulafly^ k gftet MMK9 tpdil 


^hese words, ** The flesh profiteth nothing." As fhon§i 
God had to do with nothing but with the Spirit. And 
this is most especially what is called dissolving Christ, and 
tearing him from his divinity, as useless flesh and blood : 
yea rather, it is dividing that one indivisible person of 
Christ. For what is it else but making of Cbrist two 
persons, when they seek God out of the flesh, and 
openly affirm that it was the man alone that died for iis^ 
and that his fleish is of no use to us whatever. And even 
when they grant that the flesh of Christ is of use to 
us, insomucn as it was that which died for us ; yet, they 
deny, that, after that was done, and he ascended into 
heaven, we ought any longer to cleave unto it; but say,, 
that the mind must be raised up more highly in the 
spirit, and penetrate unto the Father, &c. Therefore^ 
when they thus set at nought the humanity and consider 
it useless, it justly happens to them that they lose the 
Divinity also ! 

Hence, as I have abundantly declared already, be 
who shall hereafter seek God, and would not seek him 
in vain but find him, and yet does not seek him m 
Christ alone, he will not find God, but the very devil 
himself. For you hear ip this scripture, that Christ takes 
all into himself, when he says, '* I have manifested thy 
name unto the men which thou gavest me.'' And he af- 
terwards saith, " Thine they were, and thou gavest them 
me," &c. Here, I say, you hear, how the Father binds 
us to the Son in his flesh and blood, as being that one 
who alone manifests and glorifies the Father m us by his 
external preaching, that we may know where and how 
the Father is to be found. And hence we are given by 
him to Christ, as that one unto whom we ought to 
cleave, and to the words of whose mouth we ought 
wholly to listen, then, flesh anid blood are by no means 
M> utterly to be rejected ; but the rather, we are to be 
shrouded by them, as being the place where the Father 
would hftve Us placed.; yea where he himself ^will alone 
. be fiqiund^and nOfWh^re dse. So that, we are, thus to 
' cOtte bv him unto the Father, and . to be where he is as 
those who are now taken out of the world, and are not 

to remain wi^ it utider the powo* of the devil, nor to 
perish with it Wherefprei let every one for himself 
9T® eternal thanks unto God, who has been brought to 
bow to the hearing of Christ, and to delight in his Word. 
And let each one hope with a glad and believing mind, 
.that. God will by no means ever permit us to perish, 
seeing that he has given unto us his only and beloved 
. Son Christ, and has, in giving us him, most abundantly 
and fully poured forth upon us all grace. 

Tliine they were, and thou gavest them me. 

These words he speaks for the more full conscda- 
.tion and up-raising of our weak and trembling con- 
science. For when he uses so many words, he does it 
not that his prayer might be the more effectual to obtain 
his request of the Father, (for the Father knew all 
things before, and also, whatsoever Christ asks and 
prays for, he certainly obtains,) but, that he might fill 
our mind, which is always trembling and afraid of God, 
with an emboldened trust, that we might look upon him 
with joy and reliance, and run up to him with all confi- 
dence, . and be able to stand in his sight. And this, no 
man upon earth can do of himself, for whenever he pro- 
perly thinks on God, he trembles, and would run out 'of 
the world if he could ; nay, he is filled with alarm at the 
very hearing of his name. I am not now speaking of 
those ungodly and inordinately living brutes and beasts ; 
but, of those whose heart is touched, and who feel their 
sins ; for it is to them only I am making known these 
things. For the conscience is always in arms, feeling and 
knowing that God is wrath against sinners, and that he 
will condemn them. It sees, moreover, that it cannot 
escape the wrath of God ; and therefore, it trembles and 
despairs, and is so astounded and deathy as if thunder- 
struck. Therefore,- we should apply all diligence after 
Christ, that he would speak unto our heart these sweet, 
friendly and consolatory words,, and by them take away 
those ,neavy, bitter, and horrible temptations,, and that 
he would sweetly teach us of the FaUier, according to 
the desires of each mind.— ^Let u6, then, with all diti- 

l^nce ii»pi>ess these words on our miAds, xxnto 'tfni teth 
solation and sakatton of oui' soute. 

" Thine they were,** saith he. This is as if we shOttW 
Bay, He who hears the Woitl, who opens his heart aAd 
iTttrs; and receives the manifestiition concerning the 
iPather, he no longer belongs to the wOrI4, but is niib^ 
And as it is certain that they are tnine, and that I nm 
tiieir Lord, Master, and Saviour ; then, this also h cer- 
tain, that they are also thine, nor are they thine now 
only, but were thine also from the beginning, and came 
now unto thee by me. — Thus, by the Word only, aU 
wratfi is taken away^ and whatever is dreadful or terri- 
ble in the thoughts either in heaven or in earth ; SO that, 
a heaven full of grace and blessing is open from ab&iv. 
If, therefore, thou cleave unto Christ the Lord by fetfiu 
then it is the greatest of all certainties that thou iart of 
the number of those whom God from the beginning 
chose unto this, — " that they may be thine: " otherwise, 
they could not be brought to hear and receive such a 

Behold, thus, this greatest of all temptations, and all 
dispute about secret predestination, are removed ; With 
which, not a few so torment and distress themselves, 
that they are not far from madness : and yet they do tto^ 
thing else by all this anxiety of mind, but put theftiselvM 
under the power of the devil, to draw them throjigh 
desperation into hell. For I would have thee fully per- 
suaded of this, — ^that all thoughts. and mental disputa^ 
s tions of this kind concerning predestination, arise front 
ttie devil as the author of them. For those things which 
are delivered down to us in the scripture, conc^eming 
this matter, are not delivered to that end, that lAfJf 
should fill their miserable and trembling mind with dii^ 
tress and rack them with terror, who feel their sins and 
desire to be delivered from them, but that from tbesfS 
scriptures they might receive consolation. Therefore, let 
these troubles fill them with distress who haVe not the 
Gospel, and who do not willingly hear Christ. But do 
thoa know, that there is not in all the wOrld a greatt^ 
coBsolation than this which Chricft here opens ^ p and 


imto into thy hiods ; nanidy) that thou art "God's, «tti 

mB belored child; seeing that, his Word is l^yplearaMi 

and thy heart is sweetly devoted to him. For k CbriA 

he sweet to thee, and thy friend, and comfort thee, thea 

God the Father himself comforts thee. Therefore, thoia 

hast not an angry God, but one fall of fatherly love antf 

^uce, which is testified by these his works whereby he 

has given thee unto Christ the Lord. In these stand with 

perseverance as a brazen wall, suffering nothing else to 

be taught thee, than how the Father may reveal and ma- 

nfest himself unto thee by the Word of Christ. For he 

has for that end manifested himself, that thou mightest 

not ^ve need to seek any thing else, nor to nmke any 

anxioas and curious inquiriQs, as to what he has de«- 

creed concerning thee ; but that thou mightest be able 

to see and know at once in this Word his whole w9l 

concerning thee, and all other things that are necessary 

onto thy sajvation ! 

TTiou gavest them Twe, and they have kept thy word. 

Here he binds (as they say) both in one bond — ^that 
they are both the children of the Father, and the por- 
tion of Christ. They are my disciples, (saith he,) and yet 
they were thine from all eternity. And how are they 
known to be so ? Because, " they have kept thy word. 
And what are we to understand by this ? Why does he 
not say, rather, they have kept my Word? For they 
would justly be said to be mine, (as we are accustomed 
to speak,) because of their keeping my Word. But 
Christ minding to make the Father and himself one, 
and to draw himself wholly unto the Father, speaks as 
though he had said, ^ In that they are my disciples and 
hear me, they hear and keep npt my word but thine/ 
From which, we are certain of this consolation — ^that 
IK) word proceeds out of the mouth of Christ, than that 
of our heavenly Father, and all those things whereby he 
rxwl swi^etly and lovingly calls and allures us unto him; 
This may be seen every where in the Gospel, so that 
thou mayest not dread any wrath, but promise to thy- 
self, with all thy heart, the greatest grace, goodness, love, 


"eoDsolation^ and refuge ; and that thou art the • Father's 
child that lies in his bosom, and possesses all things that 
Christ rives ; as now immediately follows. And see if 
^ could speak to thee with more kindness and conso- 
lation ! What man could express such great things in 
such plain and simple words ? And where is the heart 
that could comprehend and believe them ? 

Now they have known that all things whatsoever 
thou hast given me are of thee. 

All these things are to be referred to that which 
1 have before said, and are intended only to the raising 
«p of our fearful and heavy conscience, (with which wc 
are more burthened than if we were carrying the heaviest 
load,) and to the lightening and gladdening of our heart, 
that it might not fear to draw near unto God. — Having 
the Word, (saith he,) and keeping it, and being my dis- 
ciples, they know that; all things whatsoever I have to do, 
perform, and give, are from thee. That is, they receive 
them as given and freely bestowed by thee, and doubt 
not that they are chosen by thee, and drawn unto me. 
JFor, (saith he,) all, all, who are united unto me by 
fiuth, and hear me, know^ for a certainty, that thou art 
their Father and their merciful and propitious God. 
For they could neither hear me nor keep my Word, 
unless thou thyself hadst given it unto them, and hadst 
chosen them unto it. And this is the fruit of the Word 
where it is received and kept : for, through the benefits 
of it, we attain unto the knowledge of all the graces and 
heavenly blessings which are given unto us of the Father 
by Christ ; on which, we may rest with a happy and 
assured mind : and that is what no human reason or 
nvisdom, no, nor even the doctrine of the law can effect. 
And this is that true and blessed light and glory whereby 
we behold God with open face without any veil and 
covering ; as Paul saith, 2 Cor. iii. 

For I have given ufito them the words which thou 
gavest me. 

In these words lies the whole force of the matter. 

For here we have all things; and know that all are the 
words of the Father whidi Christ speaks, to whose 
mouth alone we are to listen, all Other thoughts being 
cast behind us.-r-And behold how plainly he speaks of the 
external Word, which is pronounced by the corporal voice 
throu^ Christ, and received by the ear ; that no one 
might set this at nought, or consider it as unnecessary : 
as many new and mad spirits do, seducing themselves, 
and thinking that God ought to deed in some other way 
with them ; that is, by secret revelations of the Spirit ; 
whereby, they draw away themselves from God and 
Christ unto the devil. For hear thou hearest of no other 
means or way than the Word, which Christ has spread , 
abroad by his living preaching, iand yet calls it the Word 
of the Father, which he received of him from heaven, 
and brought down unto us; and he ileclares, that its 
power is such, and that it produces such fruits, that, by 
it, we know the will and mind of the Father, and have 
in it all things that are necessary to our salvation; as the 
following words more fully shew. 

And they have received theniy and have known stirehf 
that I came out frofn thee, and they have believed th4tt 
thou.did,st send me. 

Only observe how many words he employs in setting 
forth this one same thing ; and that, because he considers 
it of the greatest importance, that we should see how 
willing and desirous he is to refresh weak consciences ; 
knowing so well, how much labour and distress he must 
undergo, who, in the midst of temptations, would raise up 
his helart so as to behold God with a serene countenance. 
And, therefore, let iis not be tired of hearing the same 
thing so many times repeated, nor of deeply pondering 
them again and again. But let every one set these words 
before him to be most diligently meditated on,-^ — why,- 
and for what cause, Christ said these things ; namely, 
that he might set plainly before us the heart and love of 
the Father, and might enable us in all things to trust 
confidently in him. The meaning, therefore, of these 
wordsJstne. same as that of the preceding, — that the 


eSecX of the- Word of God, where it is seriously ni* 
ceived, is such, that we may know that Christ came 
forth from^ and was sent by, the Father ; that is, that all 
things whatsoever he saith are the words and will of th^ 
Father, and all that he does and works, the work and 
command of the Father ; and that all tliose things toge;" 
tber^ are for our help^ — And this is the knowledge^ of 
wluch we have treated before, in which eternal life 

This, however, is a treasure that is entirely hidden 
ftom the whole world, and to which it can never arrive ; 
and it. is that knowledge which no human reason or wis* 
dom can attain unto : nor is it attainable by any other 
means, or in any other way, than through the Word of 
Christ. He that hears this, attains unto a right know<» 
ledge, by which, he is rendered sure, and which will not 
permit him to go wrong ; so that he is enabled, in the 
face- of all suggestions of the devil and all sensations of 
his^ own conscience, to conclude and say, ^ I now know, 
that I have a merciful Father and friend in heaven, who, 
in unspeakable love and goodness, sent unto me his 
Beloved Son, and gave him unto me, together with all the 
benefits that he obtained and procured. Why thett 
should I have a thought of fearing sin, death dr the 
devili^' — But we must look to it again and again, that 
we hold the. Word fast, rejecting all other thoughts 
whatever; and that we suffer ourselves to hear and 
know nothing else concerning God, but that which 
Christ speaks^ For, as I have said already, this is th0 
only right, and the royal way of holding communication 
with God, and by following this we shall not err, — ^to. 
remain very low in our own place, to cleave close tq 
Christ, and to fix our fiaith in his words by which he so 
aweetly draws us. to th€i Father; and thus, we shall find 
nothing of wra^ or terror, nothing but consolation, joy^ 
»id.peac6. '- 

Here he^ pours forth his prayier indeed, and shews 
why he^ labours so muchr^th^t it is for his Christians, 
For: having begun to pray above that the Father would 
glorify him, and having shewn how he had glorified tbfi; 


Fatbor by \^ preaching and maatfeetation to his disci* 
des, 3Q tW thej had cecedved his Word, and had 
kiiQwu the Father, he^ naw commends them to thia 
Faliier^ a& those by livhom or through whom ha is to ha 
gjiorified ; that ha would pratejQt them in the world; 
together with thpse.who should come after them. And' I 
have no doubt^ that this prayer wa3 heard, not only 
becawe he merited thajt hearing by his passion, and deatl^ 
hut; alao on the account that ha here mentions^ '^ AH 
thii\e are mioe, and mine are tUoe." As thoug|h he had 
said, we are joined together in such a union,, that whatr 
evei: I ask I am sure I shall obtain. 

From tlus there arises again, and may he drawn no 
spiall degree of consolation, and of gladness to our minds: 
sa that wa may say with an assured £aith, and con* 
cluidi?, tbat^ to all certainty, those for whom Chnat 
Mf^ed, will he d^ended against all ragp and fury of thf 
QWiU and agfiin&t all sins and temptations of every kind; 
Ajod h^re we, hear with open ears for whom he prays?*** 
fox those receive his Word and follow after him in a^c? 
tiQai with all their heart, and embrace him, and hold 
£Eia(.his words with both their hands (as they say,.) Thesis 
tbfSA< may rest assured, with all their mind, that they 
are tD a certainty comprehended ia this prayer, and wiu 
ever- reinain in the hand of Christ their Lord. 

But, on the other hand, it is terrible to hear what he 
tbien adds — " I, pray not for the world." Here then let 
09^ look to it with all our soul, that we be not found in 
diat multitude for whom Christ disdained to pray. For 
nothing: el^- can. be tbe consequence but that the whole 
of this, multitude must c^tainly perish with utter per*^ 
dition, as being, those against whom Christ is folly set, 
and with whom he will have nothing to do. And these 
words, ouglit. to strike terror into the worlds, that it 
ahoald be no wond^ if they were shivered to death 
with U^o^lii^ at hearing this, horrible judgment. But 
tlwM tlviigA-sefvo: to them ridiculous^ and they r^cnain 
U)^,tbe:SMi^.hMdness of heaiit and blindness, a^ 
i vWfi reginit^ tbem>. than /if they were the words of & 


But how does this accord, that he refuses to pray 
for the world, when he himself, Matt. v. has taught us 
to pfay even for our enemies who persecute us, and who 
load with revilings both our name and our doctrine? 
To such an objection this short answer is to be given. 
To pray for the world, and not to pray for the world, 
are each right and good. For, in what immediately 
follows, he saith, '^ I pray not for these alone, but for 
them also which shall believe on me through their 
word." And these, before thev are converted, must <rf 
necessity be of the world : therefore, he must pray for 
the world on account of those who are yet to be con- 
verted. St. Paul was undoubtedly then of the world 
when he persecuted and killed the Christians ; and yet, 
Stephen prayed for him that he might be converted. 
And so also Christ prayed upon the cross, ^^ Father; 
forgive them, for they know not what they do." And 
hence, we see it is true, that he does pray for the worid, 
and yet does not pray for the world. — feut there is this 
difference. He does not pray for the world in the same 
sense as he prays for his Christians. For his Christians, 
and all that shall be converted, he prays, that they may 
remain in a right faith, and go on and prosper therdn, 
mid never depart from it ; and that those who are not 
in that faith, may turn from their former life and come 
unto it. And this is the best form and manner of pray- ' 
ing for the world, and which we ought in all respects to '"^ 
imitate. But, as the state of the world now is, and all 
its actions and counsels, whereby it so tumultuously and 
furiously rages against the Gospel, it never in any way 
came into his mind to pray, that such madness mi^t 
please God, or that he should knoViingly and designedly 
overlook and permit such a combined armament. Foi^ 
on the contrary, prayer is rather to be made, that he 
would oppose their furious attempts, and frustrate .their 
impious designs ; even as the prophet Moses, Num. xvl ' 
is recorded to have done against Korah and his iiqiti^ 
pany, wh(> fomented a sedition and rose up againsthho, 
and assumed to themselves his ofHce and the priesthood;- 
wherefore Moses filled with " wrath " cried out unto the. 

57 • 

Lord, and said, " R^pept not thou their offetng.'' 
Moreover, King David, 2 Sam. xv. when he was 
driven out of the kingdom .by his son, and when his 
chief and wisest counsellor had deserted him and gone 
over to his son, entreated of the Lord to " turn the 
counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness." And he fre- 
quently prays in the same way in his Psalms against his 
enemies and persecutors. 

Such a prayer however is not, particularly speaking, 
levelled against the person, but against the furious 
attempts and machinations of the person, by which he 
persecutes the Word of God, and which will not suffer 
the 7)erson to be a, partaker of grace. Even as, on the 
other hand, Christ, when praying for his Christians, not 
only prays for their persons, but their offices, their con- 
dition, and their whole life. For, as the life stands and 
is, so must the person be. And, in a word, as far as 
concerns the person, we are to pray for all men without 
difference, and our prayer is to be shared among all 
alike, and to be uttered aloud before the whole multitude, 
both of friends and enemies ; that those, who are our 
enemies, may be converted and made friends; and if 
not, that their actions and counsels may be frustrated 
and prevented from injuring us; and that their whole 
person also may go to destruction rather than the 
Gosp^ and the kingdom of Christ. » 

This is the way that the holy martyr Anastatia, a 
wealthy Roman matron and a woman of high birth, 
took against her husband Publius, who was an idolater 
and a cruel persecutor of the Christians. He had shut 
her up in a dreadful prison, and designed that this good 
and noble woman should remain and die there. She, 
however, while bound in prison, wrote to Bishop Chry- 
sogonus, and requested him to pray continually for her 
husband ; that, if it were the will of God, he might be 
converted to the faidi ; but if not, that his attempts and 
determination of mind might be frustrated, and that a 
bound and' an end might be put to his cruelty and rage. 
And thus, by her prayers, she brought her husband to 



death. For he soon went out to war, aiid never re- 
turned ! 

- In this way let us also. pray for our angry enemies; 
not that God would confirm them, or defend their de- 
signs, as he would those of Christians; nor that he 
would help them; but that, if they were to be con- 
verted, he would in mercy and grace convert them ; or, 
if they would not be converted, that he would oppose 
their designs, and restrain them in some way, and put 
an end to their cruelty. For, as the one or the othar 
must be, it is better that the world should perish utterly 
than that Christ be lost, and that lies should fall before 
the truth. And it is the will and mind of God, that the 
truth should stand, and that lies should be exposed to 
shame and derision. 

Christ, therefore, in these words, has respect unto 
two classes. The one, that poor simple flock, who have 
the Word of God, and who ought to exercise the same. 
The other, that great and numerous multitude, which is 
determined to oppress the former, and which strives 
with all their might and with all the wisdom, machina- 
tions, and plots they can contrive, to efface and utterly 
abolish the Gospel. And here, we at length see what the 
world is, and who is " of the world," and who may be 
s^id to be, " not of the world." For Christ here espe- 
cially calls them ** of the world," who are enragpd 
againat the Gospel, and who will not hear it . with pa- 
tience. Which is no longer to be called a human, but a 
desperate and diabolical sin, infused by the devil him- 
sielf ; who thus reigns in the world, and intoxicates and 
exasperates the hearts of men with his furious hatcect 
against Qirist and his Word. For this is his nature, 
that, wherever he can find out or urge on any thing, he. 
will fight against the Word with every insult and re- 
proach, will condemn it most unmercifully and viru- 
li^tly, and persecute it with every cruelty ; and all this 
fppm his hatred and unspeaJcable enmity against Christ ; 
against whpm, be directs all his efforts and powers. 
And, where be can do nothing by violence, there, so 

great fe fife mXke, thfef he will ffee froth th'eli) tethfer 
than hear him ; leaviixg no mea^s untried, whereby he' 
might pour put his bitter and more than nmddened rage 
against the Word, and all who love and desire it. 

Of this we see abundant proofs in his children and 
ministers ^t this day; — how they become more and 
more driven on and maddened day by day in their ragi^ 
attd fi!rry, and know not how to blaspheme our Gospel 
enotigh, nor how to persecute us enough so as to satisfy 
the lust, cruelty, and atrotity of their minds. And, it 
they can do nothing farther, they will as least stop theit 
ears, and flee from lh6 Word, as they would from the 

Behold, Such a signal and notable fruit is the world, 
that, from the child you may at once know the father ! 
What else then aris we here to do 6t to pray for ? but 
that, God would bring hdp to '^ his own," and that he 
would leave nothing for them to behold in the Gospel 
and his Christikris, but thdt Which' they can the least 
bear and which galls theitt the most ? To the end that, 
tbiey ihi^t the sootier coitie to destruction, sinc6 they 
will riot bear to hear of grace, nor of prayers on thei* 
behalf. And where goodtiess and loving-kindtiess dl*e 
reiiiised, there' Wrath' and iiidighiatioil must prevail. For, 
by the grace of God, we are superior to all such in this 
respect, — that we can trust ih this prayer, and be as- 
sured, that our doctrine Will stand and overcome, even 
though they shbtild rage against ft mbre fiercely and 
atrociously than they now do, and thit, with all theik*. 
power and with the aid even of devils ; and that they 
themselves will shortly come to destruction hov^ firmly 
soever they may now sit. For they are included in 
this prayer, which will hurl them down, if Christ in 
heaven has any power to statid in safi^ty against suibh 
giants. They will sit iB their high seat roir a little time 
longer, reciting confident in then- fii-mhess, as though no 
I one could ever ca^t them down ; but they are On the 
VBTy brink of destruction, although they have detef- 
mitied in themselves \o oppress all others. Wherefore, in 

F 2 



this matter^ there is need of faith, for if we needed not 
that, neither should we need prayer. 

But for them which thou hast given me ^ for they art 

Here he again repeats the fore-cited words, that he 
might impress this the more forcibly upon us. I cannot 
(saith he) pray for the world, for they are not thine, but 
persecute with hatred and bitterness those whom thou 
hast given me. But, I pray for these, because they are 
thine inheritance and possession. These are my care 
and my concern.— I have already abundantly shewn 
why he thus expresses himself in these words, *' them 
which thou hast given me." For, he that is Christ's is 
the Father's also. And they are Christ's, as he himself 
declares, who receive the Word from him and keep it. 
And this is the most certain evidence of the Father also 
being merciful and appeased. For no one, as I have often 
repeated, embraces the Word, nor will keep it, who is 
not a child of God, and given unto Christ by the Father. 

I have given these admonitions, even as it is neces- 
sary to b§ done again and again, because I see that 
Christ himself does not so often repeat these words for 
nothing ; for he therein plainly shews, how highly im- 
portant it is above all things to endeavour to remain 
/Under the power of the Word. May God rather permit 
U3 to fall (if we must in something fall and sin) into 
every kind of folly, so that we make not shipwreck of 
this treasure ; that is, Christ hidden in his Word. What 
turpitude and shame soever shall come upon us, the 
whole of its evil, be it as much as it may, wiir easily be 
compensated by the excellence of this treasure. For this 
it is that bruises the head of the devil ; that is, which 
subverts his kingdom and all hi^^power. And therefore, 
he can be patient under €very thing else, and can bear 
all things else ; and he knows also how to yield and 
concede ;• but, this one thing he cannot endure. For 
where there is no exercising of the Word, there he knows 
how to make impressions according to his own will. 


And, in a word, no sanctity of life, no moral goodness 
nor wisdom, can stand against his power and influence, 
— nothing but the Word only ! Therefore, our greatest 
care ought to be, that we suffer him not to pluck us 
away from the Word; And against this Word, the devil 
watches with all his thoughts and powers. Hence, he 
who desires to hold fast this, and whose whole care and 
prayers ,are directed to that one thing — for him is this 
consolation contained in the prayer of Christ, — that he 
shall hold it fast, and that all the attempts of the devil 
shall be frustrated and in vain. 

And all mine are tkiney and thine are mine. 

This is indeed speaking plainly and copiously. But 
it would not have been sufficient, had he only said " all 
mine are thine." For this any one can say, that all that 
we have is God's. But this is far greater when Christ 
inverts it, and says again, ** and all thine are mine." 
This no creature can say before God. And these words • 
are not only to be understood concerning that which the 
Father gave him in the world, but concerning that one 
divine essence which is common to himself with the 
Father. He does not speak with respect to his disciples 
and Christians only, but he embraces at once all things 
that the Father possesses, — his eternal and omnipotent 
essence, life, truth, righteousness, &c. That is, he openly 
confesses, that he is the true God. For these words, 
" all thine," leave nothing not included. And if all 
things are his, then eternal divinity is his, or he could 
not have dared to use the word '* all." 

And we are not to forget this, — the reason why 
Christ uses this word " all," and what he intends 
diereby. By this word " all," he would address himself^ 
to those who cleave unto his Word. And therefore, he 
admonishes us to abide by him, and to know that God 
speaks, works, and bestows all things by him, and that 
all the words and all the works of God are to be sought 
in him. Hence, in whatever way Christ carries himself 
towards thee and deals with thee by promising, by 
alluring, by comforting, by bearing, by giving, all the 

same thii^ does the Fi^th^jr ^[^Q. Ii) a word, thou c^i^fist 
see ^d near nothing in C^risJ without se^ng n\d 
hearing the Father at th^ ^in^ tin^. 

Behold, jhis is' what Johp pnfprce^ ^n ^iipost all the 
words of hi^ pospel j that, Joying i^j^e i^l thop^ high 
tpwering imadnations in whic)i ri^aso^ and ^'ise jneft lare 
occupied, and by which they attempt to s/sek God Jn 
his Majesty out of Christ, we might seek him in Christ. 
For God will lie in Christ ip the cradle, cry in thg bo^pip 
of the mqthery and hang upoq th^ cross. But these wise 
ones, will ascend into heaven and curiously inquire, 
how he sits there and governs the world. These, how- 
ever, are most perilous thoughts, if not rightly used : for 
they are all destined to remain here below, that we 
might not feel opt nor see aijy higher. And if thou hj^st 
a n^nd to reach unto and to apprehend all things, what 
God is, what he is doing, and what he is revolving in bis 
mind, then seek them no where Ijut where he has placed 
find fixed tl^ena ; and that, thou hearest in these words, 
- *' all thine ^re mine." Therefore, a Christian ought to 
know that God is to be sought after and found no 
lyhere but in the bosom of the Virgin, and upon the 
cross, or as, ^nd where, Christ shews himself in the 

To the same effect also speaketh Paul, 1 Cor. ii. 
** And I, brethren, when I came to you, came not with 
excellency of speech or of wisdoip. For I did not judge 
inyself to know any thiqg among you ss^ve Jesus Christ 
^nd him crucified." Here behold this chief of the 
apostles, who had been favoured . with such wonderful 
revelations, knew not jiow to boj^st of ^ny thing greater 
and more; excellent against th§ false apostles, nor tp 
preach ainy thing greater, than that (as the world con- 
sider him) miserable God, and him crucified. But, 
wh^^t do those arrogant and high-soaring spirits, who 
hunt after great "^ and wonderful revelations, thinking 
tjiat they n^ust soar yet higher, ftnd lift up their spirits? 

The Apostle writes in the same way also, Coloss. ii ; 
that in Christ " are held all th^ treasures of his wisdom and 
knovyledge." By whicl^ wor4s he would ?^y, Dost thoiji 

6S ^ 

wish to soar on high and to know something great m<i 
wonderful, to become famous in knowledge, yea, to 
search into all the divine mysteries and wisdom ; then, 
diligently search this book, and thou wilt therein find all 
things worthy and necessary to be known. — But those 
things (saith he) lie concealed and hidden; nor can 
any one see them, nor attain unto the knowledge of 
them but by faith. For, with the eyes, thou wilt see no- 
thing but a poor infirm man, as though forsaken both of 
God and men. But if thou believe the Word, then, 
under that weakness and foolishness, thou wilt behold 
all the counsel of God, together with his wisdom and 
power. But, if not, then diou mayest indeed soar on 
high and enter upon the abyss of the divine Majesty, 
but thou wilt dash thy head against it, and wilt precipi* 
tate thyself headlong. For the devil is delighted with 
those wonderful cogitations on sublime things, and 
knows well how to put the mask upon the mind, and 
make it appear as if it were God himself; in order that 
he might present him to the mind to be beheld arrayed 
in all his glory and majesty; as he presented him to 
Christ himself. Matt. iv. In a word, when the dispute 
is concerning great wisdom, holiness, and majesty, there 
the devil is a master and a god in the world. And once, 
he soared so high that he could not go higher, when he 
set his mind upon making himself equal with God, and 
sitting in the place of God : and in this he continues 
his determination to this day, always desiring to be wor- 
shipped, for majesty, as a god. And God condemned 
fhim in his iniquity, when he humbled himself down to 
the lowest of all conditions, and took upon him the 
laeanest form, and under that concealed himself; 
namely, he placed himself in the bosom of "^ Virgin, and 
will be found no where else. And there the devil cannot 
cerae. For he is a proud and arrogant spirit, although 
he pretends to the greatest humility. Wherefore, no one 

j can more effectually deceive him, than by nailing him- 
self to that cross wherie God nailed himself. For if he 
find thee ^y where else, then all is over with thy salva- 

^1 tion; for he will snatch thee away to destruction, just as 


a hawk would snatch away a chicken Outside of the 
wings of the hen. 

And I am glorified in them. 

- We have before abundantly shewn, what to be glo- 
rified means ; and moreover, in what way Christ desires 
to be glorified by the Father. And he had a little above 
shewn, how he is glorified in us; where he says, "I 
have given unto them the words which thou gavest me; 
and they have received them, and have known surely 
that i came out firom thee — and that thou didst send 
ine." Therefore Christ being glorified here means, our 
having that excellent and clear knowledge whereby the 
Father manifests himself unto us, that we. might know 
what he has given unto us by this his Son. And, m a 
word, as he is glorified by the Father in the Word and 
revelation, so also he is glorified in us by faith and con- 
fession. And he is rightly said to be glorified, and stands 
in need of that glorifying, (not indeed on his own ac- 
count, but on ours, as he saith, " I am glorified in 
them,") seeing that he is, in the sight of the world, 
inost ignominiously obscured, and held in no honour. 
For, as I have observed, he that looks at Christ with 
the eyes of reason, sees nothing but a sorrowful and 
miserable man, utterly despised and reviled. He lived 
for thirty years in the world iq entire ignominy and 
dishonour, and was one whom no man regarded; and 
when he ought (as men would suppose) to have made 
manifest and established his glory, he submitted himself 
to be crucified, and slain in the most degrading manner. 
Wherefore, the sum of the words is thus : — * I am 
disgracefully obscured, blasphemed, and condemned by 
the world, so that there is no one who is not offended at 
me. My disciples, however, who believe that I was sent 
of thee, and that " all thine are mine," glorify me. 

For in this I am made manifest and set before them, — 
they look upon me in a different manner from the world ; 
namely, as thy Son, and as the true and eternal God and 
the Lord of the whole world, of the devil, of sin, and of 

death. But this the disqiples discovered by no human 

» _ 


reason ; therefore, th^ have now another light ; namely, 
the Word which thou hast given me, and which I have 
given unto them. And now they no longer look upon 
me as the world does, according to their own under- 
standing, but, according to the Word which they hear 
from me, and which was manifested by the Father. 

And consider not this a light or trifling consolation, 
that Christ glories before the Father that this work is 
wrought in us, — that he is glorified .in us. Nor is this 
honour to be changed by us for the riches and dignity 
of the whole world, — that he desires to be glorified 
through the weakness of our flesh and blood ; and that 
it so pleases God the Father, and is a matter of such 
consideration with him, that Christ is praised and mag- 
nified by us. For there are by no means a small number 
who boast of the Gospel and know how to prate a great 
deal about it, but this glorifying is not so common. For 
to glorify Christ and to believe in him, is nothing more 
or less, than, as I have said, to be fully persuaded that 
he who has Christ has the Father also, together with all 
grace, all heavenly blessings, and life eternal. Of this, 
9ie saints of this world, together with the Pope and his 
sects, know nothing. For although* many speak of 
Christ and imitate our words, — that he is the Son of 
God, by whose benefits we are delivered; yet, they 
never learn and experience how he is to be received, 
made use of, sought, found, and held fast ; or how the 
Father is to be apprehended through him ; but are all 
the while with Socrates soaring aloft in their vain thoughts 
and speculations. 

Of this take a most manifest example from our fana- 
tical spirits, who have learnt from us to talk of Christ and 
faith. But, how seldom do they treat of this doctrine? yea 
rather, how emptily and coldly do they speak whenever 
they treat upon this principal article, which they for the 
most part pass by with a certain indifference, as consi- 
dering it to be a knowledge of no moment, and already 
understood by all to a nicety? In a word, they are full of 
other cogitations ; so that, if they should now and then 
speak of it rig^ly, (which is a very rare thing indeed,) 

.Ul$jf tbe9)9elv^ do not koow about wbat they me 
t^Mngi Had iiamediateily, leaving that, they go away 
/fk^iiii tx> th^r own dreams. Whereas, a. true preachw 
^f^»ta upon thie article thd most frequently of all, be* 
cau^, all things that pertain either to the knowledge of 
God or to our own salvation, are contained in it; as 
yaii may see every where in the Gospel of St. John and 
in the Episties of St. Paul, For in both these, those 
wordK bold good ^ — ^* From the abundance of the heart 
the mouth speaketh." 

And noWi I am no more in the worlds but these are 
in the wofld^ and I come to thee. 

He had given two reasons why he prayed for them. 
The one, where he says " thine they were, and thou 
gavest them me : " that is, thou hast taken them out of 
tibe world into thy kingdom, possession, grace, and pro* 
tection. The other is, because, (saith he,) " I am glori- 
fied in them : " that is, they praise me and confess me 
to be he, who has all things that are thine. And now to 
these twQ reasons he adds a third, — because, he is 
going from them, and about to leave them in the world 
behind him in the midst of all perils, persecutions, and 
bitterness. For when he says, " I am no more in the 
world," he speaks as one who is just about to depart 
and die, and to be totally separated from the world ; 
.which is what the prophet Isaiah had before predicted 
concerning him, chap. liii. ; where he says, " He was 
cut off out of the land of the living : " that is, is one that 
was taken out of this life by violence, and compelled to 
leave all behind him, and to live no longer here ; but he 
evidently enters upon another life, which Christ calls 
going to the Father. 

Here arises an inquiry again. How comes it to pass 
that Christ says, " I go to my Father," when he must 
(as God) still be in the world ? For we believe that the 
prophets said truly, that God is in every place, and fills 
all things; as it is continually written in the Psalms, 
and particularly in Psalm cxxxix. — that God is present 
in heaven ^nd in the deep, or, in hell. And Paul, 

4ic^ ;^vij. is^th, ibM ^^}»itk9Clias from e^ery one of 
us/' For i^ is iiy hw» as hp saith, that we live, mon, 
flQd hi^ve CHir bmag. And thecefora, wfaeresoever we 
$eek bki) ajad i^aU^^apoa him, there he is at hand and 
presents l^iO.self tp our view, <which he did frequently 
to the people of Israel ; ai^ wh^n he divided th^ Red Sea 
and ipjB4e a dry passage for them to go over, but cle- 
stroyed tbeir enemies who pursued diem, so that there 
was pot oqe of Uiem left. But bow does he here say, 
that he is now no longer in the world, and why does he 
i:epre^nt himself as though he were going away to 
a great distance, so that we could hold him no longer? 
This question may be answered in two ways. In one 
way, according to frothy human wisdom, — that he i^ 
ascended up on high, and sits above as in a swallow's nest^ 
Thus do men sport in their cogitations, according to 
that which they apprehend with their sight, which 
remains fixt in one place only and cannot behold both 
heaven and e^rth together ; and therefore, he must also, 
(according to that,) be confined to one place, and cir- 
cumscribed to one circle, so as not to be any where else. 
But I, according to the scripture, give this answer, 
and say, that ^' in the world,'* means to be in this exter- 
nal and sensible state ; that is, to enjoy this life which 
the world enjoys, which is called the natural life, in 
which we eat, drink, sleep, labour, and take care of our 
fpdilies; in a word, in which we make use of the 
world, and of all things necessary unto this life. On the 
other hand, those are by no means said to be in the 
world, who are removed and separated from all these 
thipgs now mentioned, so as to have no need of eating, 
drinking, standing, walking, or any other corporal or 
natural exercise : for this is what Isaiah calls being " cut 
off from the. land of the living : " not that he departed 
altogether out of this life, and had nothing more to do 
with us : but, that he had no farther need to take care 
of it, as a man has to take care of his life. Therefore, he 
no longer lives a life after the planner of this world : that 
is, he no longer is in a corporal life, which is to be sup- 
ported by meat, drink, and other corporal necessaries. 


Hence, the puerile and futile cogitations of these frothy 
praters of ours, that, to go out of the world, is, to go 
out of heaven and earth to some particular place, are 
mere nothings at all. For if this were the case, then the 
devil alone would reign in the world, and God would 
have no place at all ; nay, according to the opinions of 
some, could not be even in the hearts of the elect. 

Therefore, it is a far different thing to be in the crea- 
ture, (that is, to be in that place where the creature is,) 
and to be in the world. " These are in the world," saith 
he ; that is, they live as men live in the world, using the 
works of the body, the five senses and the four elements, 
without which this worldly and corporal life could not 
proceed. But * I go away ; ' that is, I withdraw and 
separate myself from the use of all corporal things, 
from eating, from drinking, from working, from suffer- 
ing, and from an externd conversation and commu- 

Wherefore, be thou fully persuaded, that Christ 
neither walks, nor stands, nor speaks, nor exercises any 
work which he was accustomed to do when upon earth. 
Otherwise, the words that follow could not be consistent, 
" and I come to thee," For tell me, in what place is the 
Father? He is by no means in the * swallow*^ nest 
above.' And, if he is gone to the Father, then he must 
of necessity be wherever the Father is. And the Father 
is every where, both in heaven, and out of heaven, in the 
earth, and in all creatures ; so that, he cannot be fixed 
and stationed to any certain and particular place, as 
the stars are fixed in the heaven. For we are to declare 
and 'to believe, that God is present wherever you call 
upon him, in the prison, in the waters, in the fire, and in 
all afflictions and necessities. Bat this text our frothy 
praters dare not hear and look at, but pass it by and 
take some one part of it which they may wrest to their 
own purpose. But of this we have abundantly spoken 

Holy Father^ keep through thine otvn name. 

In these words he explains what he prays for: 


namely, that the Father would receive them as com- 
mended to him, while he should be gone and should 
leave them alone in the world; and would preserve 
them as he had preserved them when present with 
them. And when he says " Holy Father!" it proceeds 
from the utmost fervour of the most ardent heart. For 
what he has respect to in this one expression, is this, 
(and he opposes it to all profane life, doctrine, and 
actions, to which the world is given, under the pretext 
and splendid show of the greatest sanctity ;) — it is as 
though he had said, O dearest Father, such sects, 
errors, and seductions do I see, such Nero and Phalaris- 
like tyrants do I behold, who are fully set on blood, and 
will endeavour under the cover of thy name to raise up 
every iniquity and evil against the true holiness, that I 
may say, that there is no one holy any where, what 
splendour and ornament soever may be appended to him, 
but thy holy name and the Word which I preach. To 
the same effect also does Psalm xxii. speak, " But thou 
art holy, O thou that inhabitest the praises of Israel.*' 
As though he had said, There is no one who does not 
wish to be holy, and to have the Holy Spirit, and to 
teach and rule the world ; but they all, under the pretext 
of thy holy name, and a show of sanctity, deceive and 
seduce the world. And as thou only art holy, (saith 
he,) and as the dragon of abomination and of diabolical 
seduction is so great, " Keep thou them in thine own 
name.'' — But why this? And why in his own name? 
(For, all liars and seducers, as I have before observed, 
boast of and assert the name of God, and to this name 
all things in the world are depended ; as it is commonly 
H said, * Every evil begins with the name of God,' nor does 
^:^ any error arise that does not make use of this name, 
^1 and effect its purposes under the cover of it.) — I 
^ answer, these are not in the name of God, nor will they 
^ be preserved by that name. And therefore, he reminds 
the Father of his holiness, against which so much pro- 
faneness is every where raised up, that he would separate 
his flock from these^ and would preserve them that they 
^ ' might remain under that one name. 


All thte rti^ m our language ht expr^sstd tbad».^ 
* O dear Father^ keep them from dll false doctrine, th^ 
they might persevere in thy holy Word atod in the pure 
Oospeiy whereby they are sanctified, and might not d^M 
part from it, rior fell into aA outsidie sanctity. For unleSi 
thou preserve theix^^ all is over with their salvation.* 
For the iniquity oi the devil is great, and the specious 
show and ofience of falf^ doctrine is greater than can be ' 
overcome by the powers of our reason. And as Ct^i^ 
himself testifies, the elect themselves scarcely escape 
being seduced by it and precipitated' to destruction. 

My lihts prayet, we- miserable mea are also to be 
supported; for othi^rwise, no one cotild stand again^ 
such crafty ,^ insidious, aad captious sects and spirits; 
il^hichy from the beginning of the world unto this day, 
have continually risen up^ have drawn so greiat a multi^ 
tude and so many powerful persons over to their opi- 
nions, and have joined to themselves, (dreadful to. 
relate !) in addition to immy poor simple creatures who 
would willingly be brought into the right way and live tf 
hdy life, adl the most learned and the most ingenious 
who might have been a help to all others. But how 
horrible is it to behold and to think of^ when* xmi 
reflects upon the unspeakable multitude^ who depai^eS' 
ftom the Gospel and lost the Word, immediately khet 
the time of the Apostle Paul and the rest of the apostles, 
when the Word' flourished every where, and prevailed 
throughout A«ia and Greece; where, now, not oiie 
letter of the Gospel is tb be found, and where the whole 
of the sacred doctrine is destroyed by that cruel aiid 
terrible blasphemy of the Turks and Mahometans. Tl^ 
same also took place under the Pope; and we see the 
same state of things begun in Germany, where so many 
new sects, so many erroi*s« and seductions, are daily 
rising up. Nay, even among us how very few are ther^- 
who have and; hold the pure -knowledge of the Gospel ? 
Wherefore, it is most necessary, that, even now; if we 
could, wo should pray every moment with Christ. *0 
Holy Father, we entreat thee to grant us, and enable us, 
to persevere firmly in thy Word," and thai the de^il' may' 


not oppress and overwhelm q$ itith that singular and 
angel-like show of sanctity/ 

Behold, this is to abide and to be kept in his nome^ 
— to hold the Word purely and sincerely in our beaorts* 
For the name or the praise and honour of God is^. his 
being preached and known, as giving us the pardon of 
our sins, and saving us freely, through Christ only. He 
that remains in this doctrine or faith, he is of God. He 
may lay claim to God and the Father, and from him 
take his denomination — as being holy as he i& holy. ¥ot 
as God is, so is his name and his Word. And as his 
tiame is holy, so also are we by it sanctified, — but not 
by our life or works. And hence, he who loses or disre* 
gards the Word, is no longer a saint, how innocently 
soever his life may be [>assed, and how great a sbow of 
sanctity soever it may have. 

Whom thou hast given me. 

That is, as we have before observed,. * who have my 
Word : ' which he continually repeats and cannot forget ; 
and that, to the unspeakable^ consolation of all who 
willingly and desirously ^hear his Word and receive it : 
so that, he only is to be our Master, our Teacher, and out 
Head, and yet we are to remain his disciples, that we 
may know that it is God himself who has thus led us to 
hear Christ, and that our salvation is not put into ouf 
own hands, but into the hand of God ; out of whichj no 
one can pluck it. Therefore, what he would say is this. 
— Since thou hast given them unto me for this end, 
that they might become my disciples, and be called to 
true holiness ; grant, O Father, that they may be pre- 
served therein, and be defiled by no one, nor be led 
aside and corrupted by any error. 

That they may be one as we are. 

It is terrible to relate how cruelly and basely sects 
have "handled and perverted this text: the whole of 
which is intended to shew, how wisely and clearly 
Christ saw, that aH those who should begin to hear his 
Word,, would come into all straits and perils, which 


might tend to pluck them away from the Word. For 
wherever the devil perceives disciples coming to Christ, 
he immediately, in unspeakable ways, rages and foams, 
and lets loose the rei^s to all his wrath, and resists and 
opposes them with all his powers; nor does he ever 
cease from opposing them, until he has drawn them 
from Christ over to his own side. And therefore, Christ 
asks, that the Father would defend them and keep them 
through his own name, that they be not scattered and 
torn one from the other, but that they might undividedly 
remain " one." 

Moreover these words, " that they may be one," 
&c. is by the Arians who deny the divinity of Christ 
perverted and corrupted to establish their lies. For from 
Christ's saying that Christians ought to be " one'* even as 
he and the Father are " one," they will only coUect, that 
he has not the same nature and essence as the Father: 
saying, that we cannot have the same nature and essence 
with each other, and that every one of us has his nature, 
that is, body and e;oul peculiar to himself: and that, 
therefore, by these words " that they may be one," is 
signified, * That we may agree together in the same 
mind and sentiments.' Just as we are accustomed to F 
speak of two persons who are of the same feelings, wiD, 
and mind. Thus, these most memorable words, are 
made to serve the sect and the lies of the Arians ; 
against, faith, and contrary to the sentiments of the 
Evangelist John, who here so firmly asserts this article. 

But Christ does not say' * That they may be of the ^ 
same will and understanding,' as they falsely imagine. 
Although that also is true, that all Christians are of the 
same faith, love, understanding, and feelings, as having 
the same Christ, spirit, and faUh ; though there is a dif- ^ 
ference as to the external office and work of each. But 
in this place he does not speak of the harmony of minds 
and wills ; but orders his words thus, " That they may 
be one;" that they may be one thing; and so one 
thing, as I and the Father are one. So that the words 
are to be understood as speaking of Essence ; and they 
have a much wider signification than as referring to one 






mind and sentiment only. Moreover, what the mean- 
ing of " one *' is, or, one thing, we are not to see, or to 
feel out with our hands, but to believe. But it is nothing 
more or less than what Paul describes I Cor. x. and xii. 
and in other places where . he says that Christians ar6 
^^ one body/' And as a body is, and is called, one 
thing, so ail Christians are said to be one body ; not on 
account, indeed, of their being of the same will £knd 
mind, but much rather on account of their being of the 
same essence. 

And ag^n, thete is a much greater union between 
the members of the body, than between thy thoughts 
and those of another person. For his thoughts are in 
his own body, and thy thought in thine ; nor can I say 
that my thoughts and thine are the same thing, in the 
same way as sdl the members are equally one thing, that 
is, one body ; for, when any one member is away from 
the body, it is no longer one with the body, nor of the 
same essence with it, but the body is considered a body 
of itself. But as long as all the members remain to- 

S^ther^ they are said to be one body, nor is there any 
ifferenqe or distinction of essence between them. So, 
if the foot be cut off from the body, it is no longer one 
with the body, but a part that is cast away : but if it 
remain in the body, then I am compelled to say that it 
is one body, &c. 

In the same way is Christ here to be understood — 
that Christians ought to be so intimately united, as to be 
altogether one jthing, and to remain one undivided body, 
even as he and the Father are " one." Between these 
there is not only the same mind and will, but their 
whole indivisible essence is the same. For if Christ be 
separated from the^ Father, one God can no longer 
exist, but a divided, separate, and distinct essence. 
Though the union of the divine nature, is much greater 
than mat of the members in one body : and it is impos- 
rible for us to comprehend it. 

In the same manner also would Christ here speak 
— My. Christians ought to be one flock ; that is, one 
whole undivided body. Though there is here an union 



different from that of natdre ; namely, a spkituftl 
union. Yet it is called being " one," because, therem 
the one cannot exist without the other, and if one part 
be taken away, it can be no longer called one things or 
"one." , 

It is thus tlmt the term " one" is to betodierdteOd; 
and not as the Arians have basely perverted it, as 
though it signified nothing more than concord and simi- 
iiarity : in the Same manner as when I see two men 
alike in person I say their appearance is one and the 
same; or, as I would say of two coats, the doth is 
one and the same. For here it is most plainly ex* 
pressed " ♦that they may be one," one thing : in 
which way neither the Gfreek nor the Latin language 
ever speaks when expressing <i sameness or conowd. 
But in the modem mode of expression this term om is 
not so clear, but has an ambiguous signification ; and 
therefore, we Germans are obliged to interpret U as one 
thing, or . one body.- — All these observations I have 
made, that we may not suffer this text to be perverted 
or weakened by such figments of reason and crude phi- 
losophy ; for it contains the greatest and strongest 
consolation for Christians who believe in Christ, and 
trust in his Word with a steady confidence: namely, 
. that we are all members of one body, and one flesh and 
blood. In which state, there is this prerogative, that 
whatever falls on one of the members^ falls on the 
whole body ; which does not take place in that sameness 
.pr. concord. For although many may be of the same 
mind and will, yet, the circumstances of the one, do not 
so much interest the other, in the same manner as the 
members of the body mutually feel for each other. 

From this union it is called Christianity, and a 
communion of the saints, (not a mere sameness,) in 
which all the saints or Christians are one multitude, and 
" body," and " lump." Tlie Christian therefore has titfs 
confidence, — ^he is certain, that, when tte devil opposes 
and attacks him, it is not he alone that is attacked, a 
finger only, but the whole body at the same time ; that 
is, all Christians throughout the whole world, aiid 86 


God himsdf aiid Christ Jnst'as it is in a whole body ; 
in wh]di^\if the least toe of the foot be touched Uie 
whole body immediateW writhes, nor is there any mem- 
ber whibfa does not sdfier with that which is hurt* And 
all this? is formed into that union that no part might 
live to itself alone, nor have that life, care, and sensibi- 
lity, whidb are common to all the rest, that is, to the 

Hence, wherever the least or weakest member of 
Christians suffers, the whole body immediately feels it 
and is^ put in commotion, all the other members running 
tip to i^ inquiring concerning it, and crying after it. 
And* tl^ cry of these Christ our head immediately hears ' 
and &eb : ' who, althoudi he may for a little wtule dis- 
semble Ins grief and refrain, yet, when once he has con- 
tracted and knit his brow, he certainly will not trifle : for 
be speaks thus by the Prophet Zlechariah, chap. fi. 
^' He that toncheth you toucheth the apple of mine 
eye^** Behold the greatness of the promise, for the sift'- 
gular consolation and confidence of Christians againtt 
their adversaries t Whereby they may know, that Chrisft 
is so affected with our afflictions, that he declares, that 
when we are hart the pupil of his eye is touched ; and 
that he will by nb means pass by those injuries; even 
as no one can bear' that the pupil of his should be 
touched much by another. Therefore, whenever the 
devil ' attacks any one Christian, he falls upon himself, 
and is his own tormentor. 

Of this the history of St. Paul furnishes us with a 
most beantiful example. — When he was persecuting the 
Christians, and had consented to the death of Stephen, 
he thought thlt he had plucked off his right hand. But^ 
what does Christ say from heaven concerning these 
things ? He does not say, ^ Saul, why hast thou hurt 
my right hand/ or, * why dost thou persecute my poor 
nliseraUe flock.' But he says, *^ Saul, Saul, why perse^ 
ctitest thou me ? It is hard for thee to kick against the 
pricks," &€. Here he speaks as though he liad perse^ 
ctited his person. And why? Because, no member of the 
body can be touched without the head feeling ip : nay, 



without its feeling it first : for it is from the head that nil 
the force of the pain which the 1)ody feels proceeds and 

And this is the greatest and highest consolation to 
Christians under all their afflictions-^liiat, when they 
are assaulted by the devil or tormented and afflicted by 
the World, it is not they alorfe that suffer, but all the 
Christians in the world, yea, all the angels in heaven; and 
•so, Christ himself and tneir heavenly Father, partake of, 
and feel and endure the pain together with them ; arid no 
evil can happen unto them, which does not happen unto 
.them also. And he who knows and believes these 
thmgs, knows how to endure and to overcome every 
■kind of calamity ; as, on the other hand, nothing makes 
-afflictions more intolerable and heavy, than the ignorance 
of these things. For the mind then seems to itself to en- 
xlure things intolerable, when it thinks it endures them 
alone, and can se^ no one as an example or a partaker 
of any suffering. And this is the way in which all 
Christian sufferings appear to the eyes of our flesh. 
Wherefore, faith ought to stay upon this Word, con- 
trary to our ' own feelings and - the clamours of the 
world : who, if they catch any Christian in their hands, 
imagine that he is so oppressed by them, that no one 
cap help him either in counsel or in deed ; even as they 
tainted Christ himself when hanging oh the cross. 

Behold, this is' that union of Christians to which 
Christ alludes in these words. But unto this we can 
arrive by no other means, than, (as has been before 
shewn,) by God's keeping us through his own name ; 
that is, by our abiding in the Word which we have re- 
ceived of Christ. And, by the bond of this Word, we 
are constrained to remain all under one head, and to 
xrleave unto him only, and to seek no other holiness, 
nor any thing whereby to please God, but in him. And, 
&oai\j, by .Ae Word we are so intiniately united to 
Christ, that whatever tie has is ours, nor can we look 
upon him otherwise than as our own body. . And so, on 
the other hand, he considers whatever happens unto us 
as^ faaf^ning unto him; and he holds that v watchful 


care over us, Aat neither the world nor the devil can-* 
overcome us, nor injure us by any evil however greal. 
Nor is there any force or power in the world, which 
can at all prevail against this union. 

Of this, however, we are not to be ignorant — that aH 
the devils ply their whole powers and devices to de- 
stroy this union in us, and, by every wickedness and 
craft, to tear us away from the Woixi; for when they' 
have gained that point, they have gotten the victory/ 
Because, apart from the Word, no union is to be 
formed, but seisms, contentions, and divisions ; wMcH 
the devil by his traps and snares, that is, by humfen' 
doctrines, so confounds together, that each one seeks- 
out, in his own way, a peculiar lioliness to himself, &c. 

While I was with them in the world I kept them in 
thy name. 

That is, as long as they heard and saw me, and 
conversed corporally with me, I kept them in thy Word, 
by teaching, by admonishing, by urging, by comforting, 
by exhorting, and by instructing them in every way, 
that they might not by any means be drawn aside fromt 
the knowledge of the Word. And now, as I am nd 
more in the world, that is, as they will hereafter have 
no more conversation with me corporally, and will nei-; 
ther see nor hear me. more, it remains, that thou take 
the care of preserving them upon thyself, that they 
may persevere in the Word as they have begun; for 
they have thy Word and are thine; as now again - 

Those that thou gavest me I have keptj and none of 
them is lost but the son of perdition; that the scripture 
might be fulfilled. 

I have kept them, that they might not be shaken or 
deceived by any false doctrine or holiness ; and with 
such watchfulness have I kept ,them, that not one of 
them has perished but Judas, that son of perdition. 
And wherefore? Because, he never clave to me from 
hi5 heart, nor embraced mv word seriously : but followed' 


me only that he might, under the cover of my name, 
and by beins with me, heap to himself riches ; an4 
with such a deceptive and fair show of uprightness did 
he manage the whole, that no one of the disciples per-, 
ceived his iniquity. But such a child of the devU as 
this, was to be borne with in the presence and intimate 
society of Christ, that the scripture (as he saith) might 
be fulfilled : by which it had been before predicted, that 
it should be, that there should always be such Judases 
to be borne with by his disciples : even as he himself 
also cites these words from the 41st Psalm, " He that 
eateth bread with me, hath lifted up his hed against 
me," John xiii. 18. 

Judas, th^efore, is a type of all those who by the 
Gospel seek their own gain ; of which kind, there are 
not a few at this day ; who boast themselves indeed in 
the Gospel, and yet, seek nothing but the glory of their 
Qwn name, ease, and speculation; thinking, that the 
(jrospel is a matter of business or trade, whereby honours 
and riches may be obtained ; as Paul testifies of them 
1 Tim. vi., and as the Pope has hitherto, under the 
name of Christ, reduced u^der his power ^\\ the king- 
doms and empires of the worldt and has gathered all 
the riches and wealth of them unto himself. 

Of such, therefore, Christ takes an eternal fiarewejl, 
denying that they are his disciples. And therefore, 
(saith he,) I cannot preserve thasii^. but must permit 
them /to abuse the sanction of my naine in winch they 
thus boast themselves, although they, have no desire to 
be Christians, but become at last my most violent and 
bitter enemies, and do every injury to Christianity that 
lies in their power. 

Here again, to those who have a willing mind to 
cleave unto the Gospel, and for its sake, hesitate not 
to jeopard their lives a^d aU their fortu^<^, thi^ conso- 
lation is propoa0d'r-4hat Christ will not forsake them, 
but will be! preserved . by .this prayer^ even; as he preser- 
ved his idisciples. But the rest are to seefk nothing here, 
nor are they to arrogate to themselves feuch jaccmsola- 
tfon. . For it caottot.fey any m^^m. be». tfeat ,^jt W?. 


should have the quiet enjoytnent, (ieis they say,) of alt 
there is in this world with ease and tranquility, and at 
the same time aeriously embrace the word of Christ. 
For it is already decreed, that " no bne can serve two 
masters," and that ^^ God and Mammon cannot exist 

And now coine I to thee: and these things I speak m 
the fvorldj that they might have my joy fuljdled in 

Behold , how common, plain, and simple these words 
are ; and yet, no one understands them, but they are" 
negligently passed over, as though nothing could be 
more simple to be understood ; and therefore, no one 
searches dUigently into them. — ^What going out of the 
world and going unto the Father means, we have 
already heard. But he repeats these things, that he 
might the more fully comfort his disciples ; and that 
they might know where, and in whom, their trust and 
defence in this world are to be placed, and are to rest. 
For since before this, as long as he lived with them in 
&miliar intercourse, he preserved them ; and as he is 
now going to depart out of this visible and corporal 
life, unto another that is invisible ; and moreover as his 
disciples are now to be left, who will not themselves 
indeed remain together, but will be dispersed through- 
out the whole worid ; they have the greatest need of the 
most powerful protection and defence, which they might 
trust in, so as to be enabled to stand against all attacks 
from, and perils in, the world. Here, therefore, he 
makes known to them a more certain and sure place, 
where he will the more safely and eflfectually defend 
them ; namely, with the Father, to whom he is going, 
and where his sh^l receive all things under his power, 
and shall be every where present with them, though he, 
as to his corporal presence, depart from them. 

The meaning tfierefore of tfiis whole passage, is this : 
After I had called them together and implanted in them 
my Word, I preserved them so long by my corporal 
preiBence^ until the word had taken root, and clave to 


and abode in them ; so that, it mi^t by them be spread 
abroad mor^ widely and be propagated throughout the 
whole world. And 1 was for this cause with them/ 
that I might lay the foundation of this, and might ob- 
tain for them by myself all those things which they, 
together with all Christians, should have need of, and 
should want to receive. But now, the time is at hand 
that I must come again unto thee and receive my king- 
dom, and make that known, and ^y them extend it 
throughout the world, by the Word being spread abroad 
among all nations. Therefore, I commend these unto 
unto thee, and I come unto thee for this cause, that 
thou mightest strengthen and guard them by thy Holy 
Spirit and by thy divine power. 

" And these things (saithhe) speak I in the world ;'^= 
that is, as a testimony of my commendation of, them to 
thee, I leave them these words ; that they might hear 
how I pray for them, that they may be under thy sure 
care and protection ; ,so that by relying thereon they 
might most surely believe, that they will never be for- 
saken of thee, even though the whole world, with all 
the devils together, should rage against them with alt 
flieir fury. 

In this place it is again clearly proved and forcibly 
established, how much importance, and how much utility, 
the external preaching of the Word carries with it; for 
he has not decreed to defend and keep his disciples but 
by the external medium, (though he is able to do it and 
has all things in his hand,) but he wills this Word to be 
used to that end, that they might know in whom they 
are to trust, and what consolation they are to enjoy.' 
For he does not in their distress bring them that help 
which they can see and feel openly, but which they are 
to receive by faith, while every thing in the world ap- 
pears to the contrary, and as though he refused to help 
and defend them, and would permit them to perish under- 
their oppression. 

He saith, therefore, " Now come I unto thee," that 
thou mayest preserve and defend them ; but yet, I rnusK 
tell them these thipg^ while I am yet in the world with; 



bem ; that I may speak these things with a living voice 
nd vocal word, as one person would speak to another. 
Lnd why ? " That they (saith he) might have my joy 
ilfiUed in themselves :" that is, that they might have 
insolation through the Word which they have heard 
ith their ears, and have held fast in their minds ; and 
lat bein^ thereby gladdened, they might say, Behold 
lis hath Christ my Liord said, and thus faithfully hath 
e prayed for me from his heart ; this have I heard from 
is moulh, or from the mouth of those' who heard- it 
roin his mouth, and who were sent to proclaim these 
hings unto me, — that he will not forsake me altfabugh 
le be not present with me corporally, and though he ' • 
eave me here alone, but will defend and preserve me 
ly the omnipotent and eternal power and might of his 

B ehold ! this is what he calls his joy being fulfilled ; 
that is, the having solid and perfect joy. And it is rightly 
called his joy, or joy given by him, for it is not any 
eatward or worldly joy, but Altogether an internal and 
secret joy. For in me world, Christians have only 
afflictions, calamities, and persecutions; from being 
brought into the greatest straits, or from being torment- 
ed by tyrants and sects, or by the devil, and from being 
compelled, in the midst of their greatest calamities, to 
endure the insults and tauntings of the worst of men ; 
as Christ predicted of them in the l6th chap, of Joh«, 
" Ye shall weep and lament, but the world shall re- 
joice." Nevertheless, he saith, that in the midst of 
such lamentation and straits, they shall have perfect 
joy ; ' as it follows in the same chapter — " But your 
heart shall rejoice, and your joy no man taketh from 

And this it concerns, and to this it is of the great- 
est importance, that we cleave unto the word with our 
whole heart; placing our confidence here^— that he 
has so faithfrdly promised us, that he and the Father 
will be with us, that no peril or loss shall hurt us, 
and that no violence or power of the devil^ together 
with the whole world, shall overcome us or pluck us 

from him. Plence, we increase in joy and consolation; r 
and are continually rendered more happy and animated^* ^'^ 
not permitting ourselves to be disturbed or damped by 
any tcwment or obstacle ; seeing that, for Christ's sake^ 
all the bitterness we are to bear becomes more and moie ' 

Out of this, no Christian can have any sincere or solid 
joy. For, although thou shouldest enjoy all die cdo^' 
centrated pleasures of the world at the same moment, 
yet, all these together would not afford thee a power ' f 
to stand against the least temptation or adversity. > 
For the joy of the world consists only in temporal aid ' 
uncertain things, such as honours, pleasures, and other 1 
things of the same kind ; nor does it endure longer than k 
those things abide ; for it at once falls away and va- i 
nishes as soon as it meets with any adverse event ; aad }i 
therefore it can endure no storm or evil. Whereas, 
this joy is of that nature, that it remains for ever, (even 
as its foundation also is eternal,) and stands and grows fi 
m the midst of tribulations and afflictions ; and those i 
who enjoy and can boast of this, may reject and de^ £ 
spise with a gladdened and happy mind all the joys of 
the whole world. jfc 

/ have given them thy Word. 

In these Words he again intimates what goodness 

they shall experience in the world ; that they might see,' t 

how much they will stand in need of this consolation ccm- \ 

tained in the Word, and of that joy which is given unto »i 

tiiem of Christ. And he more fully explains that which \ 

he had explained before — that the Word which he has ^ 

dven them is the Word of the Father, calling it " tkf ji 
Word:" and for this end — ^that they might have ne 
farther occasion to desire or seek any other consolation; 

and that they mi^t give all diligence to magnify that ji 

Word, love it, and prize it as the greatest treasure they ji 

have upon earth, and as given unto them as a joy and < 

consolation against all adversities. There is, (saith he,) i 

no other tieasure that I can give them but the Wcwd \ 
whijch iTeeeivedilhmtitiiiee^i.aiid ^hich 1 1»im^do«i 




om heaven with me. This, I have ^ven unto them : 
ad I have with such, diligence taught it them ; because 
wish them to feel in their hearts that they have my 
>lidy perfect} and eternal joy within them ; and to be 
labled to say after ipy death, * Here I have the Word 
f Christ my Lord, yea, the Word of his omnipotent 
'^ther ; by keeping of which, I am sure that no power 
pon eartn, nor any gat^s of hell can hurt me ;• for he 
old^ me in his omnipotent hand, and defends me with 
is paternal' protection, away from which, the violence 
f . no one can ever pluck me ; for he accompanies his 
Yard 'With his love, and has deterouned to hold it fast 
[& all things ; and he will by the same power defend 
Xkd protect all those who desire and love it,' — And this 
ft wholly necessary, for we poor creatures greatly need 
his prot;ection ; as now follows. 

And the world hath hated them. 

Here our character, and the true mark of Christians 
by which they are signalized in the world, are descrip- 
tively set forth. — Dost thou desire tp be a disciple of 
Christ, and dost thou love his Word? then be not 
ashamed of this mark, but be thou content to have the 
world thine enemy. For thou wilt therein find, that, not 
strangers and wicked and abandoned men only, but thy 
best and most intimate friends, and honourable and 
worthy men, and also men revered and respected by 
the world for their sanctity, will turn against thee and 
plot thy destruction, or will traduce thee and lay snarei? 
for thee from every quarter. And yet, there will be 
nothing of whiph they can accusie thee, or which they 
can lay to thy charge ; no vice of which they can condemn; 
thee, either of living, defrauded any one, or hurt him, 
or in any way injured him, ^ but only, that, thou lovest, 
hddest, cheri^st,.confes9^t, and preachest, the Word 
of Ch^sL For thi? cause^ thou must hear thyself called 
a hecetic, a faouliar with the devil, and the greatest 
of all the abomination? tbatevej were heard bf.npon the. 
face of the ^arth. Thb name, far exceeds and surpasses 
aU t^e i4iqiHJty of the whole world ; nor it there a moie. 

nefarious wickedness or baser turfritode, nor any i4oq 
more depraved in the whole world, than to be a Chris- 
tian. The world knows how to wink at, to pardon, to 
cover with a good grace, and to excuse all other crimes; 
it knows how to extend its benevolence .to all otbex 
enormities, by opening its doors, by toleration, by pity, 
by affording relief; but Christians, the earth cannot 
endure ; so that, he who persecutes, condemns, and 
punishes them with death, is endowed with the most 
exalted virtues, does God the highest service, and cchh 
fers a benefit on his country ; as Christ saith, John 16. 
Therefore, these Words are most expressive, " The 
world hath hated them ;" as though he would have said, 
the world has nothing else to do but to persecute Chris- 
tians Avith its hatred, although it has many other calls 
for exercising its hatred upon those who are jmost-wortl^ 
of hatred ; such as, the devil, and men of settled and 
abandoned wickedness. For all the force of the matt^ 
rests on the pronoun them. And who are signified by 
the THEM? Who, but Uiose poor, miserable, yetb^ 
loved Apostles, Peter, Paul, and the rest. These are- 
those pernicious and detestable ones whom the world 
cannot endure. And what have they done? They 
have stolen nothing, they have gotten nothing by plun- 
der, they have defiuuded no one. And what more? They 
have served all gratuitously, bearing and proclaiming, 
through the greatest labours and perils, the grace of God 
and eternal salvation. And what reward have they 
gained ? None but the most furious and bitter rage, 
and the most insatiable hatred of men, whereby they* 
are exterminated from off the face of the earth, and are* 
condemned to the lowest hell. This is the reward, and 
these are the thanks, that are returned to Christ and' 
his Apostles. And what else can the world do, but; 
send out of the world by the most ignominious death, 
the innocent man who has shown unto them righteous- 
ness, salvation, and eternal life, as the most depraved of 
malefactors ! None however must do this but the most 
holy of all, who thought that they never did a more accept- 
able service to God, than when they crucified hia only- 


gotten Sotf! Whose example, our more than mad 
rrants follow at this day: who, if they afflict the 
rospel with every possible kind of atrocity, and oppress 
ir friends with every insult both of word and deed, 
^ piersecuting, by killing, by burning, are then called 
le most Christian princes, and the defenders of the 
lurch. And this one honour, under the name of which 
ley rage against our friends, covers over, and gives a fair 
[dour to cdl their most nefarious enormities, which they 
Ooimit againstboth God and men. 

Now see if the world be* not, in these few words, 
lost descriptively pourtrayed. And see also, how great 
s goodness is, even where it is best. If then this be its 
nost glorious excellency, let the devil praise it, for I will 
lOt. i hope, however, (blessed be God !) that we also 
hall have our honours in our time, and be found 
idomed with these titles of nobility. For the devil per- 
ecutes us with a hatred sufficiently bitter, as we have 
litfaerto abundantly felt, and as we even now expe- 
ieiice : with such fury and cruelty does the world ra^ 
igainst our doctrine: and when they can do nothing 
Bore, they sufficiently evince their galled and malicious 
nind towards us by their cursings, execrations, and 

'Because they are not of the world even as I am not 
tff the iporld. 

. In the catalogue of those, (saith he,) whom the 
world hates, I also am to be numbered, and to be put 
6rst upon the list. And therefore, my disciples will not 
bave a better lot than I had: for if they called the 
Diaster of the house Beelzebub, (as he saith also in 
another place,) how shall they pay more respect to his 
disciples, and to them of his household ? But the world, 
as it appears to itself, has just causes for persecuting 
me witfi hatred : nor can I be in favour with it when 1 
am forced to shew unto it its blindness and misery, and 
to reprove the folly of its wisdom and outside show of 
sanctity, which is- accounted nought before God. Not 
that my design. is to hurt them, or to do them any in- 

jury, bnt to bring theitt help, whi}6 I would resetle titeir 
miserable and captive souls from tilie jiiws of the^dc^ 
and lead them unto Ood. This the devil cannot bMr^ 
and therefore it is that he so much storms and rai 
stirring up and exasperiating their minds against ihe 
my Word. And the world cannot depart from its bl&i^ 
ness and presumption, nor patiently sufier its de^ds and 
whole life to be condemned and accounted nought. 

And hence arises the contention whereby we aite 
divided, and whereby we stir up all their hatred and 
•wrath against us. And things are brou^t to thfe state 
which Christ has before described in the 7th (Chapter W 
John, "The world cannot hate you, but me itfrnted}, 
because I testify of it that the works thereof are eviE'' 
Therefore, as it hates me on account of my Word, so 
rfso does it hate my disciples to whom I have givjrt 5 
that Word, and by which I have taken them out 6f, anl f 
separated them from, the world. - ■ S 




By this kind of preaching, however, we ought to be 
raised up, who have the Gospel and who really fed tfkir |i 
hatred: for they can charge us with none other faul^ '; 
than that we are Christians, and will not remain wHI ( 
them under the power of the devil. Therefore, (siSjk p 
Christ,) " I have given them thy Word," that they ma^ 
rejoice and delist in this, against all the ignonoinj and h 
contempt of the unhappy world ; and that thus, thw It 
may with a gladdened mind despise all its favour ana it 
applause, and account it nou^t; yea, may avoid and ib 
shun it by all possible means, and have nothing tb dft \ 
with it ' ■'■ \ 

I pray not that thou shouldest t(fke them out cf ^■ 
the world* • ' 




I pray not that they might go with me out of the ; 
world, for not a few things remain to be accomplished ^ 
by me through them ; namely, that they may extend in^ ^ 
kingdom, and make my flock more numerous. They \ 
have received the Word from me, but a^ my counseb \ 
will not permit me to reitnain longer in the world, tfae^ || 
are many yet to be converted by them, and to bi ji 


TOughty tfaraa^ thefar Woid, to believe on me, (as he 
nil presently shew); for their sakes, therefore, I pray 
;Ot that thou shouldest take them out of the world ; 
bou^ the world cannot endure their presence, and 
tiey oa the other hand have had enough of the world 
nd nauseate it 

And this is the reason why Christians, and espe- 
ially ministers, ought to desire a longer life ; which we, 
ogether with Christ, ought to ask of God for thein; for 
^is of the. greatest importance that they should have 
heir lives prolonged as much as possible. The devil 
ind the world are our greatest enemies, (as w6 have al- 
leady heard,) and afflict us with every kind of plague. 
BHierefore, we are compelled to see and hear without 
ntermission, that which is the greatest pain unto us, 
ind which grieves our heart. Such and so base are the 
ingratitude and contempt of malignant men, and so 
horrible is their blasphemy, and their persecution of the 
Word of God. From all which things, it is no wonder 
if a minister be thus wearied out with preaching the 
Word only. And therefore, nothing would be more 
desirable, than if God should take us^out of the world at 
our first outset, and thus prevent us from being com- 
pelled to see and hear such wickedness, ingratitude, and 
blasphemy. But why should this be ? Tnere is ever a 
small company who are daily in jeopardy in manifold 
ways, and we must watch and labour that these be not 
torn away from the Gospel, nor must that care be 
omitted as long as we live. For it is a laborious and 
arduous task, with all our labours, devotedness, and di- 
ligence, to keep the Word among a few ; and a wonder 
It is, that it does not come to destruction utterly, and 
that all do not go over to the devil together. 

But that thou shouldest keep them from the evil. 

Afflictions and perils we must endure in the world 
for the Word's sake, both from tyrants and from sects, 
which will assail us on all sides ; the one with fal^e doc- 
trines, the other with all the bitterness of persecution, 

boifa leaving no stone unturned that the worid may 


be torn from us. And, in addition, tb this, we live sinr- 
rounded with so powerlful an army of deytlSy that we aie 
like one poor lost solitary sheep in the midst of wolvea; 
yea rather, we live in the midst of the most furious and 
roaring lions, (as Peter saith,) who are all gnadma 
their teeth at us, and ready to grind us to pieced witn 
their iaws, and to swallow us up. 

And, tell me, who is it that preserves us in such i^ 
perilous state of things, so as to enable us to stand in the 
midst of such a multitude of the most deadly and crufl) 
enemies? Who is it that keeps us from being caat^ 
down in our minds, from despairing every moment, andl 
from losing both the Word and faith together ? Who is 
it that at such times as these defends us against the 
power of our tyrants, and against the inveterate malice 
of the devil ? (For they enter into so many and multi- 
farious counsels against us, and lay so many clandestine 
plots against our lives. And they are indeed sufficiently 
powerful to hurt us, and we are weakness itself; neither 
are will and attempt wanting to them ; and their minds, 
moreover are so filled with rage and bitterness agaipet 
us, that they would willingly devour us alive, and, m 
the Germans say, swallow us down at a spoonfuL)^*?! 
answer; No human power or wisdom has hitherto piOr 
tectqd us. The guardian of our safety sitteth above rl 
who, ' mindful of this prayer, saith, My Christ oncA | 
prayed for them ; and, for this cause they are to be kept \ 
land, defended by me. — And this is our trust, protecticmf » 
and defence, which prevents our enemies from fulfilling t^ 
the desire of their mind in afflicting us, though th^ . 
should burst with the overwhelming rage of their furioiis 
though impotent mind ; or though they should persecute: 
us in vain till the minds are tired out ; for God will 
rescue us from their teeth, while they are hurled hiead- 
long to destruction. 

They are not of the world even as I am not of 
the world. 


This is that on which our whole consolation rests ;* 
and therefore it is that he repeats it so many times, and 

Y that means touches the heart and thoughts of bis 
isciples : for what he would, say, is this; — Ye feel and 
omplain that ye must yet remain in the world, which 
Eumot endure you and which loads you with every evil, 
> that ye are every hour in peril of your salvation, I 
DOW full well. But ye ought to be content with tl^s 
:>iisolation- — that they will never have power over you, 
ad that you will never be left in their hands, because 
QiU are not their's but the Father's. Take of the world 
a eternal farewell, who belong to their own god, tHe 
evil : for you shall have, even in the midst of yoiir 
fflictions from a raging world, a sure protection : being 
;> guarded as to have no part of the world whatever 
LncL when God shall see a ht time, he shall deliver you, 
lid take you out of the way of that destruction that 
ball overwhelm the wicked. 

Sanctify theni through thy truth. 

He here presses still one thing more ; yet, whatever 
le asks pertains to the Word only. He does not say, If 
t is thy will to defend them from afBictions, then cause 
hem to run away into some desert, or to hide them* 
elves in some monastery; but, Defend them that 
hey may remain sanctified, and that ^^ through thy 
Timif'' which is true and pure sanctification. But what 
le would. say is this : — In the world they are involved in 
nanifold perils and necessities, but no greater or more 
lerilpas trial awaits them, that a guarding against being 
levied by any false holiness. For what the devil aims 
It .with his might, is to introduce by the leaders of his 
sects, that doctrine which carries with it the greatest 
ihpw apd the most plausible appearance of truth and 
mnctity. /And this doctrine he knows how so to set off*, 
tibat it far exceeds all others in splendour and outside 
fhow, aqd we are compelled to say it is of all the most 
Bjbiking ; even as an harlot often outvies, in appearance, 
chaste matrons and women of honour. And indeed this 
rdigion is that attractive and scarlet whore of Babylon, 
meatianed ia Rev. icvii. adorned with purple and scarlet, 

VMU II.' • H 

#9fti embroider^ {^d, jprecidas stohi^, mA jei^eb, ^ 
ti^bm the kings of the earth have committed fornicKti 
.. It is upoa this, therefore, that the hinge of tdl t 
^intention and conflict which we have to wage with 
devil turns. For he does not attack us with temp^tad 
to gross and fleshly sins, knowing that all suth 
dfe&vours would be in vain, and that be should djer 
g^n no victory at all. But, seeing that all our strivi 
and endeavours are directed to me attainment of fa 
heisy he sets that holiness only before us, that be mi 
jfimnsh us with help in the acquirement pf it : and v 
such splendour does he adorn and set off this hoUni 
that no human power can overcome it, but we 
dfec^eived and caught by its appearance, imagitimg ft to 
i^eal. Therefore we must without intermission stt 
against false holiness. 

The meaning therefore of this prayer is this': — I ; 
the world running about and striving with all tb 
ioi^t after a singular holiness, and every one becoffli 
the inventor of some particulkr work and instibrti 
whereby he may appear particularly holy : but do th< 
dearest Father, defend them from all outside shchilr 
holiness, and sanctify them in truth. And to be sam 
l^ed in truth, is what Paul in his Epistle to the Ep! 
dians^ chap. iv. calls beins " created in righteousness t 
true holiness." Hence Christ, and Paul likewise,. 6 
tfiat there are many who have the praise and honooi 
holiness, and want to make every body else holy, but i 
tiieir holiness is all in outshide show. . That notori< 
whore of Babvlon with her golden cup, makes use of 
most beautiful words and scriptures, but there is noth 
within but the greatest of abomination. — What the) 
true holiness, and how are we to attain unto it ? ^ 
here is the great point — to know how to attain u 
the true holiness, so as not to be deceived by the tk 
And this question Christ himself answers; as imi 

Cutely foQows, 

Thy ward is truth. 
Thou desifest to know for a certaia^- md-r 


ilftlibly, what true aiid reA\ hoIioesB i^, that tbou mayest 
)(^ able to distinguish it from all others: then look at 
he Word only, and suffer not thyself to be deceived by 
toy felse show. For the Word is a true touchstone, 
(thereby real holiness is distinguished and discovered : 
lay, the Word itself is that alone which truly sanctifies. 
Li6t others arrogantly boast of their holiness, on account 
if iheir siiaven pates, their hooded cloaks, their strings 
aid tassete, their fastings, their watchings, then- severity 
f living, their hard labouring, and their sufferingB, &e. 
"lit do thou hold fast this — that whatsoever is not the 
Vord, or to be proved by the Word, is not holiness, 
at falsity, profanity, frivolity, and a thing of nought. 

And here, if you say that the authors of these 
lets, boast also of the Word of God-^I answer : The 
evil also kboH's that all depends upon the Word, and 
lat Christ sets the Word before us : and therefwe, he 
bo aims at citing the scriptures. But we say, that we 
re to hear that Word from the mouth of Christ only, 
(e tbat hewilh and believeth this, has rightly the truth 
r God wMift sanctifieth, without any hypocritical 
low : for if thou believe his Word, then thou etaiBt 
M fast no hope or confidence in= thy own reason and 
i^om, nor in thy own strength and works ; nor canst 
Wu arrogate to thyself any holmess because of them, 
?*ble to avail before God. Therefore, he that is of this 
md cannot be proud and arrogant; for be can find 
idling in himself on account of which he can he 
eiftsed with himself or of which he can boast. And 
m see, that unfeigned humility always follows where 
efe is unfeigned faith. And, true patience and lo^ fp 
e brethren always follow upon true humility. When 
I are under the infl^i^nce of this, we despise no on#, 
f serve and are kind to all ; and whatever evil comes 
«in us, we endure it with a patient mind ; we are'it^t 
tK^ful, nor do we revenge Hljuries, when w^ aoMt 
th ingratitude, perfidy, grief, ignominy, and repfftiMlk, 
id> i&A word, sujdi does &ith m&ke a man; f faiEit he 
Bk deceitftiHy wid^ no one, but openly, sincerely, aiid 
)tfidly, for fae k by ftldi upright before Ood md 



wHliout dissimulation. For he do^ not by his life and f 
.works seek his own, nor in any respect look to his own i 
prdfity (for he is contented wilh Christ and his benefits, 
.because he has in them an all-sufficient fulness,) but be 
does what he does gratuitously, that he might ^proGi' 
.others. Behold such is an elect man, and such an one is 
in high estimation with God, and honourable before mra. 
Compare now, if you please, with such a. man as 
this, those others proud in their external show of holi- 
.ness; among whom ybu will find nothing of i 
^Christ, for this they make light of. They have the ji 
Word indeed, but in show only, for they do not hold it \ 
in heart and seriously, nor thus observe it; but, leaving i 
:the Word, they devote themselves to their singular and 
s^lf-chosen works; wherein they seek not the glory of 
.Christ (for he regards not such work) but their own, 1 
and are thereby considered as most holy. And, out nf 
all the orders of men you will not find any more proud, 
.more arrogant, more haughty, more overbearing, nor 
any such impatient beasts : (indeed, why. should we oiU 
;them men?) nor are there any more ready to despise 
others. They look with contempt upon all things, they 
set nought by all things that are not exactly according 
to their opinion ; and yet they cannot bear that any one 
should reprove their ways in a single word : they pard^ 
nothing, they take nothing in good part And yet, there 
is no one, who enjoys their bounty, they are a benefit to 
<jilPr;Q»e, they serve no one, .^but wait and desire. alb to 
serve them, while they do not one work which can be 
-beneficial .to their ii^ighbour. Moreover, they are of all 
men the most envenomed and the most thirsty Qf the 
blood of Christians : Hi^ such fruits proceeding fnfm 
these monsteffr are set forth :^very where in the Gospd, 
and in the JBpistles by St Paul : and the same we see at 
tMs dm^ia^ Uie sects of Popery, ^ the Anabaptists, 
and of otteiB,^ by what tiam^ soever they may he 

Bdboldj ^|ti6 y^ will soon know the bree by its 

. fruits, wd ndsQ who , they are who haw and holdf ^ 

Woi^ of Cbtist, lively f jskicmfys and without- di^mpi- 


^ J klion. ^ For these diings can never exist together, that, 

-: where the Word is in the heart, there should be also a 
ic seeking of holiness by our own works and life, and a 
m trusting, to them. — 'Inese words all our wise, learned, 
p leliffloas, and holy ones can hear and read, but no one 
a «f tnem can understand what they mean : they despise 

3 Aem as trite and old sayings, and if they are addressed 
■ Id them they cannot encrare them. 
_ 1 We, however, by the grace of God, well know that 
ii trne holiness is nothing else but a true faith in the Word 
e of Christ, which the Father first freely giveth us, and 
m ifterward strengthens and increases; from which all 
s« Jcinds of good miits proceed, (as we have before ob- 
Bi served;) end those same fruits are increased daily by 
m onAU d^rees. All which is not of our own works and 

I M«ngth, but of the grace and power of God only. For 
^ we openly and freely confess before the whole world, 
pi ind in the face of all devils and sects, that there is no 
g; Htj no good works, no spiritual and sublime cogi- 
m Ittionft, nor any self-forced devotion, that can make 
1^ nen saints. And, in a word,. that there is nothing in us 
^,1 fiom which holiness can proceed. For, to macerate the 
d body by fisistings, to walk with naked feet, to have 
xji Mning of our own, seems to carry with it a great show 
^ sC humility and suffering, but all these things the most 
, I ihtndoned profligates, the most desperate characters, 
B£f 4^ Turks, and Heathens can do also. But, to fix 

s ^ oor thouj^ts on Christ, and to cleave to him alone 
cM bjf fiuth, as him in whom alone, without any merit and 
J ci| ^•wks rf our own, we have divine grace and everlasting 

dj Jlfejisa work not of any human, but of divine power. 
2 f And it is in this that the whole of our salvation stands : 
5o!f ^ where this is maintained, there the Word is held in 
> stf ^purity and sincerity, there is true holiness, and there 
aptt y OBtwde showand[ hypocrisy are judged and con- 

DSf WKMd. 

In jj^ '^^ ^^ ^^' ^^ ^^'^ '^^ toorldf even so have J 
oW ^^^h^if^o the world/ 

Ins^ ' b tfiese words, yon hear why Christ prays th^i. 


9i^^ tb ^netify tixm : namky, Aat he inigbt iKtt 
tlttmi a^^art and send ^m finm into tile worid io 
|)rettch the Gospel. And by these ivords, Christ creataB 
Ms ^{k>st}es, ftiid fomis them into teachers and preachem, 
liiaking all of ns to be their disciples, and sabje€tiii|( w 
IS to their mouth, wheth€r learned or nnlearned, that 
e^rery one might humble himself with bow mudi witr 
dom, learning, and gentas soever he amy he eedaedi 
and that all might differ those simple fishermen to be 
tiheir itinsters and teachers, and hear them as tfaey #ouUi 
fiear Christ the Lord. 

'I have sent them into the worid as thou hast i^mt 
me^ is no common saying: even as we have Juat 
before heard it said and set forth, that it is nd trifling 
matter to believe that Christ was sent into the worid by 
the Father : that is, to be fiiUy persuaded in thy ocmt 
scTence, and nndoufotingly to believe, that, whtn tbo« 
hiiarest the words that proceed ont of tbe month- of 
Christy thou hearest the Father speaking unto thee froili 
heSaven. And, if we could believe, this truly and' fum 
tMir heart, we should not make so light of them aa we 
do. For that great multitude of the learned^ together 
%ith their disciples, who boast much of the Wordi 
trifle with it as thou^ it contained only the words of 
i^ome hackneyed author. Let us however devote our* 
sdves to it with all humiUty, praise, and thankfulneaa, 
as our greatest and best treasure. 

And what is there in all things human end divine 
i<^ch any one should desire with more ardent wishaiy 
than once to hear God himself speaking ? Nor is thene 
aby one who would not willingly go as far ea tbd 
notthem pole smd the frozen ocean, if he cotdd gain the 
M)jeict of such a wish. Here then is given to thee the 
sureist testimony, liiat he who hears the Word of Christ, 
fa^i^th the Wtrd of him who made the heaven ^ai^ 
the earth by his Word, and who still governa apdL 
t|^)]^ds the same by the finger of his power — heareth 
that Word, wherein God the Father opens and laiBxi* 
fests his mind and will, and w^ereiti he oftfers^ tod firc^ 
tiiystows iill ^gritce attd'go^nesa, itnd idi the^tveteuiils of 


his lovrng-kindaess ; ifi a word^ whereia aU our Baln^ 
C)W end blessedness consists, wherein all our heipf coin,- 
wlatioii; safety, and victory in all necessities and temn;- 
tations are placed ; for, to that Word, heaven and earlj^ 
and the devil and all creatures must give way. 

Behold this same thing is here testified concemii^ 
the mouths and preaching of the apostles, ^^ As them 
saotest me into the world, even so I have sent then^ 
lliat is^ as they have heard me^ so also are they to be 
heard hy all mv future /disciples. This is the same also, 
as that he said unto them in another place, *^ He that 
heareth you heareth me." Therefore, we are to ta^ 
diligent heed that we hearken unto the mouths of Petc^ 
and of Paul, and of all others who have this testimony;: 
and we are to be as fully persuaded in our con^cieiKiffs 
concerning them, and are to pay as much deference |p 
them, as if we were hearing all the angels, yea, Oq^ 
himself, speaking from heaven with his own mou|^. 
Iliis is in truth to honour fishermen, and sin^ple oi^es pf 
the lai^yy hi^y and worthily with the dignity of doctors ; 
or ratitfx, to make them priests and bishops with the 
divine authority itself; which honour never was con- 
ferred upcm any of the learned, wise, or holy c^es upon 

- fiy these words therefore, we are to stop the moutljs 
of certain vain talkers and blasphemers, wh% pra^ 
against us, that we teach that human doctrines und fff^- 
cepts are not to be received. ' What ! (say they) were 
not Peter and Paul men?' 3ehpld here the g^t 
wisdom at these ^s^e& ; they thus boasti^gly prate, |i^ 
li^Qi^ they had effec^taally caught, and vanquished us % 
reasoning thus—St. Paul was a mux : the Pope also is 
a man. Paul was a saint: therefore, the Pope is the 
greatest of saiats. Andy if the Pope is not to i^ 
received and heard : then> neither is Paul to be jeceivad 
ifmd beard* t 

jo this pbjpotipn, make thou this answer :---My 
good /r^^i (say thoii) ]Let the Pope pro44ce a te:||^t 
4il.;wiik^ the authodty ^ teachii?^ 4s confejxe^ o^ ihuVi 
m 'ibMr t^t confefflf ^th^ author^y pn d^ ^postle^r aijfd 


Alien we will'hetrr him. Christ saith, tlAi his ttpostlei and 
f^chers shall teach and live, as he himself taught and 
Kviea! Now then, if Paul had taught any thing more or 
less than what Christ used to teach, that would n6 
longer be the doctrine of the apostle^ but of the man. 
Paul was indeed a man bom at Tarsus, but when he 
assumes this title, " Paul a servant and an apostle of 
Jesus Christ," then thou no longer hearest the mere 
man, but the mouth and tongue of God and of the 
Lord Christ, who has put his Word into the Apostle's 
thouth. For that alone is called human doctrine, which 
ahy one invents and frames himself, and brings forth : 
even as that is called human power, wisdom, and per- 
formance, which is peculiar to man, and proceeds from 
his own powers, but not that which God works in him 
above and beyond nature. — When Peter raises the dead, 
or speaks wiui divers tongues, you cannot by any means 
draw therefrom this conclusion — Peter raises the dead : 
therefore, to raise the dead is a human work. The ass 
of the prophet Balaam even spoke with a human voice. 
Biit^ who would be such an idiot or madman as to say, 
that, therefore, to speak with a human voice, are the 
words, the works, and in the power of an ass ? 

Wherefore, we also say, that the apostles were men, 
but did not speak as men. For to be a man is one 
thing,«but to speak by the command and in the power 
and wisdom of Gpd, is another. We wish to hear men, 
but not speaking as men in their own spirit, and accord- 
ing to their own will, opinion, and understanding. For 
the matter, as the Apostle Peter teaches, 1 Epist. iv. is 
thus, ^^ If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles 
of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the 
ability that God giveth," Hence, he has here confined 
the apostles within certain bounds, that they «h6uld 
speak nothing but what Christ spoke and commanded 
them to teach. Wherefore, it matters not at all how 
great a saint you are, as though you were to be heard, 
or more credit were due to yoii, or your Word were to 
'be Hie more esteemed, or to be considered of moi* iirt- 
portance, oh that account.-^ We will not he^ what St. 



Pkul* ^fhfe, btit VHat " Pdul the servant and apostle of 
Jesofi- Christ," saith. Ido not ask in how great sanctity 
of life you shinCy but what you teach, and from whoni 
Vou received the command to teach, — that is what I 
consider is to be looked at. 

Wherefore, let but the Pope and his bishops, (as 

we have said,) receive and exercise such an office of 

teaching as the apostles did, (to whose place and office' 

they boast of having succeeded,) and we will receive and 

honour them with aJI reverence, will hear them, and bei^r 

them on our hands, and honour them as the Galatians 

did Paul, who would immediately and willingly, if he 

had wished it, have carried him in triumph in their hands. 

Bat, they are afraid lest that should come upon them 

in the world which Christ here intimates, and which 

happened unto himself, and which falls to the lot of us 

all who teach the Word of God. — They fear lest they 

should lose their dominion, and suffer the loss of all 

their worldly possessions, and be prevented from being 

equal to the princes and potentates of the world in 

power and pride, and lest they should be hated by the 

world, and should meet contempt, ingratitude, ignominy, 

persecution, and all bitterness : and this they cannot be 

persuaded to do: therefore, they willingly keep free 

from this odious province of teaching the Gospel. 

And for their sakes I sanctify myself 

This also he adds, that he might again strike at hypo- 
crites and pretenders to holiness, who seek their sanc- 
tification from themselves, procured by their own works, 
religion, orders, &c. Christ, however, by these words 
plainly shews, from whence our true sanctification flows, 
and how and in what manner it is prepared, and how 
we are to attain unto it. For, after he had prayed that 
die Father would sanctify them through the Word, by 
which also others were to be brought- under grace, some 
one may perhaps ask, what kind of a sanctitication this 
18, -and by whom it is procured and prepared. Or, 
what Word that is which offers and brings unto us 
-skncfificataon. It certainly cannot be the ten command- 


inent3 : though tbey are the Word of God, «od ^loe^ 
they had before : yet, though they are holy, they caaoot 
give that sanctification of which we are nere speaking, 
^hich makes us saints before God : nor can we by our 
own powers, fulfil what they require of us : nor can they 
purify the heart even when those eternal works are per- 
formed : which may be performed by hypocrites, and 
the most abandoned of characters. 

To the inquiry, Christ answer3 — that it is the 
preaching of the Word by which we are sanctified. 
" For their sakes I sanctify myself." Here you hay« 
not the least mention whatever of our own works and 
merits^ but only of the work and firee gift of Christ, 
which can be comprehended by ncMie other means than 
by faith. 

Christ here uses that term " sanctified " out of thf 
Old Testament, which Moses sometimes uses with re^- 
ference to his manner of worship, when he calls all the 
sacrifices offered up for the people, " sanctified." And by 
the use of this term he would shew, that all those sacri- 
ficesj together with all the worship of God under the Old 
Testament, are abolished and done away with, as bein^ 
unavoidable to sanctify any one before God. What he 
wcHild say is this— Under Moses they were said to be 
sanctifiecf, who brought their sacrifices, and sacrificed 
oxen, or sheep, or wheat, or flour, or wine, or brought 
any other things of the same kind. Which, when the 
priest took them into his hand, were no longer common 
things, but were said to be offered to the Lord and 
sanctified. And thus, creatures offered for the children 
of Israel were said to be sanctified, and they also were 
sanctified by them. But this was only an external sanc^ 
tification. But my Christians (saith Christ) have need 
of another sacrifice whereby they might be sanctified 
truly : and this shall be done by my sanctifying myself 
for them. 

These words therefore, '* And for their sakes I smt^- 
tify myself,** are not to be understpod as si^ifyiijg, thjEft 
Cnristhad oee<^ tP be sanctified, as 4>ae ilw^'j^w j^gt 
^anclified before ; for he wa& hjo^y fiom tbp wpmlb pi 


k« mother^ ii;^ tike Evaogelist Luke, ctif p. i. tes^tifiet, 
*' Ttmt hpfy dmg which shall be bom of thee^ slialt be 
^led tbe Son of Goc)/' But to ''sanctify/* in this 
place, signifies to discharge and perform the ofiice of 
priest. I will once say mass, (as our priests say when 
speaking of the offertory mass,) I will offer a holy sa- 
crifke and perform the office of priest. And what shall 
that be? I will "sanctify myself:" that is, I myself 
will be the oflfering, and the victim ; and therefore, I 
shall myself be the priest also. These words, therefore, 
signify in our language of the present day, I sacrifice 
myself as a holy sacrifice ; and that, for them ! For he 
did not need it for himself, being in liimself holy, and 
only becoming a priest that he might sanctity us. 

Upon this passage much might be said, for it is a 
most beautiful and rich text, and embraces many testis 
monies and passages of the prophets; wliich, if we 
should enter upon a Aili exposition of them, would em- 
ploy us more than a whole year. We would however 
just teach as we go on, what Christ has done for us, 
that we may know that this text has respect thereunto, 
and embraces the whole of it. The sum of the whole 
then is this — that Christ .is our priest, who intercedes 
for us and offers himself upon the cross unto God tlur 
Father, that, by this his sacrifice and death, we might 
be reconciled unto God and sanctified. And this is our 
grand article of faith, the fountain of all our conso^ 
latioQ, and all our treasure : which we Christians ou^ 
all to know. And Christ thought proper to make men- 
tion of this. For, as he was speaking of the Word, and 
of the truth by which we cure sanctified, he could not re- 
frain from shewing what that was whereby we attain 
unto sanctification : namely, he shews us himself, ^b 
having merited and procur^ sanctification for us, and 
freely given it unto us. And he that embraces and be^ 
lieves this Word,-=-he is truly and perfectly ^nctified I 

TTiat they also might be sanctified through ike tritth. 

. Behold : how^oquei^ aqd; clea4y be speu^s coDn 
iMmiiig fieal sawtifieatiQa,^ for the purpose of itistrnctii^ 


Qft^ ill order that we mi^t take heed tibat we eir 

from the trae sanctificatibn ; and moredver, diaif' 
might take care, that we teach no other sanctifies 
than his, nor think of seeking sanctification in any 6^ 
way. For he well knew how laborious a stru^le 
would be, and how many temptations would attend it 
how it is engendered in us, (even in us who are Cb^ 
tians,) to seek after something in ourselves, or some 
that we are to do, in order to become sanctified ; 
that no one would think, that all he had to do, was 6 
believe simply and only in the Word, and thereby ob- 
tain the sanctification of Christ. And therefore it ^ 
that he repeats with so much care the words " throuoh 
THE TRUTH," and opposes that to all the false and de^ 
ceiving confidence that is placed in human and natural 
sanctification. — My sanctification (saith he) causes thcffi 
to be sanctified in truth. Then, if this be true, tfaw 
mayest easily conclude, that all other things and meaaifl^ 
thereby we impiously pretend to become sanctifiajl 
before God, are to be accounted vain and damnable. 
For these two things cannot stand together — that the 
blooci of Christ should sanctify — and that our profes* 
sions and works should procure sanctification : even if 
they should be the lives and works of all the orders of 
monks, of all the holy fathers, Francis, Bernard, Jerom, 
and even of John the Baptist himself; which, althou^ 
they are great works, become profane and damnable if 
we tack to them the opinion and presumptive idea of 
sanctification, to the degrading and blaspheming of the 
blood and death of Christ. 

Biit on the other hand, where there is a right faith, 
which believes, that the sanctification of Christ alone 
avails before God, and becomes our sanctification, 
that faith sanctifies all our works : they are not sanctified 
from any respect to our own merit, but for that faith's 
sake from which they flowed : without which, no works, 
no life, can please God. And hence, if any one should 
ask what state or life is the most holy upon earth, thba 
mayest in a moment judge and answer, — the cpminon 
state of all Christians : that is, of those who believe 'that 


Christ alone is our sanctification I And it is from this 
tree and root of sanctification, (as we have said,) that all 
things that are in us, and all our life and works and 
exercises are accounted holy, — even because the person 
is holy. 

And this also you may see from this text, which is 
not to be concealed, — how we have hitherto been de- 
ceived by those preachers of dreams, who never said 
one word to us about this holiness and sanctification, 
nor ever made mention of one saint, excepting the dead 
who are now in heaven ; whereas, the whole scripture, 
whenever it speaks of saints, speaks of living saints; 
and the reason is, because it has nothing to do with the 
saints that are dead and buried, and that cannot hear the 
Word ; and therefore, it honours them with the appel- 
lation of scuntspwho hear and receive the Word, though 
they be^ yet in flesh and blood. And hence, we also with 
Christ are to call and account them saints, who have his 
Word, and who hold it fast and confess it, and espe- 
cially in the midst of temptations and persecutions, even 
though they be poor miserable weak creatures^ and 
carry ivith mem no conspicuous show of holiness. For 
we cannot see it painted on the man's forehead who is a 
real saint and who is not. This however we know, that 
where the Word is and produces fruits, and where every 
kind of bitterness and affliction is endured for its sake, 
there must be saints. 

But to this our hypocrites with their feigned humility 
say, ^ In the name of God, what art thou talking about ! 
On, God forbid such a thing ! How can any man be so 
proud as to bear to hear himself called a saint ! For we 
are nothing but miserable sinners.' To such I thus 
reply : All such sayings as these proceed from the old 
opinion : by which, as soon as ever any mention is 
made of holiness or saintship, we immediately think 
. about some great and wonderful works, and look at the 
saints in heaven, as though they had attained unto theijc 
holiness by. their -own merits. — We however say, that 
.ihejbrae and real saints, of Christ tnugt be great fmxi^t^ 
and must remain such saints as would not be ashaiUM 


to pray and say, * Our Father which art Uk heaven; 
h^lloived be thy name/ &c. By which words, we' &iti^ 
fe98 that the name of God is now not sanctified in tts ii 
it ought to be ; that the affairs of his kingdom do not gi 
on so prosperously as they ought ; and that his wiH is no! 
done. And yet they are said to be " saints : *' not however 
because they are pure and free from sin, or because they 
are become saints by their works, but rather, because 
they themselves, together with their works, are all sin, 
but are made saints by a sanctification not their own : 
namely, by that of our Lord Jesus Christ, Vrhich is 
freely given unto them through faith, and thus becom^i 
their sanctification. And this sanctification is of that 
virtue and efficacy, that it covers and blots ont all the 
defects and sins that remain in the flesh and blood. 
Even as I have said before, that the kingdom of Christ 
consists of nothing else but free remission and pardon; 
as having to do with none but sinners ; and that it bl^ 
out and covers all sin, and purifies our life as Wmg A 
we have it upon earth. 

Neither pray I for these alone, but for them ako 
which shall believe on me through their word. 

• We ought to write this text in letters of gold, betausfe 

it belongs so particularly unto us; for all those things 

which were said before, seemed to sound as if they b^ 

longed to the apostles only : though Christ does m* 

obscurely declare, that his words have a more extensive 

reference, where he says, " As thou hast sent tne int6 

the world, even so have I also sent them infto thfe 

world," &c. And here, lest any trembling conscieiiMife 

should be thrown into doubt, and say, * Christ I ktt&k 

prayed for the apostles, and the Jews tS whom tlw^ 

•were sent, but what is to become of me ?' Christ h&rb 

meets this objection, making mention of embmciftjg * 

gentiles also; nay, he embraces in thii^ his jprayer all 

Christianity, even unto the last day; — that its* {M#^ 

-teay ' extend every where wherever the! word ^ • *the 

«|k>6flds 'i&hmiM ^onve, and whe^evtii^ it shottic^ 6b;>^ 

MiV^d byfikith, rnvt^cicedr j^rsbA bdilg'^^^eludlM; )fm^ 



iKis is our hope, our confideDce, and diur greatest trea- 
sure; nor is there in ail the scripture a greater testi- 
toony in favour of us gentiles, than the present text 

Thiis text is moreover diligently to be marked, for 
the manner in which Christ has tnerein extolled and 
praised the preaching of the apostles, by which it is that 
we are brought unto him, and by which we believe in 
him. For, contrary to this fundamental point, certain 
firothy praters teach us to make light of, and set at 
noa^t, the Word ; asserting that the Spirit ought to do 
all thmgs, that external things and signs and the voice 
of the preaching profit nothing unto faith in the heart, 
and that the internal man must have an internal Word. 
Before such madmen as these, set thou this text in 
tetters an inch long, — " Who shall believe in m^ 
thrbuj^ then: Mf ord ; and ask them, whether believing 
be a work of the internal or the external man ? or, whe- 
dier the apostles preached an external or an internal 
Word ? And here, they surely will never deny, that 
these words, " Who shall believe," (which is a work of 
the b^art and of the internal man,) and, '^ through their 
word,** are to be joined together. For he is called the 
btemal man, who believeth, and has all his heart's con- 
fidence and hope fixed in God alone ; and he the exter- 
aal man, who eats, drinks, sees, hears, walks, stands, 
labours, uses these and those motions, and is in all 
things connected with the works of the body. But; 
faith is no work of the body, either of the ears, the eyes, 
the hands, the feet, nor any other member, but of the in-; 
temal recess of the heart. — Therefore, when Christ says 
that they shall believe, that is, that they shall become 
internal or spiritual men, through the word of the 
apostles ; it incontrovertibly follows, that this word has 
not respect unto the outward man, but profits the inter- 
nal man. Hence, their vainly prating, that the external 
word or preaching is useless and of no avail, but unto 
Ac external testimony or the confession of the exterhd 
nam; Is ia nothing iBLt ail. 

A|!d,tf'thlSy;6l4e(lt---*T^^^ the external word is df ^^ 
tftdd^Htffify, waaU Who tiear It ought necessarily, tb 



beciome believers and be saved. — I answer : They here 
(blessed be God !) half give roe up the point ; for. they 
cannot deny that some believe. And this is the opinion 
I hold ; ajid I say,' that, although all do not believe, yet, 
there are many believers. Christ himself does not say 
that all shall believe. But yet, it does not follow there- 
from that none shall believe. Why then do they talk and 
conclude thus — All do not believe: therefore, faith 
does not come by the Word. In this manner I also may 
turn syllogist, and may say — All men are npt obedient 
unto rulers, magistrates, and parents : therefore, it evi- 
dently follows, that no rulers, magistrates, or parents are 
necessary, and that the command of God concerning 
these matters is frivolous and superfluous. 

Therefore, reversing the whole matter, and turning 
the argument the other wayj we say, — We know, that 
some who hear the Word believe, which can be proved 
and made evident from many testimonies and examples 
of the scripture. '^Therefore we thus conclude— the Word 
is necessary and profitable, not to the ears only, but to 
the heart and to the inward main. And, if some who 
hear the Word do not believe, this takes no authority,^ 
value, or power from the Word ; but it neverthele$»- 
still remains true, that the Word is the medium through 
which faith is communicated to the mind. — But, away 
with such madmen, for they are not worthy that their 
mad dreams should be brought forward in the exposi- 
tion of this most beautiful text, in order to be refuted. 
Come then, let us lay up this scripture in the inmost re- 
eesses of our hearts for our greatest consolation, and let 
us see to what end it is that Christ prays for us, and 
what' blessing his prayer is to procure us. 

That they all may be one. 

These words we have handled and explained above 
— what it is to be, one or one things and what it effects 
for us,— namely, that in this word '*one" arq placed 
and comprehended all our defence, and our redemption 
itpm sin, death, and the world, and from the pQwer of 
the ^yil For he that believeth thr9u^ the .T^ojncl; ^{f 


the apostles — to him are given the grace and virtue of 
this prayer. He, together with all Christians, forms the 
body of Christ : so that, whatever grief or whatever 
good happens unto him as a member of the body, the 
same grief or good happens unto the whole body : nor 
does this or that ^int only, but all the prophets, martyrs, 
i^postles, and all Christians in the world together, and 
those who are with God, suffer with him, conquer with 
him, fight for him, and help, defend, and uphold him : 
and in so near a relation do diey stand to him, that they 
bear all his defects, sufferings, and adversities, and he, 
on the other hand, participates in all their benefits, con- 
solations, and joys. 

And what greater blessing can come upon any one, 
than to be brought into this communion and fraternity, 
and to be made a member of this body, which is called 
Christianity r Which is a body of that nature, that God 
has united to it himself, with all his infinite blessings. It 
is an high, all-powerful mistress and queen of heaven 
and earth ; at whose feet, the world, the devil, death, 
and hell, must fall prostrate, as soon as the Word is 
spoken. And, who can hurt the man that has this con- 
fidence,"and that knows, that when he suffers the least 
grief, all heaven and earth, with all the saints and angels, 
cry out against his oppressors. And, if he be assaulted 
by sin wishing to terrify, gnaw, and -press upon his 
tonsdenoe and to threaten him with death and hell, 
God immediately, with all the assembly of the elect, 
says, Neither shalt thou, O siri, gnaw him ; nor shalt 
&0U, O death, destroy him ; nor thou, O hell, swallow 
him up !-^But to arrive at this, there must be faith ; for 
to our natural eyes, and to this world's reason, things 
appear far odierwise, and the directly contrary is , sen- 
sibly ielt. 

As thou, Father J art in me, and I in thee, that they 
also may be one in us. 

In these words he touches again upon that sublime, 
ai^hipi his divinity^ which we have treated on at some 
t^^g^ before. He presents to us himself and the Father 




ists an example and a similitude^ that he might therel^ 
declare unto us that unity wherein he desires us to be 
united. ^ I and thou (saith he) are one, in the same 
divine essence and majesty.' According to this example, 
we ought also to be one among ourselves ; and so, that the 
unity between us should be "one;" that is, that thou 
&nd I should be incorporated. And, in a word, that all 
should be one, and one sotely, in us ; and that we should 
be so one body, that all may have whatever thou and I 
possess. Whereby also we are made partakers of ths 
divine nature, as Peter saith, S Epist. i. — And althou^ 
the Father and Christ are one in the divine essence m 
a more sublime way that cannot b^ comprehend^, 
yet, we have this blessing, that we enjoy the beniefits 
of it. 

Moreover, these words are also spoken for our cOQr 
solation and stay agaihst the world and the devil, ^(tf 
although he should attack any one weak member of tb^ 
Christian body, and think he had devoured them ; oi^ 
although he should make an assault on all Chri^tianitji^ 
together, and should wish to despise it, and say, Wb^ 
is Christianity to me, it is nothing but flesh and 
blood ,' yet, he is compelled to hear and feel, that hehiiB 
not attacked us only but Christ himself, and not Chrhl 
only, but the Father also ; that is, the omnipotent and 
eternal Majesty, before which he trembles and falls. 

Here then, behold, we are so united, that he who 
touches one of us, touches heaven and earth and all the 
divine creation. And, to sum up the whole in a few ^ 
words, thou canst hold no Christian in contempt, offis ^ 
an insult to none, persecute none, injure none, and, oi |^ 
the contrary, thou canst honour none, do a kindness to 
non^, without doing it to God himself. HeiK:e, Chriit 
himself in his majesty and glory will rise up in the iMt 
day, and pronounce this his sentence both, upon the just 
imd upon the unjust, " Insomuch as ye did it unto the ^ 
least of these my brethren, ye did it unto me." For God ?• 
has given all things unto Uiis his Christ, and Christ has | 
given them all to his spouse. Unto him every Christivit^ 
deaves^ like a limb, aiid all is ccmoected togiejtber ais ^ '^ 


links of a chain ; out of which union, is fotmed a beau- 
tiful whole, or rather, is woven a fair garland. 


That the world may believe that thou hast sent me* 

This is the fruit that follows from such an union: 
namely, that the Word of Christ breaks forth, and being 
spread far and Vi^ide throughout the world, is there 
received as the Word of God ; in which arq contained 
an almighty, divine, and invincible power, and a never- 
failing fountain of all grace and blessedness. This is, as 
I have said again and again, that most excellent of all 
knowledge, which is so deeply hidden and so rare, and 
which can never bfe folly learnt ; and therefore it is, that 
Christ makes motion of hardly aay thing else, and re- 
peats it in sdmost every word he speaks; for it never 
etftered into the mind and heart of any man, that he 
diould go entirely out of himself, and account all his 
own things naught that he either knows or can do, and 
should creep into the righteousness, sanctification, and 
wisdi^ih of Christ, as contained iiiv and fnad|3 known by, 
Ad Weak preaching of his Word, 

And, this I afiirm in truth, and declare, yea, by the 
telvation of my own soul, — that there are in this day 
very few preachers and writers indeed, of all that I hav6 
ever heard or known, (and they consider themselves to 
be the bestj) who truly understa:nd any thing of this 
iHatter. And although they do sometimes guess at 
iKmiediing of it, or get hold of here and there an idea by 
conjectare, yet tliiey speak of it as though they had heard 
mA were talking of dreams. They know indeed how 
to lash and cut to pieces with abuse the Pbpe and the 
ttMks, aild their priests, but they know nothing by 
€!ltM^etice of those futtdamental grounds upon whicn 
|)dpery is to be subverted, and all its erroneous doctrines 
lefoted. Wherefore, I feel it my duty to admoMsh the 
iiDre diligentiy, that we studiously learn and throughly 
iWSi^ these words and the whole of this chapter- F015 
I know not, that the sum of the whole Christian doctrine 
iV';80 coptoosly and fully handled, and asserted in such 
pikiMffiA words, in any other place,-^namely, ^ that we 

-I 2 



have all things in Christ that we have need of, and have 
nothing in ourselves or in any other man, but all in 
Christ only. The words themselves indeed are common 
and simple : and this is the reason that the wise so neg- 
ligently pass over and despise them, as though they were 
such as boys would tread under their feet. And there- 
fore, being carried away elsewhere by their dreams and 
cogitations, they fill every corner of the world with their 
futile commentaries. 

And the glory which thou gavest me, 8gc. 

Behold, what a length of time he dwells upon this 
same thing, and how much he desires jus and persuades us 
to esteem it as the greatest and most necessary doctrine, 
which is the most full of consolation of all that are 
delivered to us. ' I have given them (saith he) my glory^:' 
that is, a thing great and magnificent, exceedmg all 
majesty and honour, and precious, not for the abundan,ce 
of its riches and the profusion of its treasures only, but to 
be truly and sacredly praised and extolled : for the scrip- 
tures call " glory," not that celebrated fame and mag- 
nificent appearance and splendour only, but those things 
which are worthy of great praise and to be most highly 

But what is that glory which Christ has, and gives ? 
Even that of which he spoke just before, " that they all 
may be one, as the Father and I are one." This is that 
excellent and precious treasure and fountain, and so, 
that inexhaustible mine of all the divine benefits, life, ; 
consolation, and blessedness, if the man do but believe. ^ 
This faith, however, is not an idle empty cogitation, but.| 
a living, serious, consolatory, and undoubting confidence 
in the heart of the man, that he shall obtain this glory 
whereby we are made one with Christ, and so, through 
him, one with the Father also : and so one, that as Christ 
cannot be divided and separated from the Father, so 
much less can Christianity, or any one Christian member, 
be separated from Christ. 

But, whence does this glory proceed whereby we are 
all made one in the Father and in Christ? It certainly. 



does'ndt proceed from our own meritsj nbr is it procured 
by human works and powers, but it is brought unto us/ 
bestowed upon us, and freely given to us, by Christ. For, 
as to works, they only cause sects, and make divisions ; 
wherein, one pursues this work and another that ; even 
as, in an external life and community, there must be 
various offices and conditions, each one doing his own 
work. But, by the Word we are all made one in one* 
faith: and by that faith we become one spiritual body, 
although the works of each member be not the same. 
Even as, in our natural body, there are many and dis- 
tinctly different operations, each member performing its 
own function, and no one member exercising the func- 
tion of ,.another ; and yet, all the members are united in 
one, and in one mutual participation of all good. For 
the weakest and most infirm member is equally of the 
same flesh and blood, and enjoys the same health and 
life, as the strongest and most noble member. And yet, 
the operation of each separate member tends mutually 
to serve all the other members, and the whole body ; and 
one member always helps another. And so also it is 
here : faith collects and concentrates all the works and 
makes them one. All the hearts therefore hang on 
Christ and the Father by faith, and all things that they 
do or hope for, flow from this faith. 

That they be made perfect in one. 

Here again he melodiously harps upon the same , 
string: in which he seems so to delight, as though he 
knew not what else to speak of: and yet the words seem 
to sound so childishly to the judgment of reason, that,\ 
(to say without fear what I have so often said before,) I 
never read any book where the words were so simple,- 
and yet contained, in that plainness and simplicity, 
matter so important and unspeakable. It*is not enough, 
(saith he,) that they be one, but they must be " made 
perfect in one." As though he had said, I have some 
Christians who must all be made and become one; but 
there is a deficiency, arising from many of them being 
yet weak. The unity of essence is indeed effected, but it 

(Stands only in faith ; and as mudi as there h of faith, so 
much is there of perfection — * Therefore he prays the 
Father, that they may be made perfect, may grow more 
strong in their begun faith, and may be made one per- 
fectly in Christ. In the same manner Paul also speaks, 
Gol. ii. *' Ye are complete in him :" that is, ye have an 
overflowing abundance in Christ, nor have ye need to 
seek any thing more elsewhere. 

Hence, he that hath Christ is said to be perfect : that 
is, he has a full and perfect treasure of all the blessings 
that the mind can think worth craving or desiring : which 
are, eternal life, righteousness, wisdom, and all divine 
blessings : nor does such a man want any thing, but a 
taking heed to persevere in holding fast these things 
unto the end. The treasure is present with us, atod 
collected together into one place ; but the vessel is weak; 
- for which cause, we cannot hold it fast so perfectly as 
we ought ; for we carry, as Paul saith, 2 Cor. iv. " This 
treasure in earthen vessels." On that account, therefore, 
we are to labour daily in unceasing prayer, continaal 
preaching, and much admonition, and to fight agtiihsk 
all opposition atid temptations, that we lose n6t i^ grlBat 
and precious a treasure, nor give the devil an occasion (A 
opportunity of plucking it out of our hands, (which is 
what he is ever aiming at with all his powers ;) but that 
we take the more earnest heed to guard and hold it fast, 
and shun no peril for such a treasure's sake. 

And that the world may know that thou hast sent me. 

There are two things that he especially dwells on in 
this chapter. The one, that we who have come to the 
faith by the preaching of the slpostles, and those who 
sh^l be brought to the same faith daily, should by that 
faith become " one*" The Other, that by this unity, it 
might become known to the world, that Christ was s^t 
by the Father, and that we are loved by him. For in 
these two things, namely, the Word and faith, stand the 
whole matter : and be that loses these, Ibses all : nor is 
•there any counsel or help remaining for him, nor any 
coi^^plation :' no n^ral probity can a^vai) him any thing: 


•tt'woriBS, and dl l^ liowever blflmelessly sprat, an 
vain : aH umty is taken away, Christ is lost, and neithdi 
the knowledge of the Word nor of the Father can h6 
attained unto. And, in a word, the light is gone, and the 
way cannot be found by reason of darkness, but we are 
carried away into by-paths, while the devil purees us at 
his pleasure; for this I have sufficiently experienced 
myself, and that to my own sorrow. 

And hast loved them as thou hast loved me. 

Thi^ is what ought to flow from the knowledge of 
the Father and of the Word — that our hearts may, with 
gladness and without a doubt, be enabled to say, that we 
are the children of God and have a propitious Father. 
For it is the peculiar office of Christ, to knake us fully 
assured by his Word, that we may promise to ourselves 
all the love and grace of God ; even that love wherewith 
he loved Christ his only begotten Son from the foundation 
of the world ; so that^ it may be called the love in Christ, 
and through Christ ; and, in a word, that inestimable and 
eternal love, which is comprehensible by no heart of 
man ! — B^old ! This is the wonderful and ineffable 
glory which is freely givai us in Christ ; but in the Word 
and faith only, until we get into the full enjoymept of it 
in the life to come ; as now follows — 

Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given me, S^c. 

This is the last part, but of all the most consolatory, 
of this prayer for all that depend on Christ ; whereby, 
we are rendered certain and assured of that which we 
are brought to expect — that we shall have a rest, and 
sure and peaceable habitations and mansions; seeing 
that here, in the world, we are exiles and live in utter 
-banishment, having no certain dwdling-place. For we 
have before heard, that the Christian must willingly part 
with all the favour, the attentions, the applause, the 
benevolence, and the protection of men, and all the ease 
and quiet of this life, and be prepared to receive the 
darts of the devil, to be every hour in peril of his life, 
and every hour expecting death.^^-Now, death k a most 


awful and terrible thing, especially where the man has 
it continually before his eyes, not knowing what step to 
taJke next, nor where to pass the night. Therefore^ 
Christ performs the ofiice of a faithful and kind Saviour, 
and has a care over us in providing for us a place of 
rest and safety ; saying, that we shall be and shall live 
with him, and shall enjoy the same happiness and 
blessedness which he himself has with the Father* 

What he would say is this — Be of good cheer ; * be 
not troubled abojit where ye are to abide, or to what 
place ye are to go. Let the devil and the world roar 
and rage against you, by destroying you, by burning 
you, and by exterminating you from oft* the face of the 
earth. There is one who holds a most watchfiil care 
over you, that ye may arrive in safety in the place tliat 
ye desire; where ye shall be safe and secure from the 
world and all devils, and shall live in the most perfect 
rest and tranquillity ! ' — And where is that place ? and 
what is its name ? — " Where I am," saith he : that is, 
in the arms and bosom of the Father : to which place, 
all the angels shall be ready to convey us. The place 
indeed has no certain name, nor does it permit itself to 
be pointed out by the finger, or even to be described, 
but it is to be conceived of from the Word by faith ! 

This scripture therefore, we ought to use as a sup- , \ 
port and pillow for our souls; and, securely resting \ 
thereon, to depart with joy when the wished-for moment 
shall arrive, wherein we are to be delivered from sin 
and every evil, and moreover from the tyranny of the 
world and the power of the devil, and to be taken away 
into eternal rest ! . ^ 

But it has already been more than once shewn, 
whom Christ means by these words, " whom thou hast 
given me;" namely us, (to whom they administer 
the greatest consolation,) Mho hold fast his Word, and 
especially when the storms of temptations increase, and 
when the world tries us and loads us with shame for the 
Word's sake, and spoils us of all our goods: for then, 
we ought boldly to take to ourselves these promises, and . 
not to have the least doubt that Christ will receive us 


iilt0..hi8 ^oiy, ahboqgh we be still 8iiuier3» filled with 
wmxh weakness, and covered with many defects. For 
these words are spoken to us who are upon earth, and 
now live in flesh and blood, and not to the angels who 
are in heaven, nor to the saints who are dead and 

But this word, " I will^" is to be especially con- 
sidered ; for he uses an authority with the Father, as 
one who was unwilling to be refused ; in order that, the 
promise might be the more sure, as being of one who . 
could not lie. And why is this ? that he might awaken 
and stir up us who are slothful and slow of heart to 
believe, that we might not fall into any hesitation or 
doubt, but might be as certain of these things, as though 
we saw them plainly before our eyes. 

That they may behold my glory which thou hast 
given me. 

My Christians shall be brought to that state of 
felicity, that they shall not only be where I am, but 
shall be brought into an open vision of my glory : con- 
cerning which, he thus spoke before in other words, 
'* The glory which thou gavest me I have given them." 
For here upon earth we know that glory by faith only, 
and do not see it, " but (as Paul saith, 1 Cor. xiii.) 
through a glass darkly : " namely, as far as we hear it 
taught in Ae ministry, and embrace it in our minds : — 
that Christ arose from the dead, that he ascended into 
heaven, and sits in the majesty and glory of the Father, 
and is the one Almighty Lord of all creatures. But of 
these things our knowledge is still obscure, like the sun 
when overcast by a cloud. For the greatness of this 
glory, it never entered into the heart of man to conceive, 
nor can it be comprehended by the human mind ; even 
as Christ himself shews, that it is quite the contrary 
with us. But, in the life to come, another light will 
shine ; where we shall no more believe, nor preach, nor 
attend to hearing the Word, but shall be in the pre- 
sence of Christ, and shall see him openly before us, and 
be filled thereby with' joy and pleasure unspeakable ! 



This is that consolation unheard of and nnuttefabk; 
in which, if any one truly believes, he will not omA }i 
want the honours of this frail life, nor the dignities, tbe 
riches, or the kingdoms of the whole world ; hut will^ 
with a willing mind, set at nought the whole of it 
together. What benefit then can the world confer upon 
us, either by its honours which will be lost, or its life 
which will be taken away ? excepting that, it may be to 
us an occasion of our coming the earlier unto Christ, 
and the sooner unto the vision of his glory ; in compa- 
rison with which, all the riches and magnificence of die 
world are mere filth. But, the matter is, we are so 
frigid and slow of heart to believe : whence it comes to 
pass, that we feel not the consolation, the power, and 
the virtue of these words. 

Moreover, the magnitude of this glory, (as we have 
already observed,) is greater than can be embraced by 
the confined conceptions of the human heart. For it is . 
far above all sense, and far exceeds all human intellect, 
-^that we poor miserable creatures are to be brought 
to that place, wljere we shall for ever behold before oar 
eyes so great and so unknown a majesty of the divine 
glory: and moreover, that my body and thine, which 
must rot under the earth and be eaten by the woraas, 
shall, by the power of this glory, be made to shine, fai^ 
yedk far brighter than the sun and the stars. For all 
these things will the vision of this glory bring with it| 
and also all those glorious things which we shall enjoy 
throughout an eternal life and blessedness : which things, 
no man can conceive in thought^ nor find eloquence to 
express ! 

For thou lovedst me before the fomidation of the 

They shall see this glory, that they may know that 
I am the Son ; not as sent into the world, and born of a 
virgin, but as thine only Son whom thou hast loved 
from the foundation of the world : that is, that I am 
equally with thee, the one God, and begotten from 
everlasting. For God could not love him more, than 


hg giving him Hn equal and eteraal divinity. All th^ 
things are now preached and believed, but" they are still 
seen throu^ a glass darkly, and do not shine forth in 
all their splendour. Therefore, they are diligently to be 
declared and set forth by the Word, (as Christ himself 
had hitherto done,) until the veil be taken away, and we 
behold them openly, and face to face. 

O righteous Father, the world hath not known thee. 

This is a very necessary appendix, and a word most 
worthy of notice, wherein he turns his eyes to the world, 
and with an ardent concern says, * Alas ! my most beloved 
Father, with what obstinacy does the world reject all 
admonition and preaching, and disdain to hear my 
words ! ' But, why does he here for the first time only 
begin to praise the Father, by addressing him in this 
appellation, O righteous Father ? and does not rather 
say, O kind and merciful Father ? or, as he did before, 

holy Father? Or, what is the importance of this 
matter of which he is speaking, and upon, which he 
spends such words ? Who did not know this before ? — 

1 answer : Christ in the same hour, in which he spoke 
these words, burned in his heart, and looked back upon 
the world, which would not by any means endure the 
Word ; but raged the more against it, the more it was 
preached. Whereas, it ought to have been willing to 

#nin to the feiids of the world to obtain such a Word ; or 
rather, to have sought it earnestly with bended knees; 
s^d not to have despised it ungratefully, when thus 
gratuitously offered ; nor to have returned its preachers 
every injuiy as their reward and thereby procured unto 
themselves the desert of divine indignation and eternal 
punishment For they will not receive the Word when 
freely offered and give thanks for it, but persecute it with 
the utmost hatred, most maliciously blaspheme it, and 
most insultingly lacerate it : so that Christ is compelled 
to say, thou art indeed a righteous God, and doest 
righteously and justly in making that distinction between 
the world and those whom thou hast given me : tliat is, 
\tk separating these and bringing them unto me, that 


they may be with me where I am ; and in cuttmg away 
those *as they deserve, and leaving them to rush head- 
long to destruction as being such whom no counsel or 
help can profit. 

The same glorying we also are to have against 
the world, when we offer unto them the gospel clearly 
and fully ; and especially, when we have diligently per- 
formed all things that pertain unto the declaring of it, 
and have omitted nothing either in preaching, admonish- 
ing, exhorting, loving, serving, bearing, alarming, and 
threatening; and moreover, by suffering and pardon- 
ing all things, and by praying for them; and, in a 
word, by trying all those things which we considered to 
be useful unto their conversion. — We leave I say no 
stone unturned, we spare no pains and labour, we pay 
no regard to expenses or perils, and yet have met with 
no other reward than ingratitude, contempt, ignominy 
and persecution of the known and confessed truth. 
What then can any one say, but that it is righteous, and 
our desert, if God severely reward and punish such 
horrible and determinate obstinacy and blasphemy, by 
pestilence, war, Turkish fury, by the devil, and by 
unceasing afflictions of every kind ; when all grace and 
benefits are wholly lost upon us, and no goodness can 
find reception. Indeed, our tempting of God and 
ingratitude exceed all bounds, which he can no longer 
overlook ; seeing that, he has poured forth himself with - 
a full hand, (as they say,) in that his most precious 
treasure which is offered unto us ; and yet he is, on that 
account, utterly despised, rejected, and spit upon by 
the world, and his Word indignantly trodden ^nder 

Therefore, Christ here concludes and says, dearest 
Father, " the world hath not known thee," nor does it 
wish to know thee, even though thy gospel is preached 
to them so plainly, and declared to them with that 
clearness, thet they cannot turn away frpm it and deny 
it to be truth. I tell and deliver to them all things that 
pertain to the true knowledge of God : namely, that 
nothing avails nor can avail with thee, but a sole and 


simple trust in thy grace and goodness as freely given ; 
and moreover, that they may have all things in me. But 
they will neither patiently hear me, nor my Word ; as- 
serting, that what is declared by me is nothing at all. 
They will Have their own only, their own wisdom, 
righteousness, and works to be available, and will approve 
themselves unto thee by trusting in these. Therefore, 
thou doest justly, O righteous Father, in leaving them 
thus hardened in their blindness to go over to their 
father the devil by whole multitudes together, and never 
to know or see any thing whatever, either of my glory, 
my Word, or the knowledge of faith, by any view, either 
in this world or in that which is to come. 

But I have known theCj and these have known, 8gc. 

That is, I am fully assured that I teach thy Word, 
and concerning thee only as the one true God, as thou 
wouldst be honoured and believed on ; and that men 
may laud and praise thee for thy grace and goodness ; 
which, however, the world do not receive, but impiously 
condemn and deliver to the devil. My Christians, how- 
ever, whom thou hast given me; receive that grace and 
goodness, and know thee : namely thus — that thou hast 
sent me : in which, as has been maintained throughout 
the chapter, the whole knowledge of the Father consists. 

And I have declared unto them thy name, Sgc, 

I have given them thy Word, by which they have 
become acquainted with thy name — how thou art 
named, what thou art, and how thou wilt be worship- 
ped and honoured. Even as we have already abun- 
dantly shewn, that, to know the Father, is not only to 
know, how he formed the heaven and the earth, how 
he helps the good, how he punishes the wicked ; but, 
that he sent his Son into the world and gave him unto us ;- 
and that he has taken away death, and has procured for 
us reconciliation with the Father. — This is the true name 
of God, which opens to us his mind and will, and dis- 
covers to us his paternal affection, and leaves none of 
his thou|^ts concerning us to remain hidden. He that 


knoweth not the Father thus, knoweth not the Father 
aright, nor does he know how he is to be worshipped. 
For even the Heathens, the Jews, and the Turk^ believe 
that there is one God, the creator of heaven and earth; 
nay, they boast that they worship the only true God ; 
yet they believe not, neither do they know, that the true 
mind and will and good pleasure of God, is, that we 
know Christ as sent by him and given for our redemp*^ 
tion. Yet, neither the Pope nor any of his sects can be 
persuaded of this ; and hence it is, that we have un* 
ceasingly to contend, war, and fight with them in sup- 
port of this principal article and sum of our faith and 

But observe — Christ does not only say " I have 
declared unto them thy name," but adds, " and will 
declare it." That is, I will not be content with having 
begun to manifest thy name, but will go on to make it 
more manifest, and will urge the same unceasingly both 
by the Word and by the Spirit, that my Christians may 
not seek after any thing else, or any thing more great, 
but may be occupied in this one thing, that thy name 
may become the more illustrious^ and that they may the 
more firmly retain it in their minds. And it is ip this 
that the whole force of the matter rests — that we rightly 
know the Father by faith ; that our hearts, being filled 
with all assurance and hope, may stand before him, and 
have no fear of wrath or anger. And, according to my 
judgment, there is not a more difficult point to arrive at 
in dl heaven and earth. Therefore, let no one fall into 
the thought that it is a trifling matter, which can be at- 
tained unto in a short time without any great trouble, 
and may be understood as soon as heard ; which is the 
way in which our unexperienced, frothy praters are 
wont to talk. 

That the love wherewith thou hast loved me,^ ^c. 

This is that which (as I have said before) I con- 
sider to be the main thing to be attained unto — that we 
might know the will and heart of Ae Fftther; here, by 
the Word preached unto vi.§; but h^p^ilter, in . ^e bfi 


>me, by open vision : whereby we shall behold how 
)ved us, and will love us for ever, but through his 
Jesus Christ only. When we attain unto this, then 
[ we be in possession of the whole treasure of our 
olation and salvation. Then shall we dwell in him 
he in us, so that we shall remain for ever united in 
; (of which we have treated before in its order.) 
f Christ our Lord preserve and confirm us in this 
\ knowledge of his Father, and in the unity of faith, 
I the day of his appearing in glory. To whom, with 
Father and the Holy Spirit, be honour, praise and 
y, for ever and ever, Amen ! 





Msxtin Untbtv 



- WL II, 

C . ... \ft 

I ^ • 

t ■ •, 

I'. N' •^.* 

1. \ I 

« r 
. 1 

-» 1 


.... ( . 

Martin Luthur, to his most ki^d Sikb, thb il- 
QSTRious Pringb And Lord Frederic Buke of 


o^A'N Empire, LandgrAVb Of Thirrings^ and 


Our Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour, has left us a 
•nnnaiia which speaks alike to all ChristianSi that we 
ould perform offices of humanity, or, (as the scripture 
nns them,) ^* labburs.6f love,'* linto all that are afflicted 
d iH distress, that we should ehdeavbtir to liberate those 
lo tire iu captivity, and to. serVe our neighbour in all 
ose tWngs whereoy his present troubles may in some 
sasure be relieved. —And our Lord Jesus Christ 
eiwed i^orth in himself a most signal example of this 

3 conlinand, Wfien, from his infinite love to the human 

• •■■•'•■I'" •" 

ce, he descended from the bosom of the Father to our 

■■'-.J*' -*t" %-'* 

lories and pHson, that is, to our flesh, and to this our 
iserabie hfe,' and took the • punishment of our sins 
xiii himSelf/that we might be saved. 
\ If this signal example does not moye a man, added 
• 'tiie aiithority Of the divine cotmnand,^ — if these things, 
say, do not move a man to perform these works of 
>ve ; such an one will deservedly hear, in the last day, 
lis sentence , of the angry judge, * Depart, thou ac- 
irsed, into eVferiasting fire. 'For I was sick and thou 
isitedst itie not. 'But, with the deepest, ingratitude, for 
ll.tiiose infinitely, benefits which I have conferred upon 
fee and the whole world, thou hast not assisted thy 
rethrai, J;€« lather, me Christ thy God and Saviour in 
[}y brethren, J^ perform the least office of kindness/ 
Sirice4:h^CT0i^,'mbst H^ Prince,,! see your 

tlij^e^ '^linlclng uiider a severe' disease, and so, Cnri?it 
iifckin^yoA, i thtttigy it'&f &uty' to visit y^^^ 



with some production of my pen. For, to say the truth, 
I hear the voice of Christ odling to me in- the body and 
flesh of your Highness, and saying, Behold here one 
that is sick ! Fpr it is not we Christianis alone that suffer 
these evils, such as diseases and others, but Qur Lord 
and Saviour Christ himself, in whom we live ; as Christ 
plainly testifies in the Gospel. " Inasmuch as ye have 
done it unto the least of these my brethren, ye have 
done ft unto me,'* Matt, xxv, 40. And, altbou^ y/^ 
owe this duty to. all in general who. are labouring.und^ 
sickpess of; body,— that we visit aod, cprnfort them, yet, 
we owe it more especially to the "^ household of ikith.* 
For Paul clearly distinguishes betw^n the "household* 
and ?trangers,^Gal. vi. 10, as the former are joined tons 
bya particular bond. 

. But, 1- h;ave also other reasons for the performance 
of this my duty. For I feel that I, as one of the sub- 
jects of your Highness, ought to be affected with this 
your Highness's sickness, together with all the rest of 
your subjects, and as it were to be in pain with you as 
a metnber with the head ; in whom, all our fortunes and 
all out safety and happiness are placed. For we ac- . ^ 
knowledge that your Highness is as another Naaman ; ' 
and that God at this day accomplishes by you the safety 
of Germany, as he did in old time that of Syria by 
Naaman. Wherefore, the whole Roman Empire turns 
its eyes to your Highness, and venerates and receives 
yoii as d protecting father, and as the honour of the 
whole Empire, and, more especially, as the safeguard 
and ornament of Germany. 

Nor is it our duty to comfort your Highness only as 
much as lies in our power, and to sympathize with you 
as brethren, in this your present calamity ; but, much 
more particularly, to pray unto God for your health and 
safety ; which I hope is done continually and earnestly 
by the subjects of your Highness. And 1 acknowledge, 
for my part, that these petitions^, are put up by me, 
(that Lmay declare my gratitude by the performance of 
sq important a duty), as being one whom your signal 
favo'brs and merits have made, above all otl)ers, a 


And as, in my low estate of ability and fortune, I 
can serve you in nothing great, D. George Spaltinus, 
who is one of your Highness's private co;mcil, gave me 
a timely word of advice to draw up something by way 
of a spiritual consolation, and send it to your Iiighness; 
adding, that your Highness would gratefully receive 
such an attention. Being therefore unwilling to refuse 
altogether to listen to the advice of my friend, I drew 
up these fourteen heads, and set them forth as it 
were on a tablet, and gave them the name of Tessera- 
DECAD ; that they may serve instead of the fourteen 
saintSj whom our superstition has made and called 
the defenders against all evil. 

TTiis, however, is not a silver tablet but a spiritual 
one ; designed, not to adorn the walls of the churches, 
but to raise up and confirm the godly mind ; and I hope 
it will be very useful to your Eughness in your present 
trouble. — It consists of two parts. The former contains 
seven views of eviiy by the consideration of which our 
present troubles may be lightened. The* latter sets 
forth seven views of good^ drai^n up for the same pur- / 
pose. — May your Highness therefore favourably receive 
this my service, (such as it is), and so profit by it, that, 
after an attentive reading and consideration of the views 
set forth, you may find some small part of it to suit 
your case. — I commend myself to your Highness with 
all submission. 

Your subject, 

Martin Luther. 






The Apostle Paul, Rom. xv., when about to set forth 
be consolations of Christians^ . says, " Brethren, what- 
oever things were written aforetime, were written for 
ur learning ; that we, through patience and comfort of 
ie scriptures might have hope/' Wherein, hie plainly 
bpws, that our consolations are to be derived from the 
oly scriptures. » 

The holy ^riptures administer consplatloh in a two-] 
>ld way, by setting before us two views of tl^ngs, that 
\, of evil and of good^ tempered together with a most 
rholesoine intermmdingr as the wise Preacher saith,; 
' In the day of evil oe mindful of the good, and in the 
ay of good be mindful of the evil." — For the Holy 
Ipirit knows^ that every thing is such and so great to a 
nan, as it appears to be in his opinion ; and that, that 
^hich he considers to be trifling and a thing of noa^t 
ittle affects him, either with love when it comes, or 
rith grief when it is taken away. Therefore, the ^^eat 
lesign of the Holy Spirit, is, to call men ttway from the 
>pinion and sense of things. And, as this cdling away 
s more especially wrought by the Word ; by wttich, the 
)pinion is drawn off from that which now affects, to 
hat which . is either not present or does not now affect j 
it is in all things right, that we should have no consok'- 
tion but by the scriptures ; which, ip the day of 1^1, call 
us away to contemplate the good that is either present or 
to come ; and, in the day of good, to contemplate the evil. 

But, that we thay the better understand these two 
tiEws, Of 9iG^HT9, we will givc to EACH fts jierts, 


smkhig them seven* The first view shall contain p 
the EVILS which WQ m^y be t<^templa|ing — ^I. Within V} 
us— II. Before us--lit 'Behind iis— IV. From be- P 
neath — V. Near us on our left hand — ^VI. On our ri^ p 
Imnd — VII, From above. 

f I 







This ,is a fixed and most certain truth, whether a maa 
believe it. or xiot,-^That a man can sufier no tortoie 
which can be the worst of the evils that are in him. And 
therefore, there are far more and greater evils in him 
than he. can feel. For, if he should feel all his own evil 
he would feel hell, for he has a hell in himself. Do yon. ^ 
ask how this can be ? the Prophet tells you, ^^ All max 
are liars/* Ps. cxvi* And again, " Every man living is al- 
together vanity," Ps. xxxix. And to be a liar and vamty, 
is to be destitute of truth and reality ; and, to be desti- 
tute of truth and reality, is to be without God and to be 
nothing : and to be thus, is to be in hell and damned ! 

God, therefore, when he chastens us, discovers unto 
us and lays upon us only a small part of our evHs; . 
knowing, that if he should lead a man into a knowledge 
of his whole eviL he would sink in a moment. But 
he. has given soriie to taste this also : concerning whom 
it is said, " He bringethdown to the grave and bringem 
up," 1 Sam.ii. Therefore, they speak rightly, who calf 
bodily sufferings certain monitors of the evil within : and 
the Apostle, Heb. xii. calls them the fatherly chastise- 
ments of God, saying, " he scourgeth every son whom 
he receiveth:" which he does, that, by these rods ancl 
small evils, he may drive out those great evils, that we 
may haveno necessity for feeling them ; as it is written 
Proverbs xxii., ^^ Foolishness is bound in the heart of a 


lid, but the rod of correction shall drive it out.** And 
not pious parents grieve more over their children if 
y be thieves or vicious, than if they be wounded ; yea,- 
y themselves chasten and bruise them that they may 
t be vicious. 

What is it then that prevents our real evil from 
ng felt ? This, I say, is so ordered of God ; that the 
in may not wholly sink under a sight of all the depths 
his evil.. For God keeps thetn hidden, and wills 
^m to be known only by faith, while he gives a taste 
them in the evil that is felt — Therefore, ** In the day 
evil be mindful of the good : " that is, consider what 
70od it is not to know all thy evil : be mindful of this 
od, and thy evil will not so much distress thee. And 
again, "in the day of good be mindful of the evil:*" 
%t. Uy whilst thou art free from distress arising from thy 
il evil? be grateful for this freedom, and be mindful of 
8 real evil : then it will be, that thou wilt the less feel 
e sensible eviL It is evident, therefore, that man 
vrays has in this life, more freedom from distress than 
sti'ess ; not because the whole evil is not present with 
m, but because there is not the opinion and feeling of 
, through the goodness of God who keeps it hidden. 

.Hence we see, how dreadfully they treat themselves 
vfao are brought to see their true evil, and how careless '' 
ihey are of what they suffer throughout their whole life, 
80 tha.t they feel not me hell within them. And so every 
one would do, if he felt or truly believed the real evil 
4at is in him : — ^he would voluntarily seek all external 
evik, and would find relief in them : and would never 
feel himself more miserable, than when not surrounded 
with such evils : in which state we know many saints to 
have been : as David was, Ps. vi. 

Therefore, the Jirst view is consolatory — for a man 
to say to himself, ^ O man, thou dost not feel all thy 
evil : be glad, therefore, and give thanks, that thou art 
not compelled to feel it : and then, thy present evil, 
compared with the great and infinite evil that is in thee, 
will be light : that is, thou mayest say, as some say, 
* I deserve far worse than this, yea, hell itself !' ITiis is, 
Wever, easy to be said, but is intolerable to be borne. 


. But, although this'^tjvii lies concealed, yet it pro- 
duces fruits sufficiently sensible.— ^These are, the dread 
and trembling of a fearful conscience, whose faith meets 
with every opposition, while the man knows not, or- 
remains in doubt, whether or not he has God propitious 
towards him : and these fruits are the more bitter the 
weaker the faith is. And yet, this weakness when 
rightly considered, seeing it is spiritual,^ is far greater 
than the corporal weakness: which latter it makes to 
appear very light, when the just comparison is drawn. 

Moreover, all that tragedy which the Preacher de- 
scribes pertains to the internal evil, where he makes so 
much mention of vanity and affliction of spirit. For, 
how many purposes do we form in Vain ! How many of 
6ur expectations fall to the ground;! How nllany things 
do we see and hear that we would aot! And even 
those things which turn out according to oiir wishes 
turn out against our wishes also : and therefore, therie 
is nothing right or happy perfectly. And more- 
over, all these things are by so much the greater, the 
more exalted a man is in station and rank^ for he that 
is highly exalted must of necessity be agitated with far 
more and greater tides, billows, and st<:ttins, than Oi&iets 
who are labouring under the same burdens. So that 
the 104th Psalm, says rightly^ — tfiat there are in this sea 
of the world animals weak and strong, small and great 
innumerable: that is, an infinite variety of trials and 
temptations : and hence Job vii. calls this life of man a 
trial or temptation. 

•And these evils do not the less exist because they 
are the less felt; but because, by the kind management' 
of God, they become by use and habit less alarming,- and 
our opinion and feeling of them less sensible. Therefore, 
those evils more particularly distress us, which we have 
not, by an acquaintance with them; learnt to disregard. 
Asxd therefore it is true, that we feiel scarcely- the 
thousandth part of our real evil. And hence again it is^ 
truej that our evils are rated, and felt or not felt, not 
according to their reality of existence, but according^to 
our opinion and feeling. : 




It will tend in no small degree to ligfiten the present 
evil, whatever it may be, iif ti^ou turn thy thou^ts to. 
future evils ; which are such, so^ many, and so ffe^^. 
that, to this one consideration, is attributed, that great^i, 
of all sensations called fear : which many have define^ 
to be • a sensation concerning an evil to come : as thei 
apostle saith, Rom. xi., ^^ Be not high minded but fecMT.". 
This evil is the ^eater, because, it remains in *u^r; 
certainty what, or how gr^at, the future evil n^y be; 
according to the trite proverb : ' There is no age exepipt- 
from disease :* (which, nevertheless, is but a trifling apd 
puerile evil as it were :) and so also, no one man ii9| 
exempt from tibie evils th^t befal anpther : but, whatever 
one man suffers another may . suffer also. . / 
. This is proved by all the Ijustqries ai^d tarfi^ evi^At^ 
of all agei^ and by all the cpmplamts ojf th^^ whple, jWQrldp.; 
The same also is^ provefd by the ob^ryatipps dt m^y-rr. 
that there are more than three hundred kinds of ^fis^^ai^es^ 
by which the human body is afflict^ And, if therQ, fijie. 
so many diseases, how many other different events /^o, 
you suppo^ |tbere.may be of circiunstances, of frieQda,. 
and also of the mind, more especially ^subjeptedf 
to all evik, and more particularly the recipient , of .^prr" 
row and addiction ? .,> / 

Aild here again the powe^ j^fod • secisation oi^^ea^) 
evils increase in proportion, the Mgher and more ex^tBd 
the person is in station* For ^,^ in an exalted 8]al^OD,r 
want, disgrace, and all indignities may happen the inoi3e> 
suddenly, seeing, that all, things hang by<. a slender 
thread ; so, all tnings are . there ta be feared ; }ike that: 
sword which £)ionysius suspefid^ over the head of hi» 

And if any one of these evils happen not^ it i^ to be 
considered a blessing, and no small consolatipn und^. 
that evil which may be present : and you n^ay , uhder 


such circumstances, say with Jeremiah, '^ It is of the 
Lord's mercies that we are not consumed." Lam. iil 
For whatever of thdse evils happens not, it is throu^ 
the protecting hand of the Most High ; which com- 
passes us about with so much might, (as is exemplified 
in Job i.) that Satan and all evils are compelled to stand 
•and rage, that they have no power over us. Hence we 
sea) how sweetly the Lord ought to be loved under the 
daily evils that come upon us : because, under any one 
evil, our most loving Father calls upon us to consider, 
how many evils surround us, and would fall upon us, 
were it not for his protecting hand : as if he said unto, 
us^ * Satan and a whole chaos of evils are ready to rush 
upon thee, that they may grind thee to powder, but I 
have set the bounds of the sea, and have said unto it, 
'^ Hitherto shalt thou come but no further, and here 
shall thy proud waves be stayed," ' Job x'xxviii. 

And, supposing that none of these evils should be&I 
thee, (God so willing,) yet death, that greatest and ixiost 
terrible of all evils, will most surely come ; and notbing 
is more uncertain than the hour when. And death is 
an evil so great, that we may see many men, who would 
rather live amidst all the fore-mentioned evils, than have 
them brought to an end and meet death once. And 
only look around and see how- many meditations, how 
many books, how many methods, how many remedies- 
there are published to the world, with the design of de- 
terring men from sin by fixing on their minds the me- 
mory of this one evil ! All these represent the world as 
contemptible, all sufferings and troubles light, and all 
afflictions trifling, in comparison of this great, horrible, 
yet necessary, evil ! And there is no one who would 
not rather undergo every other evil, if he could thereby 
escape the evil of death. This evil the saints also have 
feared : and this Christ underwent in the midst of terror 
and bloody sweat. And therefore, the divine m^cy is 
more careml to comfort the poor and miserable affluust* 
this, than against any other evil : as we shaU see 

And all these evils are common to dl men. But there 


» in Christians, a new cause for fearing foture evil : 
cause peculiar to themselves, and which far exceeds 
I the evils that have been mentioned. It is that which 
e apostle paints forth, I Cor. x. where he says, " Let 
tn that standeth take heed lest he fall." — So slippery 
the way, and so powerful is the adversary, who is 
med wiUi our own powers for weapons, (that is, with 
e powerful lusts of the flesh, and all corrupt affections,) 
id attended hy all the infinite forces of the world, its 
li^ts and its pleasures on the right hand, and with all 
e bitter and perverse wills of men on the left ; and 
L this, in addition to those thousands of ways of injuring, 
ducing, and destroying, in which he is such an adept. 
ience, we so live, that we cannot be a moment sure of 
le good that is before us. 

Cyprian, mentioning many things of this kind in his 
pistie concerning Mortality, says, that death is to be 
3sired as a quick remedy tor getting clear of all these 
rils* And, truly, where the men wtio really labour in 
ind under all these infinite evils, have a good con- 
aence, we see them wishing to be dissolved, that they 
i^t thus be delivered at once from all those evils under 
hich they now are, (as we set it forth in our preceding 
i£W,) and firom those that are liable to fall upon them, 
\s we are now describing them.) And these are indeed 
ro most just reasons for wishing for death \ wherein, 
lere is not only a desiring of death, but a despising of 
1 evils, and a desire not to be afflicted with the leasts- 
hat is, where the Lord is pleased to grant any man 
feeling of these evils ! Hence, if we feel th^n, it is 
le gift of God ! 

Indeed, what true Christian would not even wish to 
ie, and not to be left, to see his wretchedness, when he 
)es and feeU, even in his best state, that he is in many 
AS and continual danger of running into more, yea, of 
cmning into them daily, and thus acting without inter- 
lission a^int the most sweet will of his most sweet 
leather ? It was with this indignation against himself 
bat Paul -was burning, when he complained, that he 
xmU not do the good which he would, but did the evil 


- ^ 

which he would not : and it was that which caused him 
to exclaim, ^' O wTetched man that I am, who shall de- 
liver me from the body of this death? I thank God 
(saith he) through Jesus Christ," &c. That Christian I 
has very little love for God his Father, who doiss not 
prefer the evil of death to this evil of sinning. For God 
has ordained the evil of death, that, it mi^t pnt an end 
to the evil of sin, and might» be the gate unto life and 
righteousness. — Concerning whidi hereafter. 


OF PAST evil; oe that which is behind us. 

In this view, above all others, that sweet mercy of 
God our Father shines forth, which is able to comfort 
us in all our straits and distresses. For, no one can fed 
the hand of God with him more sensibly, than by 
taking a view of the years of his past life, llie blessed 
Augustine saith, ^ If a man were to have the choiG^ 
either of dying or living over again his past life,^ fe 
would prefer death, when he reviewed all those' jpcrils 
and evils which he had so narrowly, and with so' much 
sorrow, escaped.' And that remark is most true, if it lie 
rightly weighed and considered. — For, under this view, 
the man is brought to see, how many things he did and 
suffered, and how often ; without any previous thoudbt 
or care of his own, nay, without, or even contrary to, ms 
wishes; and concerning which things, he was* sp far . 
from having any consideration before thCT took place, 
or while they were going on, that, after all was accom- ^ 
plished, he was compelled to wonder within himself, I 
and to say by constraint, How did all these things come : 
to pass, concerning which I had not a thought, or which \ 
are contrary to all that I expected ! — So that, this pro- .^ 
verb is truth, * Man proposes, but God disposes.! * I 
That is, he brings about the opposite, or effects the'con- ^ 
trary, to that which men propose. Hence, under this, 
one view, we taimot deny, that all our life and actipDs' ^ 
have been governed, not by our own prudence, but by , 


die woaderfal po'^er, wisdom, and goodness of God. 
Heie we peic^ve hdw often God was with us, when we 
neither 9aw nor felt him : and with what truth it is that 
Pet^r has said, ^^ He careth for us," 1 Epist. v. 
■ -. . Hejo^ if there were neither books nor vocal com- 
municatioD, yest, our own life conducted safely through 
90 many evils and perils, if duly considered, would. 
fiimish U3 with an abundant proof of the all-present and 
all-sweet goodhe&s of God, which hcui ail along, contrary 
to our knowledge or feeling, carried us as in its bosom :. 
q;» M.ose^i saith, Deut. xxxii. ^ The Lord kept him as 
the apple of his eye,, and led him about and instructed 
him, aod bore him on his shoulders.' 

And it wad from this view that ail those exhorta- 
tions were given us in the Psalms, '^ I remember the 
days of old ; I taoieditate in all thy works ; I muse on 
the work of thy .hands," Ps. cxliii. ^^ I will remember 
thy wonders of old,." Ps. Ixxvii. '^ I remembered thy 
judgments of old, Lord, and comforted myself," Ps. 
cxix. These and the like meditations are all directed to 
make .us know, that, if we see that God was with us at a 
time when we little thought it, and when he did not ap- 
pear to ds to be. present, we are not to doubt that he is 
iJK>w present, though he may seem to be far from us. 
Vet if he saved us in many great times of need without 
our knowing .it, he will not forsake us in times of less 
tyouble, though he may seem to forsake us : as Isaiah 
saith; '^ For a small moment have I forsaken thee, but 
with great mercies will I gather thee," Isaiah liv. 

And, add to all this— ^ who was it that preserved us 
through so many nights when asleep ? Who was it that 
always protected us when we were labouring, giving 
ourselves to amusements, and engaged in all those in- 
numerable things wherein we had no care for ourselves ? 
Or how much is there of our time wherein we took care 
of ourselves ? Hence we see, that the whole care of us, 
whether- we acknowledge it or not, was with God only, 
and tlttit there is not a moment to be found, when we 
were left to the care of ourselves. And; moreover, God 
does all this, that he may instruct us in the knowledge 


of his goodness, and that we may be brbn^t to see Ae 
vast difference there is between his caie and can. 
Hence it is, that he suffers us to be attacked with som^ 
slight disease, or other evil, and carries himself as 
though he cared not for us, (though there is no time 
wherein he does not care for us,) and yet, sufferis not all 
the evils that surround us to fall upon us at once, but 
tries us only as dearest children, whether or not we wiB 
trust ourselves to that care of his which has followed 
us all our life through, and be convinced of the vanitj 
and impbtency of our own care to protect ourselves. 
For what do we, or what can we do throughout odr 
whole life towards protecting ourselves, when we caniktt 
lielp ourselves against the least pain in one of our 
limbs ? 

Why then are we so distressed and anxious abofnt 
any one small evil that may come upon us ? Why do 
we not leave the whole care to him, when our whole life 
is a testimony, that we have hitherto been broaght j 
dirough, and saved from, so many evils by him, \tith0dt 
having any thing whatever to do with it ourselves ? ! 

To know these things, I say, is to know the wwks of j 
God and to meditate in his works, and to be comfbfted. 
by that meditation under all adversities. And they that 
Imow not these things, will come under that declaration 
of Ps. xxviii. "Because they regard not the works of 
the Lord, nor the operation of his hands, he shall destroy 
them and not build them up/' For those who will not 
trust the care of themselves to God under any oncf 
trouble, are ungrateful for all his care that has been over 
them throughout their whole lives, 



In all the evils that we have hitherto considered, 
(and which are those to which we are subject,) we have 
seen, that the goodness of God is so great and so present 
with us, that, of all those evils with which we are in this 


life suiTouiided and wholly iacarcerated, scarcely any fall 
upon us, and those not of continual duration ; and that, 
every single evil that may be present with us, and 
under which we may be troubled, is but a monitor of the 
great blessing with which God honours us, in not per- 
mitting us to be overwhelmed at once with that multi- 
tude of evils in the midst of which we Hve. — What a 
miracle would it be, if a man were to have an infinite 
number of blows aimed at him, and should only be 
struck by one ! Yea, it would be a signal mark of pro- 
i tecting grace if he were to escape any !. But, to escape 
I nearly all, is a miracle ! 

J The first, then, of those evils that are beneath us is 
; death; the next, is hell. — If we consider the various 
I and awful deaths of many other sinners, we shall at 
' once see, how far we are, through the divine goodness, 
from meeting with our deserts. How many have 
been strangled, staked, drowned, or beheaded, who 
perhaps had committed far less sins than we have ! 
Christ, therefore, would set their death and misery 
before our eyes, that we may thereby see what we 
deserve. — " So, when some told him (Luke xiii.) of the 
Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their 
sacrifices," he answered, " Suppose ye that these Gali- 
laeans were •sinners above all the Galilaeans, because 
they suffered such things? I tell you. Nay: but 
except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. Or those 
eighteen upon whom the tower of Siloam fell, and slew 
them, think ye that they were sinners above all men 
that dwelt in Jerusalem ? I tell you. Nay: but except ye 
repent, ye shall all likewise perish." For we cannot . 
think that a less punishment is due unto us who have 
committed the same, or perhaps greater, sins. The 
justice and truth of God will not be made to lie, or to be 
unjust on our account : he has determined to " render 
unto every man according to his works." 

And, how many thousands are there now in hell and 
eternal damnation, who never committed a thousandth 
part of the sins that we have ? How many virgins and 
youths are now there, whom we are accustomed to call 


innocent characters ? How many religious ones, p 
and wives who appeared througnout their lives to 
God, and who perhaps slipped or fell but one 
under eternal punishment? — The justice of God, 
certainty, views every sin with the same eye : it 
hates and condemns sin in whatever person it is 
Do we not here then see the unspeakable me 
God, in not eternally destroying us who so oft 
served it ? And what, I ask you, can we suffer 
whole life that is equal to their eternal punish 
We, however, after so many sins are still unpu 
and preserved. And if we do not affectionately i 
or if we lightly esteem these mercies of God, it is 
titude, and we are in a certain hardened state of 
sible unbelief. 

Moreover, we may here consider the ii 
gentiles, Jews, and infants ; who, if th'ey hac 
blessed with the advantages that we have er 
would not have been in hell, but in heaven ; and 
have committed far less sins. For this view Chri 
sets before us. Matt. xi. " Woe unto thee, Che 
woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty 
which were done in you had been done ir 
and Sidon, they would have repented long i 
sackcloth and ashes. But I say unto you, I 
be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the < 
judgment, than for you. Woe unto thee, Capei 
which art exalted unto heaven, thou shalt be b 
down to hell : for if the mighty works which hav 
done in thee had been done in Sodom, it wouL 
remained unto this day. But I say unto you, '] 
shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in t 
of judgment^ than for thee." 

We here then see how much praise and lo 
due unto our ever blessed God, under .every ev 
comes upon us; when we bear in mind, that it 
as one spark of those evils which we deserve ; 
evils Job compares to the sea, and to the sand 
the sea-shore. 



Here, we are to set before our eyes tlie great mul- 
tude of our adversaries and of evil men ; and to con- 
der first of all, how many evils there are that they 
ive not brought upon our bodies, our property, our 
me, and upon our souls, which they would have done, 
id not the overruling hand of God put it out of their 
>wer. And the higher any one is in station and rank, 
id the more widely he rules, to the more snares, plots, 
ratagems, revilings, and temptations of these adversa- 
es is he exposed. In all which, he may see and know, 
lat the hand of God is most conspicuously with him. 
ut what wonder is it if we be touched now and then ? 
• But still, we are not to view the evils and miserable 
ate of these men, so as to exult over them ; but, that 
e may suffer with them ; for they are exposed to all 
le same evils that we are ; as may be plainly seen in 
le preceding views. But they are more wretched 
lan we are in this — they are out of our society, both 
)rporal and spiritual. For the evils that we suffer are 
>thing to be compared to their state. They are under 
n and unbelief, under the wrath of God, under the 
5wer of the devil, and in the most wretched slavery to 
igodliness and iniquity : so that, if the whole world 
lould rise up and curse them, it could not imprecate 
1 their heads greater curses than those under which 
ley now lie. 

If we seriously weigh all these things, we shall at 
ice see, how distinguished a blessing the Almighty 
mfers upon us, in permitting us to endure some 
ifling inconvenience of our poor body, in faith, in 
^e kingdom of Christ, and in the service of God: 
hich inconvenience, in the midst of such a profusion 
' blessings, ought not indeed to be felt. Nay, the 
isery of the above-mentioned wretched creatures should 
3pear such in the eyes of a Christian and a God- 



fearing man, that he ought to consider his own troubles 
as joys. Hence, Paul exhorts the Philippians, chap. ii. 
that each of them should consider the things of another 
and not his own. And, (says he,) " Let this mind be 
in you, which was also in Christ Jesus. Who, being in the 
form of God — took upon him the form of a servant," 
&c. That is, he, with the most pious affection, took 
upon him our form and bore our evils as if they were his 
own ; and so. laid aside, and emptied himself of, himself 
and his own blessings, that he was found altogether in 
the likeness of man ; considering nothing beneath him, 
and being fully immersed in our evils. 

Under the influence of this affection, and moved 
by the view of this example, the saints also are led to 
pray for the wicked ; even for those of them who are 
their enemies, and to do all things after the example of 
Christ; and, forgetting the injuries and the acts of 
injustice done them, to consider only how they can 
deliver them from their evils ; with which, they are far 
more deeply affected than with their own corporal 
evils : as Peter saith of Lot, 2 Epist. ii. *' That righteous 
man dwelling among them, vexed his righteous soul 
from day to day with their unlawful deeds."' 

You see, therefore, what a depth of evils is here 
opened up, and what an occasion is given for pitying 
and sympathizing; and also, of forgetting our own 
light afflictions ; and moreover, of considering the love 
of God in permitting ns to suffer such trivial evils, in 
comparison with what they have to endure. And the 
reason why we are so little affected with these things, 
is, because the eye of our heart is not sufficiently cleared 
to see the dreadful shame and misery of the man who is 
lying under sin ; that is, separated from God and pos- 
sessed by the devil. 

For, who is there so steeled, who could not faint 
away at the miserable sight of those who lie at the doors 
of our churches, and at the comers of our streets, with 
their, faces, noses, and eyes eaten up by disease, and 
With all the rest of their limbs so consumed by wounds 
and filth, that the mind might be horror-struck at the 


sight of them, and the senses recoil at beholding them .? 
And, to what would God lead us by setting before us 
these pitiable objects of our flesh and brotherhood? 
but, that he might thereby open the eyes of our mind, 
to see how far more dreadful a spectacle the soul of the 
sinner exhibits, even though he himself should be 
clothed in purple and gold, and be even in the midst of 
roses and lilies, like a son of Paradise? And how 
many sinners are there in the world compared to one of 
these poor, filthy, and diseased creatures ? — It is when 
we think nothing either of the magnitude or multitude 
of these infinite evils in our neighbours, that we are led 
to imagine, that every little evil that comes upon us is 
the only, or the greatest, evil there is. 

But farther — grant it to be necessary, that they 
should, as to corporal evils, be in a worse condition 
than ourselves : yet, supposing they had, and could 
obtain, all that they could wish for, what could they 
enjoy that is sweet or truly happy, while their con- 
science is unable to find rest ? Is there any evil more 
dreadful than the biting sting of conscience ? For Isaiah 
saith, chap. Ivii. " The wicked are like the troubled 
sea when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and 
dirt. There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked." 
In such, therefore, you may see fulfilled that scripture, 
Deut. xxviii. " The Lord shall give thee a trembling 
heart, and failing of eyes, and sorrow of mind. And 
thy life shall hang in doubt before thee ; and thou shalt 
fear day and night , and shalt have none assurance of 
thy life. In the morning thou shalt say, Would God it 
were even ! and at even thou shalt say. Would God it 
were morning ! for the fear of thine heart wherewith 
thou shalt fear, and for the sight of thine eyes where- 
with thou shalt see." 

In a word, if any man should see all the evils of the 
wicked whether they were his fiiends or his enemies, 
and rightly think of them, he would not only forget all 
his own evils, and consider his own afflictions as 
nothing, but would break out like Moses and the 
Apostle Paul, requesting " to die " for their sakes, and 


to be " accursed from Christ," and to be " blotted 
of the book of life/' that they might be delivered, 
it was with this zeal and ardent love that Christ died 
us, and descended into hell ; leaving ws to exam] 
tfiat we should be so concerned for the evils of 
that we should forget ourselves, yea bring evils 
ourselves for their sakes. 





On the right hand are our friends : and, that aii 
evils ought to be mitigated by theirs, Peter also 
1 Epist. V. " Resist the devil strong in the faith; know- 
ing, that the same afflictions are accomplished in — 
brethren that are in the world." Hence, the c 
requests in her prayers, that, being provoked to emuhh'"'* 
tion by the examples of the saints, we should imititt 
their fortitude under sufferings. And she sings of wbil 
torments all the saints endured that they might obtak 
the martyrs' crown. 

From the words and canticles of the church, i»c 
understand, that the festivals, memorials, churches^ 
altars, names, and images of the saints were therefort ^ 
held in honour and multiplied, that we might be anf-f 
mated by their examples to the enduring of those evibj^ 
which they suffered. And, if they be held in honour tor 
any other end besides this, the whole of that worship is [* 
nothing but superstition. For there are many who ok- 
brate all these things to the intent that they might not 
endure those evils, which the saints, by their example | 
and memory, teach us to endure ; and that they mi^t 
not become like unto those whose festivals they celc- ' 
brate, that they might be made like unto them. v 

But the Apostle, Heb. xii, handles this part of our f 
consolation most beautifully, where he says, " Ye 
have not yet resisted unto blood, striving a^inst sin. 
And ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh 
unto you as unto children, My son, despise dot thou tbe 

chastening of the hottX -^ecatkms of the devil : for there 
of him. For whom lhc\^ . in body and In spirit, fiir 
and scourgeth every son x^;^ , ' we do. 
endure chastisement, God 6^^ v — My diatress is, 
sons ; for what son is he whoC^^^ ■ compared with 
not? But if ye be without chastisnn^^^J^ Tiner and not 
partakers, then are ye bastards aTi4*^J^^5;<; "^fey suffered 
more, we have had fathers of our fleSu'"V^\ therefore, 
us, and we gave them reverence; st^v^^Sv -suffer- 
rather be in subjection unto the Faihei^ '"V^ '^ ^'^ 
live ? For they, verily, for a few days cba&te^S!^ tac 
their own pleasure, but he for our profit, i\ia^ "^^iSu 
be partakers of his holinsss. Now no cliasteiun^?''"^ ' 

present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous : aevJ^! ^ 
afterward it yieldeth the peaceable fruits of lirfK^^ 
ness unto them that are exercised thereby ^^S?*- 
speaketh Paul. '^^ 

Who may not tremble at these words of Paul, wW- 
he plainly shews, that those who are without chastise, 
ment are not the sons of God ? And again, who nu,^ 
not be most strongly confirmed and most effectuallu 
comforted when he hears, that those who are chastened 
are beloved of God, are the sons of God, are in com- 
munion with all the saints, and are not the only ones 
who endure affliction ? This powerful consolation makes 
the chastisement even sweet ! 

Nor is there here any place for excuse, by sayings 
that the sufferings of some are lighter or heavier than 
those of others : for, every one has his temptation 
according to his measure, and that, not beyond his powers 
to bear: as in Ps. Ixxx. " Thou feedest them with the 
bread of tears, and givest them tears to drink in mea- 
sure," The same also does Paul say, 1 Cor, x. " But 
God is faithful ; who will not suffer you to be tempted 
above that ye are able, but will with the temptation also 
make a way to escape that ye may be able to bear it." 
And, where the evil is the greater, there is a greater 
provision also of the divine assistance ; so that the dif- 
ferences of the sufferings are more in appearance, than 



they are in reality. For might not John the Bapti 
whom we at this day commemorate as beheaded 
Herod, fill us with astonishment? that he, being 
great a man, a greater than whom had not been boni'^'"- 
women, and who was the intimate friend of the \m 
groom, the forerunner of Christ, and the greatest of 
the prophets, should be killed, not by the execution 
any public sentence, nor even upon any false accnsarja 
tion, as Christ was, nor by the voice of the people, batl* 
in a prison on account of the dancing of an adultererft]: 
daughter? Such an ignominious death of one saint, and|*: 
a life thus vilely and most shamefully given into 
hands of an adulteress who was his bitterest enemy,— It: 
such an example, I say, should at once make all (m% 
evil to appear as nothing. He perished as thou^ 
unknown either to God, to man, or to any creature! 
What do we suffer in comparison with the death of thi»|^ 
saint ! We may, I will not say glory in, but be ashamed 
of, all our sufferings, when we draw the comparison. K 
we wish to endure no suffering, where shall we appear 
when such great men suffered deaths so ignominious 
which they never deserved, and when their bodies, after 
they were dead, were exposed to the insults of the 
populace ? For thus saith the Lord by Jeremiah, " Be- 
hold, they whose judgment was not to drink of the cup, 
have assuredly drunken ; and art thou he that shall 
altogether go unpunished ? thou shalt not go unpu- 
nished, but thou shalt surely drink of it," Jer. xlix. 

Right, therefore, was that eremite, who, when he 
had been usually sick every year, and during one certaia 
year had not been sick at all, began to be sorrowful and 
to lament; saying, that God had forgotten him, and 
had denied him his grace. — So necessary and salutary 
is the chastening of the Lord for all Christians. 

We see, however, how all our sufferings sink into 
nothing, when we consider the nails, the dungeons, the 
swords, the fires, the beasts, and numberless other 
torments of the saints : nay, even if we consider the temp- 
tations of those living immediately around us, who are 


sufTering the bitterest persecutions of the devil : for there 
are many who suffer, both in body and in spirit, far 
more heavy and bitter things than we do. 

But here, perhaps some will say — My distress is, 
that my suffering is not worthy of being compared with 
.the sufferings of the saints; for I am a sinner and not 
worthy to be compared with them at all. They suffered 
for their innocence, but I suffer for my sins : therefore, 
it is not to be wondered at if they endured their suffer- 
ings joyfully. — This is great folly ; for if thou suffer for 
thy sins, thou oughtest to rejoice, m that thy sins are 
purged from thee. And were not the saints sinners ? 

But, thou wilt say again — I greatly fear, that I am 
like Herod, and the thief on the left hand of Christ. — 
If thou art patient, thou art not like them. For, what 
distinguishes between the thief on the left hand, and him 
on the right, but patience, and impatience ? If thou art 
a sinner, well : the thief was a sinner also ; but his pa- 
.tience of justice was followed by the glory of holiness. 
Do thou then likewise. Thou canst not suffer, but for 
thy sins, or for justice : and each suffering sanctifieth 
and rendereth happy, if thou love it. Hence, there is no 
place left for excuse. And, in a word, the moment thou 
confessest that thou sufferest for thy sins "justly," thou 
art just and holy; as was the thief on the right hand. 
For the confession of sin, as it is truth, sanctifies and 
justifies ; and thus, from the moment of this confession, 
thou sufferest not for thy sins, but for thy innocence : . 
for a just man cannot suffer but innocently : and thou 
art made just, upon thy confession of thy deserved suf- 
ferings and thy sins. And hence, thy suffering may 
really and truly be compared with the sufferings of the 
saints ; even as, thy confession of thy sins may really 
and truly be compared with the same confession of the 
saints. For the truth in all, the confession of all, the suf- 
fering of all, are the same : and the communion of the 
saints is truly the same in all the saints and in alt 




Lastly, we are to raise our heart upwards, and to 
ascend into the mountain of myrrh with the spouse. 
There is Jesus Christ the head of all saints, the greatest 
of all sufferers, orucified : concerning whom, many m^ 
have written many things, and all something. The 
spouse's remembrance of this person is commended, 
where it is sedd, ^' Set me as a s^ upon thine heart, as 
a seal upon thine arm," Song viii. The sign of the blood 
of this Lamb upon the threshold, wards off the destroying 
angel. — The spouse is commended again because " the 
hair of her head is like purple," Song vii. : that is, her 
meditation brightens at the remembrance of the passion 
of Christ. — This is that tree which Moses was com- 
manded to cast unto the waters of Marah, (that is, bitter 
sufferings,) and they became sweet. 

There is nothing which this passion cannot sweeten : 
it sweetens even death itself. Hence, the spouse saith, 
" Hisjips are like lilies dropping sweet-smelling myrrh," 
Song V. But what similarity is there between lilies 
and the lips, when the one are red and the other white ? 
— She speaks this in a mystery; signifying, that his 
words are all -fair and all-pure, and that there is no 
bloody bitterness or livid impurity in them; but that 
they are sweet and soft, and that they drop, and even 
persuade sweet-smelling myrrh, that is, the most bitter 
death. These most pure and sweet lips have a power in 
them to make the bitterest death, (which, like myrrh in 
its prime and power, takes away at once all the shame 
of sin,) sweet, fair, lovely, and desirable. 

But how is this effected ? — It is whilst thou art 
hearing that Jesus Christ the Son of God, has, by his 
most holy touch, consecrated and sanctified all suf- 
ferings, and so, even death itself; and has so blessed all 
curses, so glorified shame, and so enriched poverty ; that 
death is compelled to become the gate of life, cursing 



the beginning idf blestsing, luid shame tlie parent of ^ory. 
Here men, how caxist thou be so hardened and ungrateful, 
as not even to desire and to love all sufferings thus 
touched and sanctified, thus rendered harmless and 
wholesome, and thus turned into blessings and joys, by 
the all-pare and all-holy flesh and blood of Christ ! 

For, if Christ, by the touch of his all-pure flesh, 
sanctified all water unto baptism; how. much more did 
he, by the touch of the same all-pure flesh and blood, 
sanctify every death, all sufferings, all injuries, all curses, 
and all shame, unto the baptism of the spirit, or of the 
body ? For he thus speaks of the same baptism of his 
suffering, Luke xii. " I have a baptism to be baptized 
with, and how am I straitened till it be accomplished !" 
You see how he is straitened, how he pants, how he 
longs to sanctify all sufferings and death also, and to 
render them lovely. For he sees that we are alarmed 
at sufferings; he sees that we tremble with horror at 
death. And therefore, as a most pious pastor, and a 
most faithful phy^ian, wishing to remedy this our evil, 
he longs and is straightened to die, that he might by his 
touch render death desirable. 

Hence, the death of the Christian, is looked upon 
as the brazen serpent of Moses ; which has indeed in all 
respects the appearance of a serpent, but is altogether 
without life, without motion, without poison, and without 
power to bite. So, the just seem to die, in the eyes of 
the foolish, whereas, they rest in peace. We are indeed 
like unto men dying, nor is there any difference, in 
appearance, between our death and that of others : But, 
in reality, the difference is great: for, to us death is dead. 
So also, all our other sufferings are like the sufferings of 
other men, but they are so in appearance only. For, 
in reality, our sufferings are the beginnings of the con- 
traries, even as death is the beginning of life. And this 
is what Christ saith, John viii. " Verily, verily I say 
unto you. If a man keep my saying, he shall never see 
death." But how shall he not see death ! — Because, 
when he dies, he then begins to live ! And therefore, 
he cannot see death for the brightness of the life which is 


presented to his view. For here, the night is as clear as 
the day, for the light of the beginning of life, is brighter 
than the light of the death that leads to it. These 
things are in reality so unto those that believe in Christ, 
but unto the unbelieving they are not so. 

Wherefore, if thou lovest, embracest, and kissest 
the coat of Christ, his vessels, his washing-basins, and 
whatever Christ touched and used, as the dearest relics, 
and as consecrated by his touch ; why shouldst thou not 
much rather love, embrace, and kiss punishments and 
all the evils of the world, and also shame and death, 
which were not only consecrated by his touch, but sanc- 
tified and blessed by his all-pure blood, and moreover, 
embraced by him with all willingness of heart, and with 
all the urging fervency of love ? And that more espe- 
cially, when thou wilt attain unto much greater rewards 
and blessings by enduring , these sufferings, than by 
worshipping those relics. For by the latter, thou 
attainest unto the victory over death and hell, and 
over all sins; whereas, by the former, thou profitest 

O if we could but look into the heart of Christ, and 
see it as it was when he was hanging on the cross and 
straitened to render death dead and contemptible! — 
with what ardour and sweetness he met death and 
punishment for those who are fearful and tremble at 
death, — how willingly he first tasted this cup, before 
those that are sick, that they might not be afraid to 
drink of it — and if we did but rightly consider that no 
evil happened unto him, but good only, by his resurrec- 
tion from the dead. — If, I say, we could but see and 
rightly consider these things, the effect without doubt 
would be, that that sweet-smelling niyrrh which would 
drop from his lips, and those words of his which would 
commend it unto us, would be most delightful and most 
sweet, sweeter than the scent and fairness of lilies : as 
Peter also saith, . Epist. iv. " Forasmuch then as Christ 
hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise 
with the same mind." And Paul also, Heb. xii. " For 
consider him that endured such contiudiction of sinneni 

- 149 

gainst himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in. year 
oinds." , : 

If therefore we learnt to bear our afflictions patiently 
rom the . former views of evil around and beneath lis j 
len surely, being under this iast view raised above and 
eyond ourselves, and carried unto Christ, and being 
lus lifted up above all evils, those evils will not only 
ppear to us able to be endured, but even to be lovea, 
dshed for, and to be sought. for.* Wherefore, under 
bis last VIEW, all the evils that we may suffer must 
e drowned and swallowed up ; so that now, they cannot 
>nly not pain us, but must even be sweet unto us, if 
his VIEW but enter into our hearts, and rest in the in- 
vard affection of our minds. — So far concerning the 



To this second part, we are also to give its seven 
views, contrary to those of the first part : which shall 
be, I. Of the good within us. — II. Before us. — III. Be- 
hind us. — IV. From Beneath. — V. On our left hand. — 
VI. On our right hand. — VII. From above. 



And who can enumerate even those good things 
only which each one has in his own person? First: 
How great are our endowments of body — beauty, 
strength, health, and activity? To which endowments 
there is added, in the man, a greater nobleness of sex, 
which is fitted for the transaction of many things both 
private and public, and for the execution of many great 



ttDdertakings, to which the woman is not adapted. Aad 
what great evil is it, if, while you enjoy these exalted 
eifts (by the peimission of God) for ten, twen^, or 
tnirty years with pleasure, you should suffer a litde for 
one hour, or, perhaps, for ten days ? What sort of crea- 
tures are we, who, when we have enjoyed many hapjiy 
hours, are unwilling to experience even one hour of evffl r 
We see, therefore, with what great blessings of God we 
are surrounded, and with how few evils we are toudied; 
at least the most of us. 

But, not content with having so bountifully shed 
upon us these blessings, the best of beings has added 
moreover riches and an abundance of all things ; and, 
if not to all, yet to many ; and to those . more especi- 
ally who are the less fitted to endure evils. For, as I 
at first observed, to those whom God gives less of ex- 
ternal things, he gives more of mind ; that all things may 
be equal, and that he might be the righteous judge of 
all. For an abundance of riches, does not bring so 
much consolation as a happy mind. Moreover, to 
some God gives children, the summit of pleasure, (as we 
call it,) power, dominion, honouri fame, favour, and 
glory, &c. : to which, if he add also a long time of en- 
joyment, or even a short time, we shall easily see, how j^ 
they ought to act under a light evil. And again, he baa 
bestowed endowments even above all these, — miod, 
knowledge, judgment, eloquence, and wisdom: and 
here also, as in the former cases^ he has tempered his 
administration with an equality; and, if he has any 
where given a greater share of these blessings, he \m i 
not on that account, preferred those persons above j^ 
others, but has given to those who had the less share, a 
greater portion of peace or happiness of mind. 

And in all these things, the most bountiful hand of | 
God should be answered with gratitude, and our infir- ] 
mities should be consoled; nor ought we to wonder, 
if, amidst the multitude and magnitude of these Uess- 
ings, there be some little intermingling of bitterness. 
For, even with voluptuaries, no dainty is savoury without 
salt: nor indeed is any food pai^table that has not 

ome bitter taste with it, either iimate or produced by 
urt : and therefore, a perpetual and unchangeable 
weetness is unbearable. Hence he ^oke rightly, who 
(aid, ' Every pleasure by continuation produces dis- 
rust.' And, as another said, ' Labour is in fact the 
rery pleasure/ That is to say^ This life has not power 
:o bear the enjoyment of perpetual good without a 
temperature of evil: because the abundant fulness of 
good, would be too much for it. Hence has proceeded 
this praverb, ^ Those bones mvb^t be strong which can 
bear good days.' Which praverb I have often revolved 
in my mind, and have wondered at the truth and admi- 
rableness of its sentiment : namely, that the wishes of 
men are contrary to their wishes : for, they are seeking 
after days of enjoyment only : and yet, as soon as they 
have obtained diem, they are less able to bear them, 
than days of affliction. 

And what does God commend unto us under this 
view, but that, in the midst of these things which are 
such enemies to the cross, we should admire the cross ? 
and that, the remains of the cross should so temper and 
ianctify the whole of them, that it may prevent them 
from perishing; as the seasoning of meat with salt 
prevents it from breeding worms ? Why then should we 
not receive this tempering most cheerfully, as sent of 
God : which, if he did not send, our life, unable to 
bear continual pleasure and enjoyment, would of itself 
call for ? Hence we see, how true that is which the 
wise man, Prov. viii. saith concerning God, ' That his 
power reaches unto all things from the beginning to the 
end, and that he sweetly disposes all things.' And thus, 
if we look into these blessings, we shall find that to be 
true which Moses hath said, Deut. xxxii. * He bore 
him on his shoulders, he led him about, and kept him 
as the apple of his eye.' — With such arguments as these 
we may stop the mouths of those who pratingly and 
ungratefully say, that there is in this Ufe more evil 
than good. For, blessings and an infinite multitude of 
sweets are not wanting, but there are wanting persons 
of the same understanding as he had, who said, ^* The 


earth is full of the goodness of the Lord/* Psalm xxxnl 
Again, " The earth is full of his praise." Again, " The 
earth is full of thy riches," Psalm civ. And again, 
" Thou, Lord, hast made me glad through thy works," 
Psalm xcii. 

Hence, the church sings daily, * Heaven and earth 
are full of thy glory/ And why? Because he sheds 
abroad infinite blessings, for which he is praised ; but, , 
by those only who see this fulness. And, as we said . 
under our first view of evil, that the evils of. each man ^ 
were little or great according to his opinion or feeling of , 
them ; so also, though blessings should surround us and 
pour in upon us from all sides, yet they will be no • 
greater to us, than we think them to be. For although ^ 
all things that God hath made are " very good,^ yet 
they are not acknowledged to be so by all : because, 
many are such as are described Psalm cvi. " Yea, ' 
they despised the pleasant land." 

A most beautiful and experienced example of this 
view is set before us by Job ; who, when all his sub- ; 
stance was taken from him, said, " Shall we receive 
good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?" 
Job i. A truly golden word, and a powerful comfort 
under temptation ! And Job was not only patient under 
this, but was at the same time tempted by his wife to 
impatiency ; who said to him, " Dost thou still retain 
thine integrity ? Curse God, and die ! " Job ii. As 
though she had said. It is manifest that he is no God 
who thus leaves thee. Why then dost thou trust in 
him, and dost not rather deny him, and so curse ■ 
him, as to declare thyself to be that kind of mortal (rf.* 
whom nothing more will remain after death? These 
and the like things each ones wife (that is, the flesh,) 
suggests to him under temptation ; for the fleshly sense 
savoureth not the things that be of God. 

We are to observe, however, that all the above- 
mentioned blessings are corporal, and common to all 
men. But the Christian is possessed of far greater inter- 
nal blessings : that is, faith in Christ ; concerning which 
it is said. Psalm xlv. " The king's daughter is all glo- 


rious within, and her vesture^ is af wrought gold/' And, 
as, under our jfirst view of evil, we observed, that no 
evil that a man feels can be the worst of the evils that are 
in him ; so, no Christian can feel the greatest of the bless- 
ings that are in him : for if he could feel that, he would 
be in heaven : because, as Christ saith, the kingdom of 
heaven is within us. — To have faith, is to have the truth 
and the Word of God ; and, to have the Word of God, 
is to have God, the author and doer of all things. Andj 
if these blessings should be revealed to the soul in all 
their reality, the body would in a moment be dissolved 
by the overwhelming power of the sweetness. Hence, all 
the other blessings which we have mentioned, are but as 
it were certain monitors of those blessings which we 
have within, of which God would have us put in 
remembrance bv them : because, this life could not bear 
the revelation of all our internal blessings : and there- 
fore, God in mercy keeps them hidden, until they shall 
come unto their perfect measure. Thus also, affectionate 
parents sometimes give small and trifling gifts unto 
their children, whereby they would allure their minds 
unto the hope of greater things. 

Nevertheless, these blessings sometimes discover 
themselves and break forth, when the gladdened con- 
science rejoices in its confidence in God, speaks of 
him freely, hears his Word willingly and with sweet- 
ness, and finds a happiness in serving him by doing 
good and bearing evil, &c. All which, are sure evi- 
dences of the infinite and incomparable good that is 
latent within, from which these little drops and streams 
thus occasionally bubble forth. And sometimes it is the 
case, that there is a clearer revelation of these things 
made to contemplating souls; by which, they are so 
swallowed up that they know not where they are; as 
St. Augustine and his mother confess it was with them^ 
and many others also. 






To those who are not Christians, little consolali 
from future good can be given under their pres 
evils ; because, all things are with them uncerta 
Though, that affection which men call hope, will mk 
a great noise in this case : by which, human comfort 
call upon us to hope for better things : and under I 
influence of which, we are continually plotting 8 
planning great things at an uncertainty, yea, aJwayi 
self-deception : as Christ teaches us under that chan 
ter mentioned in the Gospel, Luke xii. who said w\ 
soul, " I will pull down my bams and will bi 
greater. And I will say unto my soul. Thou hast JXA 
goods laid ,up for many years : take thine ease, i 
drink, and be merry. But God said nnto him, H 
fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee : li 
whose shall those things be which thou hast provid 
So is he that layeth up treasure for himself, and is 
rich toward God." 

But still, God does not so leave the children of li 
as not to console them even with this iiope of aver 
the evil and expecting the good. And although t 
are uncertain as to future things, yet, he would I 
them hope with certainty, that they may in the m 
time be supported, lest they should not be able tol 
their present evil, and should, under the impulse 
despair, be driven to do what is worse. Wherefore, < 
this feeling of hope is the gift of God; not thai 
would have them rest in that only, hut would tho 
admonish them of that sure hope that centres in bin 
alone. For God is of such long-suffering, that he w 
•^ lead men to repentance," as it is said, Rom. ii.; 
does he suffer all to perish in this fallacious hop 
once, if they will but return to a right heart and a 


Christians . however have, in addition to these, two 
other especially great blessings, to the enjoyment vf 
which they will certainly be brought ; hut, through death 
and sufferings. (For they also rejoice in this comoiop 
uncertain hope of seeing their present evil brought to 911 
end, and the contrary good increased. Though they 
entertain that hope,, only with a view to the increasing gjf 
their great good ; which is, their growing in the truth of 
Christ; in which they advance day by day, by which 
they live, and through which they hope.) —But, as I have 
said, Christians look forward to two especial blessings 
in death* 

The Jirst is, that death puts an end to the whole 
tragedy of the evils of this life : as it is written, ** Pre- 
cious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints," 
£salm cxvi. And again, " Wherefore I will lay me 
down in peace, and take my rest," Psalm iv. Hence, 
jvhen death overtakes ihe righteous man, he sinks into 
bis rest ; but on the contrary, death is to the wicked the 
beginning of their sorrows ; as one saith, * The death of 
the wicked is terrible; and evil shall overtake the 
unri^teous man in his end.' Thus Lazarus, who in this 
world received his evil things, shall be comforted ; and 
the rich man, who received his good things, shall be 

Hence, it is a Iways well with the Christian, whether 
he live or die : so blessed a thing is it to be a Christian 
and to believe in Christ : wherefore Paul saith, Philip, i. 
". To me to live is Christ, to die is gain." And, Rom. 
xiv. "He that liveth, liveth unto the Lord; and he 
that, dieth, dieth unto the Lord : whether therefore we 
live or die, we are the Lord's." This security hath Christ 
obtained for us by his dying and rising again, that he 
might become the Lord both .of the living and of the 
dead, and able to ensure our safety both in life and in 
death : as it is written. Psalm xxiii. " Though I walk 
through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no 
evil,vfor thou art with me." 

And if this gain by death does not move us, it is a. 
sign that our faith in Christ is weak, aj^d does not 


156 I 

traly estimate the value and profitableness of death, 
nor, as yet, believe that death is a blessing; because it 
is hindered from so doing, by the power of the old 
man, and the wisdom of the flesh. We ought, therefore, 
to endeavour to attain unto the knowledge and love of 
this blessing, death. And it is indeed a great thing 
when death, which is to others the greatest evil, becomes 
to us the greatest gain. But if Christ had not obtained 
this for us, what would he have accomplished worthy of 
the great sacrifice of himself? His work was truly a 
divine work, that he wrought : and therefore, it need 
not be wondered at, if it made the evil of death to be the 
greatest of blessings. 

Wherefore, death to them that believe is dead, and 
had nothing in it terrible but in appearance and in idea. 
Even as a dead serpent, though it retains its former 
terrible appearance, is, in reality, nothing but the form of 
a serpent, and is a dead and harmless evil. Nay, as, 
Numb. xxi. by looking on the brazen serpent which 
God commanded to be raised up, the living serpents 
died ; so, our death dies by a believing and steady view 
of the death of Christ, and there no longer remains any 
thing but a certain form of death. Therefore, the 
mercy of God holds sweetly before our eyes these beau- 
tiful figures, that, since death cannot be done away with 
utterly, it might be robbed of its power, and reduced to 
a mere form. And therefore it is, that the scriptures 
call it a sleep, rather than death. 

The other blessing in death, is, that it not only puts 
an end to the penal evils of this life, but, (which is a 
much greater blessing,) puts an end to f ices and sins. 
And it is this that renders death so much more desirable 
to believing souls, than the former blessing which we 
have just mentioned. For the evils of the soul, which 
are sins, are beyond all comparison worse than the 
evils of the body : which would, if we were wise, make 
death most desirable to us : and if they do not make it 
so, it is a sign that we do not yet truly feel and hate the 
evils of our soul. 

' Since, therefore, this life is most perilous, from thai 


slippery ^1 sin besetting us on all sides, and since we 
cantiot live without sin, death, as an infinite blessing, at 
once delivers us from these perils, and separates sin 
from us for ever. Hence, the Book of Wisdom, chap. iv. 
thus expatiates in ^praise of the righteous man. " He 
pleased God, and was beloved of him : so that living 
amongst sinners he was translated. Yea speedily was 
he taken away, lest that wickedness should alter his 
understanding, or deceit beguile his soul. For the 
bewitching of naughtiness doth obscure things that are 
honest : and the wandering of concupiscence doth under- 
mine the simple mind. He, being made perfect in a 
short time, fulfilled a long time. For his soul pleased 
the Lord : therefore hasted he to take him away from 
among the \Vicked." 

Hence, through the mercy of God, death, which is 
to man the punishment of sin, becomes to the Christian 
the end of sin. and the beginning of life and righteous- 
ness. Wherefore, he that loveth life and righteousness, 
cannot dread death which is the way, and the servant 
that leadeth unto them, but must of necessity love it : 
for he cannot otherwise come unto life and righteous- 
ness. And let him that cannot love death, pray 
unto God that he might. For we are taught to say, 
* Thy will be done,' because we cannot do it of our- 
selves, when we rather fear death and love sin than 
love life and ri^teousness. 

And, that God ordaineth death as a punishment of 
sin, may be collected from this, — that he imposed death 
on Adam immediately after his sin, as a remedy against 
sin : and that, before he drove him out of Paradise : 
that he might shew us, that there is no evil, but every 
good, brought unto us by death: seeing that, he im- 
posed it in Paradise. It is true indeed that death, 
through the envy of the devil, entered into the world : 
but it was a signal movement of the divine goodness, to 
prevent death thus entered in from hurting us, and to 
arrest it and ordain it from its very beginning as a death 
aiid punishment of sin. And this God signified. Be- 
cause^ as he had before declared in his precept that 


Adam should die^ h^ did not afterwards beep ^ikm^ 
but imfmediatelyiih posed death upon faim, and execnteA 
the rigour of hia precepts : but afterwards, he neva 
mentioned one friable about death, but only ta" 
" Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou retunt! 
And, '^ Until thou return linto the ground^ for 
of it ^ast thou taken," Gen. iii. : as though he 
held death in detestation, and would not deign to m 
tion it: according to that which is written. Psalm xx^f 
** For his anger endureth but a moment : in his fav< 
is life." As though he would intimate, that, if death " 
not been necessary for the destruction of sin, he w 
neither have desired to name it, nor even to know 
much less to impose it. And thus, the divine indignrt 
tion armed none other against sin, which had brou^tW||!B 
death, than that death itself. So that, herein the wohI# 
of the poet are verified. 

Know'st thou not. 

T •« 

That by the same device his art has fram'd 
The artist falls ? 



— So, sin is destroyed by its own fruit, and killed bf. 
that death which is brought forth, even as the viper i§ 
destroyed by its own offspring. 

This is a beautiful view — to see, how death w 
destroyed, not by another's but by its own workj 
stabbed by its own weapon, and, like Goliath, has its 
head struck off by its own sword. For Goliath was a 
type of sin, being a giant terrible to all, except tp the 
stripling David, that is, to Christ, who alone laid him 
prostrate, and struck off his head with his own 9 word; 
of which he afterwards said, " There is no sword likd 
it," I Sam. xxi. 

If therefore we meditate upon these glories of the 
power of Christ, and these gifts of his grace, why. shoakl 
fthy small evil distress us, when we see such great 
blessings in that great evil which is to come ? 


* . • 


OF PAST good; or, that which is behind us. 

The consideration of this good is easy from its coor 
txBxj view, past evil. Let us however assist the consir 

In this particular the blessed Augustine was wfdl 
experienced, as appears from his Confessions, where he 
beautifully rehearses the instances of God's goodness 
to him from his mother's womb. The same also does 
diat remarkable Psalm, the 139th, " O Lord, thou hast 
searched me and known me:" where, among other 
things, the Psalmist, viewing with wonder the providence 
of God over him, says, " Thou understandest my 
thoughts long before. Thou compassest my path and 
art acquainted with all my ways." As though he had 
said, I now see, that, whatever I have thought, or what- 
ever I have done, and whatever I shall att«un unto or 
possess, have not been, and will not he, according to 
any industry of mine, but every thing is ordaioed, long 
before it takes place, by thy management; and, in a 
word, thou knowest all my ways long before, " For 
there is not a word in my tongue,"— where then ? In thy 

These things we learn from our own experience. 
Por, when we take a view of our past life, are we not 
astonished at our having thought, wished, done, and 
said such and such things, which we neither could fore- 
See nor premeditate? How far differently should we have 
acted, had we been left to our own freewill? We now 
therefore first begin to understand and to see, that the 
management of God and his care over us were so 
unceasing, that we could neither speak, will, nor think, 
but as he permitted us so to do: as it is said, Wisdom 
vii. " In his hand are both we and our words." And 
Paul, " Who worketh all in all." 

Why then do we insensible creatures, and hardened 
in heart, not take shame to oursdves; who, from the 

160 ' 

teaching of our own experience, see what an anxi 
care the Lord has had over us unto this hour, and whi 
numberless blessings he has conferred upon us, and yei^% 
cannot commit the same care of ourselves to him undefier 
our present light evil, but act as if he had left all care o^isli 
us, or as if he would do it? But the 40th Psalm d 
not so speak, " I am poor and needy, but the LcdBky^ 
careth for me." Upon which words, the blessed Augus*™ 
tine has these remarks — ^ Commit the care of thyselflie 
unto him, who had the care of thee before thou camest|oi 
into existence. And how shall he not take care of thee, 
when thou art now that which he has willed thee to be? 
But we want to hold a divided empire with God. We 
ascribe to him the honour of' having made us, (though 
even that hardly and falteringly;) but we arrogate to 
ourselves the care of ourselves; as though he had made 
us, and then departed, and left the care and government 
of ourselves in our own hands.' 

But, if our own wisdom and management prevent 
us from seeing this care of God over us, because perhaps 
many things have turned out according to the plans we 
have formed: then, let us with the 139th Psalm again 
look into ourselves. — " My substance was not hid from 
thee, when thou madest me in secret : " that is, thou 
sawest and fonnedst my bones in the womb of my 
mother, before I had existence, and when my mother 
knew not as yet what was forming in her. — " And cu- 
riously wrought in the low er parts of the earth : " that i?, 
the figure or form of my body, even when in the secret 
recesses of my mother's womb, was not hid from thee, 
because thou formedst it. 

And what does the Psalmist intend by these words, 
but to shew us by such a striking example, Mhat a care 
God always had over us ? For who can boast that he 
had any thing to do with the formation of himself in the 
womb? Who gave his mother the care of suckling, che- 
rishing, loving, and performing all those offices of a 
mother, while we as yet had no knowledge that we w ere 
living creatures? Nay, when we should now know^ 
nothing of all these instances of care, (unlesa it were 


^ttmi seeing the same pertbftned on dtHeris^ and dience 
believing,' that they were performed on us also,) nor 
bave any remembrance of them ; seeing that, they were 
performed on us none otherwise than if we had been 
asleep, nay dead, or rather before we were bom, (as far 
as our knowledge of them is concerned.)— Thus we see 
how the divine mercies and consolations attend us 
without our having any thing at all to do with it. And 
yet, we to this day hesitate, or even despair of trusting 
ourselves unto him. 

If this experience does not instruct and move any 
one, I know not what will instruct and move him. For 
we see this experience set plainly before our eyes in all 
the infants around us. And therefore, when so many 
examples are set before our ignorance and hardness of 
heart, they ought to put us to the greatest shame, if we 
hesitate to believe, that any, even the least good or evil, 
can happen to us without the peculiar permission of the 
care of God over us. 

Hence Peter, 1 Epist. v. saith, " Casting all your 
care upon him, for he careth for you." And Psalm Iv. 
." Cast thy burthen upon the Lord, and he shall sustain 
thee." And the blessed Augustine says to his soul, in his 
Confessions, 'Why dost thou lean upon thyself, and 
thus not stand at all ? Cast thyself upon him — he will 
not take away his hand and let thee fall !' And again, 
1 Pet. iv. it is written, " Wherefore, let them that 
suffer according to the will of God, commit the keeping 
of their souls to him in well doing, as unto a faithful 

O if any one did but in this way know and acknow- 
ledge his God, how safely, how peacefully, how sweetly 
would he go on ! Such an one would in truth walk 
with God : knowing for a certainty, that every thing that 
comes upon him, was brought about, and took place, 
according to his all sweet will. 

This word of Peter stands firm, " He careth for us." 
And what word can we hear that is more sweet. There- 
fore, says he, **cast all your care upon him." And if 
we do not this, but will be- careful for ourselves, what do 


we dte but wdeavour to hinder the< ciBom oi God^ 
vender onr life sorrowful, full of labours, and dii 
with many fears, cares, and tumults r And, after aUy. 
id' to* no purpose whatever : for by these means we 
no- wholesome progress,, but, as the Preacher 
"All is vanity of vanities" and "vexation of spiiit"(>| 
For that whole book speaks of this kind of experienoej 
seeing that, the author of it tried many things for hish 
sdf, but found in all that he did nothing but labom^.j 
vanity, and vexation of spirit. And therefore he ceii^ 
eludes, that for a man to eat, and to drink, and to d6*> 
light himself in his wife, is the gift of God : that is, tbafc. 
he should live without anxious solicitude, committifig 
the care of himself unto God. 

Wherefore, we also ought to have no other solicitacb 
than how we may be without solicitude conceroiog 
ourselves, and may lay hold of the care of God ovar m^ 
and rest in that. — And what may be said farther upon 
this subject, any one, as I have said, may easily find bf , 
taking a meditative view of his whole life past. 



We have hitherto been contemplating the good 
which is in ourselves, and within us. Now let us contem* i 
plate that good which is in others, and without us. And ; 
the first good we are to look at, is, in those who are be* 
neath us : that is, who are dead and damned. • But how 
wonderful is this, that any good should be found from 
them who are dead and damned ! Such however is the 
infinite goodness of God every way, that he gives us to 
see blessings even in the greatest of evils. 

Let us then first compare these wretched creatures 
with ourselves, and we shall see how inestimably great 
our gains are : which we saw also, from the view oppo- 
site to this in our first part. For, as many evils of death 
and hell as we see in these, so many blessings we vddi* 
out doubt enjoy : and our blessings are the greater, m 

^pofdon a$ their evilf^ fare the gveaksr. And al)^ thps^. 
tti^gis are not to be disregarded with a levity of ixa«dy 
beoause they forcibly represent to us the i»ost g^oriouik 
m^xjy of God. And if we set light by these thingi*^; 
thete is danger lest we for our ingratitude be found 
damfied together with these, or more terribly tomiented.^ 
Because, the more we see them to grieve and howl, thci 
more we ought to rejoice in the goodness of God : ac- 
cording to that of Isaiah Ixv, " Behold, my servants 
shall eat, but ye shall be hungry ; behold, my servsmt^ 
shall drink, but ye shall be thirsty : behold, my servants 
shall rejoice, but ye shall be ashamed : behold, my ser- 
vants shall sing for joy of heart, but ye shall cry for 
sorrow of heart, and shall howl for vexation of spiritL 
And ye shall have your name for a curse to my chosen." 
In a word, as I said, and as Gregory observes in hia^ 
Dialogue, * The examples of those who die awfully, 
and of the damned, are profitable unto us for admoni- 
tion and sound instruction : ' and, 

Happy are they, who Cfyition gain 
From that which caused another's pain. 

This excellent sentiment has little effect upon us^ 
because it is so universally known ; whereas, it is to be 
numbered among the greatest of truths, and is held in 
the highest estimatibn by those who have a feeling 
heart. And indeed, it is upon this point that a great 
part of the holy scripture turns : that is, where it 
speaks of the wrath, judgments, and threatenings of God. 
Wiiich most wholesome doctrines, the examples of 
those most miserable of creatures confirm to us ; which 
examples, then first produce their effect, when we are 
brought under the same feelings which they have, and 
when we feel ourselves as it were in their persons and 
stead ; for it is then that they will admonish us ; and so 
admonish us, as to constrain us to praise the goodness 
of God, who has saved us from such a state as theirs. 

Let us next compare them with God himself, that 

"'we may see the divine justice displayed in them: ahd 

although this be difficult, yet it is to be attempted. . For, 


as God is a jui}t judge, we ou^t to love and praisefati 
justice. And moreover, we ought to rejoice in Go^' 
even when he utterly destroys the wicked both in hodj 
and soul : because, in all this his most high and inefiaiw 
justice shines forth. And therefore, even hell is full of 
God and of the greatest good, no less than heaven. 
For the justice of God is God himself; and God is die 
highest good. Wherefore, as is his mercy, so is fail 
justice or judgment also to be most highly loved^ 
praised, and proclaimed. — In this sense it is that David 
says, " The righteous shall rejoice when he seeth the 
vengeance : he shall wash his feet in the blood of the 
wicked," Psalm Iviii. And for this cause also it was, 
that the Lord forbad Samuel, 1 Kings xvi. to mourn for 
Saul any longer ; saying, " How long wilt thou moam 
for Saul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning over 
Israel r " As though he had said, Does my will so dis- 
please thee, that thou preferrest the will of men to 
mine ? In a word, this is the strain of praise that runs 
throughout the Psalms — that the Lord is the judge of 
the widows, and the father of the orphans ; and that he 
will avenge the poor and judge the cause of the needy, 
that their enemies shall be confounded and the wicked 
destroyed : and many things of the same kind. And if 
any one with an ignorant pity will condole with this ge- 
neration of bloody men, and with this race of the ungodly 
who slay^the righteous, and who slew the Son of God, 
he will be found to rejoice with them in their iniquity, 
to approve the things that they do, and to be worthy of 
perishing together w ith them whose sins he would have 
to go unpunished: and he will hear that laid to his 
charge which is written 2 Sam. xix. " Thou lovest 
thine enemies and hatest thy friends." For this is what 
Joab said to David when he mourned too much for his 
son, who was an ungodly murderer. 

Wherefore, under this view, we are to rejoice with 
all the godly saints in the justice of God, who most 
justly punishes the persecutors of righteousness that he 
might deliver his elect from them. And hence you i^ 
that no ^^mail blessings, but the greatest of blessing^i 


if^ne fdlftlx in the . dead and the damned^r-nattiely, the 
tqj[urie8 of all the saints avenged, and thine also together 
with them, if thou art a righteous person. 

What wonder it is therefore, if, under and by thy 
present evil, God is taking vengeance on thy enemy, 
that is, the sin of thy body ? Nay, thou oughtest to re- 
joice in this blessed work of the infinite justice of God, 
which, even without thy requesting it, thus kills and de- 
coys in thee thy worst enemy, that is, sin. If therefore 
ftou shouldst condole with thy body, thou wouldst be 
found an enemy to the justice of God working in thee^ 
and of this thou oughtest cautiously to beware, lest it 
should be said unto thee also, " Thou lovest thine ene- 
mies and hatest thy friends." And, as thou oughtest 
truly to rejoice with the justice of God when severely 
punishing thy sin ; so, thou oughtest to rejoice with the 
some, when punishing sinners who are enemies both of 
God and men. — Thou findest, therefore, that the greatest 
good is to be seen in the greatest evils ; and that we can 
rejoice in the greatest evils ; not on account of the evils 
themselves, but on account of the infinite goodness of 
God's justice avenging us by those evils. 



Here are our adversaries who are still in this life : 
(for in our preceding View, we considered those who 
are damned and made like unto the devils :) we are to 
look upon those, therefore, who are still in this life in a 
different manner. The good, then, that is in them, is 

Tihejirst good is, that they abound in temporal 
blessings : so that, even the prophets were almost moved 
away with envy : as in Psalm Ixxiii. " But as for me, 
my feet were almost gone: my steps had well nigh 
flUpt For I was envious at the foolish, when I saw the 
prosp^ty of the wicked." And again, in the same 
dbapter, ** Behold, these are the ungodly who prosper in 


the worki; they increase in riches.** And Jemtt 
eisoijchapter xii. ** Righteous art thou, O Lord, when! 
plead with thee ; yel let me talk with thee of tby jo^ 
inents : Wherefore doth the way of the wicked prosper? 
•they are all happy and deal very treacherously." 

And why does Ood gratuitously pour out and lorn 
so many good things upon them, but, that he piidit 
tx)mfort us, and, shew us how good he is to those woo 
are of ti right heart ? as the same 73d Psalm saith. And, 
if God is so good to the evil, how much rather shaU \m 
be good to the good ? Excepting that, he never tries the 
wicked with any evil, but he tries the good with m 
evils ; that they might acknowledge that God is 
not only in their present blessings that they receive 
from him, but in those hiddea blessings that are yet to 
be revealed; and that they might say to themsdva 
with the Psalmist, in the same Psalm, " It is good fef . 
me to draw near to God : I have put my trust in th^ 
Ix>rd God.** As though he had. And even if I do 
truffer any thing from which I see that they are free, yet, 1 
I have a confidence that God is much more good unto ] 
me than unto them. 

And hence the visible good things of the wicked, aic 
to us an encouragement to hope for those good things 
that are invisible, and not to be moved at the evils 
which we suffer. Thus Christ, Matt. vi. bids us look 
at the fowls of the air and the lilies of the field : saying, 
" If therefore God so clothe the grass of the field, which 
to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, how mucb 
more shall he clothe you, O ye of little faith?" And 
therefore, from comparing the good things in which the 
wicked abound, with the evil which we suffer, our faith 
is exercised, and our consolation in God increased. 
Hence, all things must necessarily work together for 
good unto the saints. 

The other good, (which is the much more won* 
derful,) is, that even their evils are blessings unto us, 
through the good hand of God upon us. For althou^ 
their sins are offences unto the weak, yet they are to me 
strong a cause of the exertion of their strength^ amji an 


ibcMioiiof conflict and the greater ^oiy—^^^ Blessed is 
ilie man that endureth temptation ". for when he is 
tried, he. shall receive the crown of life/' James i. And 
iAmt greater temptation is there, than that multitude of 
4lie fiiost wicked examples before us? In a word, this 
world is especially called the enemy of the saints of 
HBfod : because, by its enticements and wicked works, 'ft 
irritates, provokes, and draws us aside from the ways of 
;Grod to their ways : as in Gen. vi, *^ The sons of God 
maw -the daughters of men that they were fair — and they 
^liecame flesh." And Numb. xxv. " And the people of Israel 
committed whoredom with the daughters of Moab." 

So that it is necessary for us to be always tried with 
aome evil, lest we should be taken with the offences of 
Ag world and carried away, and, through weakness, be 
Inrought to sin with them. Hence Lot is commended by 
Peter, 1 Epist. ii. because he had suffered much from 
' Ifae dreadful examples of the people of Sodom, and yet 
had by their means been more established in righteous- 
ness. These offences, therefore, must of necessity 
isome, that they might work in us conflict and victory : 
but, ** woe unto the world because of offences !" If then 
Gad work so much good in us by means of the sins of 
ediers, how much, ought we to believe with our hearts, 
he will work in us by means of our own evils, even though 
sense and the flesh may judge directly the contrary ? 

Nor does the world bring us less good from the 
other side of its evils : that is, its adversity. For those 
whom it cannot incorporate with itself by its allure- 
ments, nor devour by its offences, it endeavours to 
drive away by sufferings, and to frighten by the evils of 
punishment : thus ever attempting, either to ensnare by 
the examples of sin, or to exasperate by the tortures of 
punishment. The world, therefore, is our chimaera, with 
ft fair virgin's head, a fierce lion's body, and a deadly 
aerpent's tail. For the end of the world, both of its 
piwsare and its tyranny, is poison and death eternal. 

. : As therefore, God makes us to see our own good in 
dltisias of the world ; so, that its persecutions might not 
te-irttii'iuid'iisdess, they are so ordained of God to- work 
Ae incvMse of'OHlr good, that, by the very means whereby 




they hurt us, they are compelled to do us good : as 
blessed Augustine saith concerning the children whidi 
were murdered by Herod, * He never would have beai 
able to do so much good by his favour, as he did by hi} 
hatred.' And the blessed Agatha went to the prison^i^ 
joicing as much as if she had been going to a feast; and 
spoke after this manner, * If thou dost not cause my 
body to be well bruised by thy executioners, my sm 
cannot enter into Paradise with the palm of victorjf;. 
even as, a grain of wheat, if it be not well threshed and. 
beaten out of its husk upon the threshing-floor, is not 
gathered into the barn.' 

But why do I dwell on these less important remarks, 
when we see that the whole scripture, the sayings and, 
writings of all the fathers, and the lives and actions of 
all the saints agree in this point: that those who the 
most injure believers, are the most profitable unto them^ 
if those injuries be rightly profited by. As Peter 6aitb« 
1 Epist. iii. " And who is he that can harm you if yf. 
be followers of that which is good ?" And Psalm Ixxxix. 
" The enemy shall not exact upon him, nor the son of 
wickedness afflict him." But how shall he not hurt him 
when he often even kills him ? Because, by hurting him 
he works his greatest gain ! — Hence we see, that, we 
live in the midst of good, if we were but wise ; and yet 
in the midst of evils ; and therefore, all things are won- 
derfuUv tempered together by the overruling goodness 
of God. 



This is the church of the saints, the new creation of 
God, our brethren and friends ; in whom, we see nothing 
but good, nothing but consolation ; not however with our 
fleshly eyes, for thus seen they belong to the opposite 
View of evil ; but with our spiritual eyes ; though even 
those good things in them that are seen by our fleshly 
eyes are not to be rejected, but we are to be comforted 
in God even by them. For the 73d Psalm dared n6t -to 
condemn all who have riches in this world ; but saith, 


^;If I say I will Bpeak thus; bdiold/ 1 /should offimd 
gainst the generation of thy children : " that is, if i 
hoold say that all were wicked men who are rich, wise, 
tAd in honour, I should condemn thy saints, many of 
ivpom are such. And Paul also exhorts Timothy, 
t £pist. vi. '^ to charge them that are rich in this wmM 
liat they be not high-minded ; " thereby, not forbidding 
DDCQ to be rich, And the scriptures represent Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob, as rich men. Again, Daniel and his 
sMipanions are said to have been in honour. Moreover, 
many of the kings of Judah were saints. Therefore the 
7Sd Psalm, having its thoughts turned towards these, 
fBith, '^ If I say 1 will speak thus ; behold, I should 
^end against the generation of thy diildren." 

' God, I say, bestows .an abundance of these good 

dlings upon his people for the consolation of themselves 

and. others. But these are not their proper good things : 

shy; daey are but a mere shadow and figure of them : 

Ifaeir proper blessings are faith, hope, love, and other 

gaces and gifts : all which become common by love.— ^ 

Tbis 13 the communion of the saints in which we glory. 

And who that believes may not here ^ry even in the 

midst of evils, for this is really the case : namely, that the 

blessings of all the saints are . hfe, and that fais evil is 

theirs. This is a most sweet and blessed view ; which 

the qpostle sets forth. Gal. vi. in these words, ^^ Bear ye 

<me aliother s burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ. 

And, is it not a good to know this, — that, if one 
member suffer, (as it is written 1 Cor. xii.) all the other 
members suffer with it? and that, if one member be glo^ 
rified, all the othei: members rejoice with it ? Therefore, 
when I suffer, I do not suffer alone, but Christ and all 
Christians suffer with me : as he saith, ^^ He that toucheth 
you, toucheth the apple of mine eye." Thus; otheirs. bear 
my burthen and they are my strength ; .the faith of the 
dburcfa props me up when trembling ; the purity of others 
bears my temptations of lust ; the fkstin^ of others sxt 
my feast ; and the prayers of others are engaged on my 
beWr. And, in a word, each member is mqtuafiy $on- 
cnmcd for ^hejotherf so that the moi:e comely aiiirm:^ 









ben evea defedd, preserve, and hcnxmr the less com^; 
as the apostle b^ntifiilly describes it, 1 Gor. xii. And 
hence, I can truly glory in the good diings of others, ai 
if they were my own : and they are then- truly my ow% 
if I rejoice in them and am gladdened by them.- TUxaSyl 
•Bm vile and filthy, but those whom I love and wMi 
whom I rejoice are comely and beautiful. By whidl 
love, I make not only their blessings, but the persoiii 
themselves, mine: and therefore, under their honoor 
my uncomeliness will be honoured, and my need will be 
supplied by their abundance. 

Who mea may not rejoice under sufferings,, wfaa \b 
he no longer bears his own sufferings, or, if he (foes bMl 
them, does not hear them alone, being helped bj m 
many holy children of God, and, in a word, by Christ him* 
self? So great a matter is the communion of the sainti^ k 
and so great the church of Christ! And if any one does r 
not believe that these things are so, and thus tsfefe : 
place, he is an unbeliever, and denies Christ and tfe 

This. is what is meant in these words, ' I believe in 
the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church.' What ii 
bdieving in the holy catholic church, but believing in tbi 
communion of saints ? And, in what have the * sainits 
communion ? In all things good and evil ! All thingt 
belong to all ! Who can hurt one of the smallest mooEi- 
bei!s of the body, without causing the whole bodv to i 
suffer ? What pain can the extreme joint of either of the i 
toes sufier, which the whole body does not feel ? WhA $ 
relief can be given to a toe that does not comfort the ji 
whole body ? So, we are one body. Whatever another i 
suffers, I feel and suffer also. What blessing soever is con^ \ 
ferred on another, is conferred on me also. ThoSi Christ - 
says, that whatsoever is done unto the least ei his^ is . 
dcoie unto him. Who, receiving the Itest cnunb of die 
biead of the altar, is not said to partake of the bread of 
the altar? Who, despising one crumb of it, is not said 
to despise the bread ! 

Hence if we be in pain, if under suffering, if in die 
conflict df death, let us turn our eyes to this, and firndy 

» . 



believe and be assured, that we are not alone, but that 
Christ and the church are in pain, under suffering, aiMi 
in the conflict of death with us. For Christ did not wish 
that we should tread that path of death alone, which 
every man shudders at; but willed that the whole church 
should accompany us in the path of suffering and death; 
land that the church should bear the greater part of that 
which we had to endure. So that, we may truly apply 
that to ourselves which Elisha said to his fearful servant, 
8 Kings vi., '^ Fear not : for they that be with us are 
more than they that be with them." And when Elisha 
fnyedy and said, ^^Lord, I pray thee open his eyes 
that he may see," ^^ The Lord opened the eyes of the 
young man, and he saw : and behold the mountain was 
full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha." 
So also all that we have to do, is, to pray that our eyes 
may be opened, that we may see the church standing 
fpund about us ; that is, the eyes of our faith ; and 
then we shall have nothing to fear. As it is written in the 
ISith Psalm, ^^ As the mountains are round about Je- 
rusalem, so the Lord is round about his people, from 
henceforth even for ever." Amen ! 



I do not now speak of those eternal and celestial 
flood things which the blessed enjoy in the open vision of 
€rod, or at lecist, I only speak of them in faith. This se- 
venth View, therefore, is Jesus Christ the King of Glory 
rising from the dead ! even as it was he in his sufferings, 
death, and burial, that formed our seventh View of evil. 
Here we may behold the highest joy our hearts can 
know, and firm and lasting good ! There is nothing 
whatever of evil here : ^^ for Christ being risen from the 
dead dieth no more, death hath no more dominion over 
bim," Rom. vi* And Christ was bom for us ; and not 
only that, but given unto us. Wherefore, his resurrec- 
tion is mine, together with all things that he wrought by 
hb resanection. For, as the aposSe in the height of his 



glorying saith^ Rom. viii., ^^ How shall he not with him 
also freely rive us all things ? " . " 

What then did he accomplish by his resurrection?— 
'' He made an end of sin, and brought in everlasting 
righteousness ! " He took away death and restored 
life ! He vanquished hell, and procured eternal gloiy! 
These are such inestimable blessings, that the mind of 
man scarcely dares believe that they are freqjy bestowed 
upon him : even as Jacob, Gen. xlv. when he heard thai 
his son Joseph was governor of Egypt, being as one 
awakened from a deep sleep, did not believe what was 
told him, until, in confihnation of their repeated asse^ 
tions, they shewed him alj the waggons that were sent 
by Joseph. — So truly difficult is it to bdieve, that such 
great things are treasured up for us unworthy creatoies. 
in Christ, unless he reveal himself to us his poor disci- 
ples by many words and many manifestations. For it is 
by these " waggons,'' that is, use and experience, tluit 
fae At length teaches us thus to believe. 

The most sweet of these " waggons ** is, imleed, 
tiiat he is made unto us ^^ wisdom, righteousness, sanc- 
tification, and redemption," as the apostle saith 1 Cor. L 
For I am a sinner : but I am carried in his righteous- 
ness, which is freely given unto me. I am unclean: 
but his sanctification is my holiness, in which I am 
sweetly carried. I am a fool : but his wisdom carries 
me. 1 am condemned : but his liberty is my redemp- 
tion, which is a waggon that carries me in perfect 
safety. So that the Christian, if he did but believe it, 
may glory in the merits and all the riches of Christ, as 
if he nimself had wrought them ; for they are peculiariy 
his. So that he may now in safety dare to desire the time 
when he shall stand in the judgment of God, whidiy 
otherwise, is not to be endured. 

So great a thing is faith, such blessings does it 
bring in with it, and such glorious sons of God does it 
make us ! For we cannot be sons, unless we inherit our 
Father's possessions. The Christian, therefore, may say 
with confidence, " O death, where is thy sting ! 
grave, where is thy victory ! The stins of death is siiif 
and the strength of sin is the law. But thanks be to 


God which giveth us the victory through, our Lord 
Jesus Christ, 1 Cor. xv. Who then conquered these 
two? Our righteousness ? Our life? No! It was Christ 
rising agam from the dead, condemning sin and death, 
finely giving us his righteousness, freely putting his 
merits to our- account, and laying his hand upon us. — It 
fa thus that we are in safety, that we fulfil the law, and 
are the' conquerors of sin and death: for which, be 
honour, praise, and thanksgiving, unto God for ever and 
ever, Amen ! 

This then is our last View : under which, we are 
raised not only above our evil things, but above our 
good things : and we who before lay under evils pro- 
cured by the sin of another and increased by our own 
sinSy now sit resting in the blessings of another and pro- 
cured by another's labour. We sit resting, I say, in that 
righteousness of Christ whereby he is righteous, because 
we cleave unto it by faith : by the which righteousness 
he pleaseth God, and, as a Mediator, intercedes for us, 
making himself wholly ours as the best of priests and 
the best of advocates. As therefore it is impossible that 
Christ should not please God by his righteousness ; so 
it is equally impossible that we should not please God 
l^ our faiui whereby we cleave unto that ri^teousness. 
Whence it is seen, that the Chrisdaxiis omnipotent, the 
lord of all things^ the possessor of all things,, abl&to 
effect all things^, and wholly without sin. And if he still 
have sins, yet, they cannot hurt him, for they are for- 
given him for the sake of the all-conquering and sin- 
drowning righteousness of Christ on which his &ith is 
stayed ; finnly believing, that Christ is to him what we 
have just described him as being. For he that does not 
believe is deaf to all that has been said, knows not 
Christ, nor understands the benefits of him,, nor how to 
make use of him. 

, Wherefore this View only, without any other, may, 
if truly entered into, anoint us with such consolation as 
to constrain us, not only to cease from grieving at our 
evils, but also to glory in our tribulations from the 
fblness of the joy which we have in Christ, and to feel 
nothing of those evils at all. In which glorying, may 

174 - 

Christ the Lord our God himself mstnict us ; who » 
Wessed for ever, Amen ! 

With these few . thoughts of mine^ most illustrious 
Prince, which are the best testimony ,of my willingness 
to ^erve you that my poverty will allow me to give, I 
commend myself to your Highness ; being ready t6 
serve you in greater things, whenever power shall be 
given me according to the desire of my spirit. For I 
shall ever be a debtor to every neighbour, and especially 
to your most illustrious Highness : whom, may our 
Lord Jesus Christ long preserve among us, and at last 
by a happy end take unto himself. Amen ! 

Your most illustrious Highness* 

devoted servant, 
Maetin Luther. 


This treatise I wrote, at the beginning of my minis- 
terial career, to that most excellent Prince, Frederic 
Duke of Saxony, when he was dangerously sick ; and 
many wished it to be published. But, from goinj 
through various publications, it was so corrupted am 
mutilated, that I found many words wanting ; nor could 
I myself tell what those words were when the treatise 
was first written. I have, however, restored the sub- 
stance of the sentences, and made them what I believe 
they were at the first. But I have not even now altered 
and pruned them as I might have done. Because in this 
treatise I wish to make my " profiting appear," and to 
gratify the gain say ers, that they might have an oppor- 
tunity of venting their malice. For it is enough for me, 
if I please Christ my Lord and his saints. And, that I 
am hated by the devil and his scales, I rejoice from my 
very heart and give thanks unto God. 


Fftge 1^ line 5, /or ThirringS read ThOiunga* 
-*« ibid, little 6, ^ ffismm — Mismia. 



Msxiixi Hiitlftnr 


2 Samuel xxiii. l — 7. 



* « ■ ' 


I COULD not, godly reader, avoid commending this 
work to thee, (which without doubt is of itself accept- 
able,) the more especially on this account, — because, it 
was the last of the doctrinal writings of the author, 
Martin Luther of pious memory ; and because it was 
the last labour of that most learned translator, and 
most holy man, Caspar Cruciger. — ^Thus, it seems as if 
the very title anti matter of the work, " The last words 
of David," brou^t with them the signal for death, 
which came both upon the author and the translator* 
immediately after the work was finished. 

With regard to Luther, indeed, the event followed 
the signal somewhat later. He died on the 18th of Fe- 
bruaiy 1546, the third year after this work was pub- 
lished. But, with respect to Cruciger, his death followed 
immediately upon his finishing the translation. For at- 
though he was exceedingly ill tor many months, and de- 
bilitated in body from most excruciating pains in his in- 
testines, yet, he still persevered in his version of this 
work, and finished the greater part of it during his 
illness, and revised and corrected it when finished. And 
this is wonderful to us in two respects : first, that his 
life should be spared so long, when all the powers of his 
body were destroyed and exhausted by the violence of 
the disease: (the faculties of his senses and mind ex- 
cepted, which remained in all their acuteness and per- 

* The original was written by Luther in German^ and trans- 
lated from the German into Latin by Cruciger. — It is from the 
Latin that the present translation is derived. 



fection to his latest breath :) and then, that he shoidc 
have strength of body under all that weakness a« 
excruciating pain, to go through the labour of refereoo 
and writing. — But however, as soon as he had put lb 
finishing stroke to his translation, which he did wid 
expressions of joy ; the day after, by a peaceful depar 
ture as one falling asleep, he was csuled out of this M 
where he had usemlly served the church, unto the etmi 
church, and to the all-sweet enjoyment of God, and o 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, toother with tfai 
of the prophets and apostles, and of David, Lutbef 
and all the saints. Hepce, it would appear, that he win 
thus gifted of God with strength, and had his life Mi 
longed just that time, that he might translate into ql 
Latin tongue the whoje of this most useful and nee 
sary work of Luther, (wherein, from " The last woid^ 
David " he has piously and learnedly set forlfe the 
natures in Christ and his offices,) thatjt might be 
also by all the churches beside the German. 

W herefore, godly reader, embrace this work 
grateful heart, and enjoy with all gladness t&e iWiJIf 
bour^ of those great men David, Luther, and .CfOpgJI 
and their last confession concerning the Son of (jQD ' 
Messiah and our Saviour, which they made against 
the power of persecutors and the corruptions of <" 
deceivers. And, together with us, pray the eternal 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, that he w 
preserve this great light of his' own doctrine in 
church, at this day, in all its bri^tness : and that )| 
would long preserve among us the other godly teacb^ 
that are left, and, after them, raise up other burning W 
shining lights, who may ward off and dispel that ctefi 
ness of the ^* last days" of the world, which aie l| 
much to be feared ! — Farewell ! 

mttemberg,A,D. 1549. 




2 Sam. xxiii. 1 —7. 


Now these be the last words of David. David the son 
of Jesse said J the man that was confirmed concerning the 
Messiah of the God of Jacobs sweet in the Psalms of 
of Israel, said, 

The Spirit of the Lord spake by me, and his word 
sounded on my tongue. ITie God of Israel said, the 
the Rock of Israel ^ke to me: he that is a Just 
ruler amofig men, ruhng in tht fear of God. And h€ 
shall be as the Ught of the morning, when the su» 
ariseth, even as a momifig without clouds; when the tender 
grass springeth out of the earth by the clear shining after 
rain. For my house is not so before God: because he 
himself hath made with me an everlasting covenant, or- 
dered in all things and sure. But the sons of Belial are 
all of them as thorns destined to be thrust away, which 
cannt^ be gathered with hands. But the man that shall 
pluck them out must be fenced with iron and spears; 
so that they shall be utterly burned with fire in their 
own place. 

[This is Luther's own version of the oripnal Hebrew: which 
the present Translator has been very particular in giving correctly 
and fiterally : because the ar^ruments and matter of the whole Treatise 
depend upon it.] 


St. Jerom affirms, that he felt a great inclination to 
undertake at once a translation of the books of the Old 
Testament from the Hebrew into Latin; because he 
saw, that we Christians were held up to derision by the 


enemies of Christ ; who said that those Books which in 
then had among us, and which were then received 
and read in the churches, were not genuine and 
but that, in many words and syllables and letters 
them were read differently from what they were in 
Hebrew originals. 

The same circumstances also, (that is, many 
being found, in that version, which is ascribea to 
SEVENTY, and which was commonly used in the 
churches, to differ from the Hebrew originals,)^ u 
on many others before Jerom, such as Aquila, 
tion, ana Origen to the same desire of publishing 
versions. So that, at last, the versions of six translai 
were collected and read together ; and it was called 


After the same manner also, in this our day,, ncff 
versions have begun so to increase and multiply^ witfa||[ 
a few years, that it seems as if there never would be 
end to them, but that we .should at length have 
many editions of the Bible, (which was the case also 
those former times,) as there may rise up strijd&iir 
teachers and novices of this cast, who shall persuan 
themselves that they have some great knowledge of thQ 
Hebrew tongue. 

And thus it must be, that after them other inttf: 
preters will be sought for ; because, we pay so muck 
respect to the calumnious judgments of the Jews cOBr 
ceming our Bible. Whereas, they themselves so mis^ar 
biy lacerate and alter the Bible >by their various anj 
differing interpretations, their grammatical distinctioav 
and their punctuations, that, if we were to follow tfadr 
interpretations, we should have no Bible at all that east- 
tain^ one sure and harmonizing text clear^ expressed 
and understood. Because, each one of the Uabbins wiH 
have his interpretation received in preference to all 
others. But why should we have no pure Bible at al^ 
you will ask ? — Because they themselves are compelled 
to confess, that they in many places do not understand 
the meaning of their own words. So far is it from pda- 
i^ibility that they should give a pure and harmoaiziiig 


,^ exposition of the Bible, even with respect to the grani;^ 
matioal sense, (to say nothing about the spiritual sense^ 
for of that they are altogether ignorant.) 

Wherefore, I pay no regard whatever to their ca- 
villings'; nor do I consider their judgment of so much, 
consequence, as to induce me, on that account only, to 
learn the Hebrew tongue. And I can give a sound 
reason for the principles on which I act. — It is certain 
that we who are Christians are in possession of the true 
mind and sense of the Old Testament scriptures, and 
also of the doctrine of the New Testament : that is, we 
have the knowledge of Jesus Christ, who was promised 
in the prophetic scriptures, and was afterwards mani- 
fested, and brought with himself tlie true light and un- 
derstanding of the scriptures : as he saith John v. 46., 
^* Had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me : 
for he wrote, of me." And Luke xxiv. 44, " AH things 
must be fulfilled which were written in the law of 
Moses and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, cbncem- 
ihg'tae." And again, verse 45, " Then opened he their 
«ycs that they might understand the scriptures." 

Here is then the grand turning point : on this all 
depends : in^ this all centres. And, he that does not 
truly know or desire to know this our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ the Son of God, whom Christians preach, 
such an one is to be persuaded to abstain altogether 
from the books of the Holy Scriptures. For he cannot 
but run against them in every part, till at last he be- 
comes blind and enfuriated, and rushes headlong ; and 
that the more terribly, the more determinately he applies 
himself to the reading of those scriptures. And such 
an one may indeed be called a Jew, a. Turk, or a 
Scythian ; or, if he like, a Christian. — For, mark what • 
it was that precipitated the Arians, the Manichees, the 
Pelagians, and other followers of heresies £i.mong us into 
■errors and destruction? What was there wanting to 
them that is necessary unto the true reading of the 
scriptures ? What can the whole tribe belonging to the 
Pope complain of as wanting to them ? Have they not 
(I am not now speaking of the Old Testament,) have 

they not, I say, a reading of the books of the New Testify 
ment sure, perspicuous, and clearer than the li^i. 
And, what is now wanting to the authors of new sects i| 
this day ? Have not these also the opportunity of read- 
ing the doctrine of the Gospel most surely and- deolf 
delivered in the books of the New Testament? Andye^ 
they fully manifest that they neither hold it nor undef^ 
stand any thing about it. — ^Are we then to suppon 
that a new version of the New Testament also, ever mt^' 
or is now, necessary, just to suit the fanatical caprice gjf 
the mad whims or dreams of some one brain or anoAgr 
that is driven to and fro by Satan? If this be the caa^ 
what end will there be to such new interpretations, 0t 
where will their number stop? 

Wherefore, if I were allowed to have my choksti 
either of retaining the intrepretation and sentiments ef 
Augustine and other pure writers like him, (which wonU 
be retaining the mind of the apostles), and being withoult 
that in which he was deficient, (for he sometimes erMd 
from the meaning of certain Hebrew letters and words);; 
or, of abiding by the sure and clear interpretations gf 
the Jews, as they would call them, (but which they them- 
selves are compelled to confess, do not agree in all 
things), without the understanding of Augustine, and 
such other of the ancient commentators ; it id easy Uf 
judge which I should choose. — I would bid an eternal 
farewell to the Jews, and send them, together with their 
interpretations and points to letters, to that place to 
which they ought to be consigned. And I know I 
should remain on the side of eternal life* For althou^ 
Augustine (for example), did not understand the word 
KiKAiON, Jonah iv. 6, which he rendered * cucumber;' 
and again, although he did not know that the Hebrew 
words, Haggai ii. 7, signified " the desire (hemda) of 
all nations shall come," and rendered the passage thus, 
not very wide of the meaning, " The desired of all 
nations shall come ;" yet, by these trifling errors his faith 
was neither overthrown nor in peril ; for that still hdd 
fast hold of the true anchor of his salvation ; that is,, of 
iiim who is '^ the way, the truths and the life^" concemio^ 


whom ail the prophets prophesied, and to whom, as it is 
said Acts x. 48, " they all gave witness." 

Whereas, the Jews, bemuse they do not receive 
Christ, are never able to arrive at the knowledge of 
Moses and the prophets, nor to an understanding of their 
ttieaning : that is, what the true doctrine of faith is, what 
/die law requires, and what the examples and historical 
events recorded in the scriptures teach. And yet they 
Itave the whole scripture, and it is sounded forth in their 
"•ynagogues every day. But thus Isaiah prophesied of 
inem, chap. xliv. 18 ; that it should be with them as if 
Ik book were put into the hands of one who could not 
read ; who, althou^ he should see the figure:^ of the 
letters, and, as the Germans say in a proverb, should see 
ibe ' furrows of the black corn-field ploughed upon the 
white surfece,' yet would not know what these letters or 
sentences meant, nor what they expressed, and would 
p^ over them without the least mental understanding. 
Whereas one that knew how to read and was in the 
habit of reading quickly, would catch the sense of the 
scriptures by just turning over the leaves, and perhaps 
while doing something else at the same time ; nor would 
he be at all prevented from getting at the sense, even if a 
few letters or words should escape him here and there ; 
and such an one would receive the whole contents of a 
great portion of the scripture, while the other was finding 
oat the meaning of one word or syllable. So also, one 
fliat is an excellent singer, will run over all the notes of 
the tune, which are written down in the same way as 
letters; before another, who is unacquainted with the 
musical characters, will find out the meaning of those 
first characters, of the tune which are placed at the be- 
^ning, and which are as it were the directions and 
guides to the whole tune, and are therefore called keys. 

See how the case stands with Nicholas Lyranus, a 
pious man, a good Hebraist, and a faithful interpreter. — 
What an excellent work does he undertake when he re- 
fates the corruptions of the Jews in the Books of the New 
Testament? But on the other hand, how frigid, how futile 
b that same man, while he follows his Rabbi Solomon r 


How little does he say to the parpose, thou^ he. h» 
before him the pure Hebrew text, without any ambigaityt 
And yet, he is by far the most faithful tad pure inter^'. 
preter, and far before all the antient and modem Ikk 
braists, who, are so devoted to the Rabbin9, and who 
studiously follow them. In a word, it is by no m< 
a usefuT service to the church to introduce among 
books the labours, the interpretations, and the opii 
of the Rabbins and judaizing grammarians. All 
things stick too closely to the scriptures alreculy, wil 
bur introducing them by labour and study. Fori 
superstitious regard to the letters and the texf that 
received by the Jews, and a dependence on their 
thorities and examples, soon bring on a darkness ; 
at length, the true sense and understanding of 
scriptures concerning Christ are lost, and judai^ii 
imaginations creep upon us unawares when. . they ou^t 
not. And this I have observed has been the case with 
all interpreters, no one, not even myself, excepted. 

But, in a word, if we do not in our expositions dirept 
all our labour and study to make the text of the Scrip* 
ture, as far as it is possible to be done, agree with the 
sentiments of the apostolic writers as recorded in the 
New Testament, against all the corruptions of Rabbin^ 
it would be far better for us to let alone the study erf J 
Hebrew altogether, and to abide simply by that yersionl 
of the Bible which has hitherto been received and use^^ 
(which has now nearly all been explained and illustrated'*' 
by the books of the New Testament,) than so to multip^ . 
new versions on account of a few places where m 
Hebrew text is different, or where the true meaning of ' 
certain words cannot be ascertained; for. by all mese ^ 
versions, nothing is produced but a distraction of the ' 
memory of those who read all the varieties and differ- . 
ences of renderings, and a hinderance of study ; and ; 
after all, the passage is in many places left more obscure ' 
than it was before. 

In order therefore to excite attention, after the ex- 
ample of others, I have taken upon me to give ao 
£xposition of " the last words of David." This howeyef 


I diaU not do after the manner Aat I have adopted in 
some former versions, where I followed Rabbins and 
other interpreters, that I might not appear to set myself 
up for the only wise one ; for here, I have resolved to 
stand by my own judgment, and to follow the leadings 
of my own spirit. And if there be any one whom ihat 
does not please, he may, for what I care, follow that 
which pleases him best. I know this is not the first 
time that my writings have not pleased all. But now, 
by the grace of God, I am become proof against the 
various opinions of men. Yet still, I will not bind 
myself by a determination to condemn all they say or 
write. " Let every man prove his own work." Let 
him look to it what he builds upon that foundation that 
is laid ; let him look to it whether it be gold or wood, 
silver or stubble ; for the day shall declare it. 

Now these be the last words of David. 

They are called the " Last words," because he thus 
spoke them as testifying that he wished to hold them 
fast unto his latest breath, and to die and depart out of 
' this life in the confession of them, seeing that they are 
spoken as we are accustomed to speak when we add our, 
' I have said it ! ' ^ This is my testimony ! ' ^ Let this be 
recorded and established for ever ! ' For these are not 
the words of the last hour of the life, or of the govern- 
ment of David ; but the words of his ultimate wishes, 
(as we say,) or of his last will and testament ; which 
he would ratify by his death, and which he testifies that 
he would have to be observed inviolably even after his 
death. It is such a will and testament as is written by 
the testator during his life, and after which he can and 
may live many years, and during that time say, do, and 
suffer many things, while the written will, that contains 

VOL. II. o 


his ultimate wishes, still cemaios fi)ced, fatified, and « 


Thus therefore these are called, and rightly calk 
" the last words of David," which he wishes to hf 
that power and force, as though they were a last will a 
testament written at the point of death ; though he 8 
and did many things afterwards in his government, i 
suffered also many things ; as appears from the sab 
quent part of his history, where his numbering of 
people and the punishment which followed it, are 
corded ; and also his appointing his son Solomon as 
successor to the kingdom, and giving him directi 
concerning the building of the temple ; his taking a 
him a young Shunamite virgin that she might warm h 
because he had abstained from the rest of his wi 
since the time of their defilement by his son Absalon 

David the son of Jesse said. 

How humble and modest a' commencement ! 
does not boast of the glory of his nation and- of 
circumcision, nor of his virtues and sanctity of life, 
of the kingdom given to him from above. He sim 
styles himself " the son of Jesse," as though he ti 
some private person, and not that mighty king, y 
would leave behind him heirs to such exalted hopo 
He is not grieved at, nor ashamed of, the very hun 
birth which he derived from his father, in being hoc 
a parent who was a shepherd, nor of having been h 
self a keeper of sheep. Nay, that he might the qc 
debase himself, he himself confesses the original si| 
nature — that he was born in sin and worthy of dej 
as are all the human race. And all this was because 
did not here design to speak of his own glcwy, but 
things the most high and important ; and which are 
far above all human things, that no human dignity, 
righteousness or holiness, can add any thing to the 
and no human misery, no sin or even death, can take i 
thing from them. 

The man who toas confirmed cmcerning the Mess, 
of the God of Jacoby stpeet in the Psalms qjf* Israel^ sa 


Here be now begins to lift up his head above all things 
id to glory in a new manner, but yet, in truth and 
ithout arrogance. Here you hear another David, far 
K)ve David the son of Jesse. This glory he had not 
r nature and by birth as hereditary ; nor did he imbibe 
in his father's house, from education ; nor was it 
quired by his own virtues, industry, wisdom, or regal 
)wer. — He had it from some other quarter. He received 
from above of God. For, " a man can receive nothing, 
:cept it be given him from heaven," as the Baptist 
ith, John iii, 27; he cannot receive it upon the grounds 
' his own worthiness or merits. This gift, therefore, 
'avid exultingly proclaims ; and for this benefit, sings 
le praises of God and gives him thanks with his 
hole heart. 

What then is that, you will say, on account of which 
1 this glorying is ? David saith the first thing is this : 
-I am the man to whom the Lord has surely pro- 
ised the Messiah, or the Christ, of the God of Jacob ! 
amely, that he should be bom of me, of my blood, 
' my posterity, and of my house ! And of that I am 
artain and fully assured : not only because God has 
remised it, who is true and faithful to his Word and 
innot lie, but because I hold that promise fast by a 
led and assured faith, and rest securely on it without 
ny doubt whatever, being fully persuaded that my con- 
oence will not deceive me : and therefore with all the 
Rist of an unshaken mind, I rest in the Word of God. 
ind being thereby anointed with real gladness, I am now 
feady to yield all obedience to his will, and willing to 
N or die, or to do or suffer any thing. For I know 
M am persuaded where this life — this spirit will remain. 
w will not wander in darkness, uncertainty, and doubt ; 
to will it depart unhappily out of this mortal body. 
^^ I know that I have the sure promise of God con- 
'^^g the Messiah, and I hold the same in an un- 
^*aken faith. 

, The Hebrew word H UK AM can hardly be rendered byus 
•one word. Hieronymus says it signifies * constituted,' 

o S 


nor is he far from the mark ; for it signified * established,' 
^ certified,' ^ confirmed.' And I believe the author 
of the Epistle to the Hebrews referred, and alluded, to 
this word, when, in his description of " faith," he de- 
fined it as being " the substance," (in the Greek 
Hupo STASIS,) that is, a firm and sure confidence or "j 
expectation, resting on the Word of God as a firm and 
immovable foundation. For that faith, which is truly 
a faith in the Word of God, ought to be that firmness 
and stability of mind, which neither shakes, nor wavers, 
nor is moved from its point, nor trembles, nor looks this 
way and that with anxiety ; but which firmly and steadily 
rest on a sure and immovable foundation; that is tte 
Word of God. 

The same Hebrew word is found in that passage of 
Isaiah xl. 8, " But the word of the Lord shall stand for 
ever." For the primitive word is lakom. As thou^ 
he had said, * The Word of the Lord stands,' * stands 
firm,' ' is stable,' ^ does not depart,' * does not shake/ \ 

* does not fluctuate,' 'does not flee,' * does not slide,' ^is ■ 
not frustrated.' Wherefore, when this same Word is 
truly apprehended by faith, the heart becomes like it, 
certain, firm, and secure ; and stands immovable, erect, 
and invincible against all the attacks and impressions of 
temptations from the devil, death, and hell, by which it 
may be assailed ; and, with a greatness and confidence, 
yields not to evils, but the more and more boldly with- 
stands and bursts through them, courageously despising, 
and, as it were, looking down with proiid contempt upon 
whatever it feels to attack or oppose it, or to cause 
doubt or distress. 

. It is such a person as this, that is termed hukam, 

* established ; ' and as you may say ' substantiated,' 

* confirmed,' and assured passively ; that is, fully per- 
suaded; even as the Word of God is sure actively* 
Such also is Paul, where he says, Rom. viii. 38, 39, 
" For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor 
angels, nor principaHties, nor powers, nor things pre- [- 
sent, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any :- 




- 189 

Other creature, shall b^ able to separate us from the love 
of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord." And 
again, 2 Tim. i. 13, " For I know whom I have believed; 
and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which 
I have committed unto him against that day." And 
|he same is written 2 Pet i. 10, " Give all diligence to 
;'make your calling and election sure." 
^ Thus David is here rightly called hukam, as having 
c also a sure promise, (which was given also to the pa- 
triarch Jacob, Gen. xlix. 10, " The sceptre shall not 
.depart from Judah — until Shiloh come," &c.) and 
/resting upon it in an assured and firm faith; that this 
Messiah shall surely be bom, and shall manifest himself, 
from out of his posterity. For this promise is here 
repeated to David, and made much more expressive 
■ and manifest, for, leaving out all the rest of the race and 
.. femily of Judah, it pxoints to the house or posterity of 
David only ; — tliat the Messiah is to be surely expected 
from that family. 

But you must here bear this in mind — that this as- 
surance in which David says he stands, or is hukam, is 
to be referred most especially to the divine promise itself. 
Because there is a difference between the certainty of 
4e promise, and the certainty of our faith; though these 
two must always go together. For where there is no 
promise there can be no faith : and again, where there 
is no faith, the promise is in vain. But our faith is not 
always sufficiently firm, but is sometimes attacked by 
temptation^, and becomes languid, and oftentimes well 
nigh fails. Whereas the promise, as being the eternal 
ind immutable decree of God, stands for ever fixed, 
inn, and immovable. Hence, it is in respect of the 
promise itself that this honour is given to David, when 
16 is called hukam, or ' fully assured,' because he has 
:he sure promise made unto him ; though he could not 
ipprehend and hold fast that promise but by faith, for 
iaith there must be. — But, so far concerning this first 

He now goes on glorying, and adds, " Sweet, or 


pleasuit, in the Psalms of Israel.'^ As thoi]g)[i be 
author of the Book) had said, he did not keep 
sure promises concerning the Messiah, (as has , 
before observed,) in private, or to himself only, J(q^ 
the faith that he had is not an inactive principle, ~ 
happy in itself only, but exerts and lays itself out 
it were for the benefit of others ; and by its voice 
confession, openly proclaims this great kindness of G 
that others also may be won to believe and becoi 
partakers of such a blessing. Nay, that he might t 
also his own joy, he says, that he meditates beau 
and sweet Psalms, and makes pleasant and gladdeni 
melody, that he might therein celebrate the praises 
God and render him thanks. 

Thus therefore he piously glories that he has comp 
also noble, sweet, and delightful Psalms concerning tl 
promised Messiah, that they might be sung as songs 

?ublic thanksgiving in the assembly of the people 
srael, which Psalms were then generally accusto 
to be sung, and in which also, besides those praises 
the divine goodness, wonderful prophecies and sec 
doctrines were delivered to that people and explained; 
And moreover, an advantage was derived from this W 
ginning and example of David in composing Psalms, ifli 
tnis respect, — many others afterwards, being gifted with! 
the true light and a spirit of prophecy, pursued this 
method, and themselves also composed Psalms after the 
same manner; and even in the time of David there 
existed the Sons of Core, Heman, Asaph, and others. 

And these Psalms are called delightful and " sweet,* 
not from the sweetness of their composition or beauty 
of expression, nor from the harmony of their numbers 
or tunes when sung, which things please the ear only, 
and are what are called grammar or music, that is, when, 
during the time of their being sung, that which is called 
the text, or the tune, or the notes and sounds themselves 
of the musical harmony, have a particular elegance or 
sweetness. But they are called " sweet," much rather 
on account of the peculiar grace and sweetness of the 


f^^ doctrine and spiritual consolaticm which they ccMltaiil : 
5p/ evea as Paol^ Ephes. v. 19, exhorts that "hymns and 
j,> spiritual songs" be sung in the churches with grace. 
,p In this grace and sweetness the Psalms of David 
J especially abound, and have a wonderful power and 
ji, efficacy in comforting afflicted minds and consciences 
(: which are struggling with the terrors of sin, with the 
fear and dread of death, or with any other kind of 
trouble. To such, the Psalms are wonderfully sweet, 
delightful, and full of consolation; because they sing of 
and predict the Messiah, even when the words them- 
selves are read without any music or singing. But yet, 
the musical art adds much to their sweetness, as being 
a wonderful work and gift of God ; especially when in 
a large assembly they all sing with a becoming gravity , 
and devotion. So, it is said of Elijah, 2 Kings iii. 15, 
that when a minstrel was brought unto him, (wha no 
doubt was one that sung the Psalms in the public assem- 
bly, according to the manner instituted by David,) the 
spirit of prophecy was revived in him. And David also 
himself, playing on his own harp, often drove the " evil 
spirit" from Saul when it came upon him, or certainly 
repressed it, 1 Sam. xvi. 23. For that terrible spirit 
cannot bear the Word of God when preaqhed or sung 
in true faith. He is a spirit that is the author of pertur- 
bation and dejection of mind, and cannot remain where 
the heart is in the spirit, that is, engaged with God and 
the Word of God, and joyful and happy therein. Thus 
Antony the eremite said, that the devil is tortured by 
the spiritual joy and gladness of the godly. 

But, David does not call these Psalms his Psalms, 
but " the Psalms of Israel : " nor does he claim them 
as his own, or arrogate them to himself as an honour due 
to him : but he will have them received on the authority 
of Israel, that is, of the church, and considered as the 
psalms of the church : that is, he would in this way 
unite himself with the church, and acknowledges her as 
the great teacher and mistress : and would acknowledge 
that this gift was bestowed upon him for her benefit 



and through her ministry. And by this he woold a 
testify, that he retained that confession of d 
which was delivered in the church downward from 
first fathers, and which he himself also had received 
from her ; and that he brought forward and approved 
of no other kind of doctrine, than that which is hel 
forth in the church, who alone, it is certain, holds the 
true Word of God. For it is of the utmost impoi 
to know whether or not the people of God, or 
church, approve by its judgment any doctrine or p 
that is publicly brought forward, or will give it sanction 
for the Holy Spirit must necessarily be in such ao 
assembly: whom all in the church ought certainly to 
acknowledge and venerate. 

And it is in this same way that we now speak of oar 
poems and authors of hymns. Thus, Ambrosius com- 
posed many excellent hymns for the church, and these 
are now called the Canticles of the church : because the 
church approves them, as being agreeable to the doc- j 
trine of the Gospel : and therefore, she uses them as ^ 
though composed by herself. For we are not accus- * 
tomed to say * Ambrosius, or Gregory, or Prudai* 
tius, or Sedulius, sings so and so,' but, * The church 
sings so ^nd so.' That is, those canticles are now 
become the property of the church, which the <:hurch 
together with them, and they together with the churchy i 
sing in common; and because, though they are now 
dead, the church still retains the same canticles. 

In the same manner, therefore, David would have . 
his hymns called the " Psalms of Israel :" that is, of 
the church of God ; because the same spirit which 
composed them by David, still continues to sing the 
same in his assembly after David is dead. And herein 
he acknowledges the judgment of the church, because it 
approves these Psalms as its own. And without doubt 
David then well knew by the Spirit, that this Book (rf 
Psalms would live and remain in the church as long as 
any Israel or people of God should exist : that is, unto 
the end of the world. And so we see them to remain 


to tbB dvf , aad going oo to icbud unto our pQ6t&- 
y. WhevefiDre diey are josthr called "« the Psalms of 
lad," or of the Gfamdi of God. 

The Sfirit of tkt Lard spake by ar, ami his Want 
msds am wof Urngrnc 

Hete he exahs hinwdf in a wonderful manner, 
id as it were soais od hi^ towards the heavens, and 
leaks of things so great, diat I woold that I may but 
i able to come up to their magnitude in any small 
^ree. For in these words he at the rery outset embraces 
lat most sublime article of the doctrine of faith and 
mfesston, — die wonderful mystery of the three Persons 
1 the Godhead ! 

For, first, he doquoitly makes mention of the Per- 
m of the Holy Spirit, and ascribes unto him all that 
le prophets ever prophesied ; when he says, that it B-as 
[ie " Spirit of the Lord " that spoke by them, even as 
■ was he that spoke by hina also. And so also Peter, 
nth reference to this scripture and others like it, saith, 
that no prophecy came by any human will, but that 
K>ly men of God spake as they were moved by the 
loly Ghost.' And in the Nicene Creed, it is thus 
nng concerning the Holy Spirit, * Who spake by the 
vophets.' And thus also, here, are attributed to him 
he very opening of the holy scriptures, and the whole 
tf the ministry of the Word and sacraments which are 
isibly set forth, and which strike and move our ears and 
Buses. For Christ himself ascribes his voice to the 
loly Ghost, when he says out of Isaiah, Luke iv. 18, 
The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because he 
ath anointed me," &c. And again it is said, Matt. xii. 
8, out of Isaiah xli. " Behold my servant whom I 
ave chosen — I will put my Spirit upon him." And 
gain, Luke i. S5^ " The Holy Ghost is said to over- 
^dow Mary: that is, to work effectually in her and 
ause her to be fruitful : so that, Christ may truly be 
ailed the Son of God, conceived of the Holy Ghost. 

And how great an honour is it, how proud (yet holy) 
I boasting, when one has confidence thus truly to glory, 


that the Spirit of the Lord speaketh by him, and that 
fa^ mouth and tongue sounds forth the Word of the 
Spirit ! Such an one must necee^arily, and indeed have 
the most certain testimonies of his office and ministry. 
Such an one must be, not David the son of Jesse, that 
is, as he was born, a sinner and ignorant of God ; but 
it must be that David, who, by the Spirit of Grod, and 
by the promises made unto hitn, was raised up to bet 
prophet. And will not such an one sing ^^ sweet 
Psalms," when he has such a teacher, who teaches him 
inwardly and speaks by him outwardly ? 

Here, therefore, " he that hath ears to hear let him 
hear." — My words, saith be, are not mine. He that 
heareth me, heareth not me, but the Spirit of God, yea, 
God himself. He that despiseth me, despiseth God who 
speaketh in me. For I see, even now, that there will 
be many of my posterity who will not hear my worda^ 
nor understand this my glorying ; and that, to their own 
great and eternal ruin ! — But we are not permitted thus 
to glory, nor any one else who has not a prophet's 
calling and gifts. Nay, it is a blessed thing for us, when 
we are so far favoured as to become saints and to have 
the Spirit of God, and when we may glory i nbeing the 
catechumens, as it were^, and the disciples of the 
prophets^ that is, when we receive the doctrine deli- 
vered by the prophets and apostles, and follow them nsi 
the great heralds that speak the voice of heaven ; when 
we speak no other things than what we have received . 
and learnt from those teachers; and when we oaa 
assuredly boast in this, as being the very and true doctrine 
of the patriarchs and the prophets. For the scripture 
calls such the " sons of the prophets : " that is, those who 
do not bring forward any new or peculiar Wnd of doc* 
trine, (which is the office of the prophetic vocation only,) 
but who spread abroad that same doctrine which tbey 
have received from the prophets. These are the real 
Israel ; or certainly a part of that assembly to whom 
David signifies that he delivered his Psalms. 

The God of Israel saidy the Rock of Isf^ael spake to 


t: he that is a jtist ruler amor^ men^ ruling in the 
or of God. 

You have now heard three speaking. Just before, 
»avid said that the Spirit of God spake by his tongue ; 
id there, there is clearly set before us Christians, the 
erson of the Holy Ghost. For what the Mahometans 
• Jews or others believe or believe not, is nothing to 
\ We know that to the Holy Spirit is ascribed, 
xrording to the scriptures and the confession of our^ 
reed, the work of speaking with us in the church by 
le prophets, apostles, and other teachers or ministers ; 
ad that he is effectual in the church by the vocal Word 
lid the sacraments ; which church he sanctifies, rules, and 
overns. Therefore these words of David, are properly 
le words of the Holy Ghost, pronounced through the 
louth and by the tongue of David, concerning the 
ther two Persons who are speaking. 

What then does he (the Holy Ghost) say concern- 
ig those Persons ? First, he speaks clearly concerning 
be God of Israel who spoke to David ; that is, who 
;ave him the promise. And who that God is that 
peaks, is well known to us Christians from the Gospel, 
ohn i. 1 : namely, God the Father himself, whom 
loses testifies of as having said in the beginning, " Let 
lere be light," Gen. i. 3. And, the Word or Logos of 
lat God, is the very Person of the Son of God, by 
hom " all things were made," as it is said John i. 3. 
nd this same Son of God is in this passage called by 
e Holy Spirit the Zur, that is, the Stone, or Rock, or 
Tength, of Israel, and the just Ruler among misn. 
ad, this Person the Holy Ghost thus represents as 
irelling among men, and there speaking atid giving 
omises. — Therefore, there are three persons speak- 
g, and yet, it is. the same One God that is speaking, 
e same One God that is promising, and the promise 
the same; even as, there is but One God, who is 
essed for ever ! 

But, as that action of God, whereby God, through 
le ministry of the Word, works in men by the external 


voice and by signs, is properly ascribed unto the Holt 
Ghost ; so, it is properly ascribed unto the Son of God,' 
that he alone assumed human nature, and was therefore, 
constituted Lord and Judge of the whole human race 
and of every creature ; as it is written Psalm viii. 4—6,' 
" What is man that thou art mindful of him, and thft*ii 
son of man that thou visitest him ? Thou madest him tcf< 
have dominion over the works of thy hands : thou hast 
put all things under his feet," And yet, we do not 
therefore make Three Lords, or a three-fold dominion. 
But there is One Lord and one dominion : which, God 
the Father has given unto the Eternal Son, yea, unUi 
him as Man and the Son of Adam : and yet, not to the 
exclusion of himself and the Holy Ghost : yet still, if 
it is truly and properly called the power and dominioo^ 
of the Son of God, delivered over unto him by the 
Eternal Father. Therefore, it must of necessity be, that "■ 
this very Son of Man whom you in this passage hear 
called the Lord, or Ruler, is truly and naturally Godl 
seeing that, he holds this same kingdom which is God's 
alone, and has an equal power with God the Father. — 
For God never gives to, or bestows on, any other out of 
himself his own, (that is his properly divine,) honour, 
and power, and kingdom : according to that scripture, 
'* Thou shalt have none other gods but me." And 
Isaiah xlii. 8, " I am the Lord — and my glory will I 
not give to another, neither my praise to graven 
images." When therefore he himself declares that he 
gives his honour, power, and kingdom, (that is, puts all 
things that he has made in subjection,) to this Man or 
Son of Adam, with equal and the same power as that 
under which he himself holds them ; it must of neces- 
sity follow, that this same Person to whom this power is 
given, is not a strange god or an idol, but truly and 
naturally God, together with the Father himself and the 
Holy Spirit. 

But of this, (by the help of God,) more shall be said 
hereafter, and other similar prophecies shall be brought 
forward. Let us now, as we proposed, open up these 
words of David ; in which are clearly testified these two 


principal heads or articles of the doctrine concerning 
God: — That, there are three distinct Persons in the 
Godhead ; that, of these three Persons, one, that is, the 
Son of God, should take upon him human nature, and 
receive from the Eternal Father a power and dominion 
over all things ; and that the Holy Ghost, should put 
into the hearts of men, by faith, that light which truly 
apprehendeth God, or the knowledge of God, even as 
he had made known the same before by the tongues and 
voices of the patriarchs and prophets. Which operations 
of the Holy Spirit must, of necessity, be also truly and 
only divine. For it is not in any human or angelic 
power or faculty, either to foretel these things and promise 
them long before they took place, or to work faith in 
the heart, firmly to believe them. Thus Paul saith, that 
the faith which the Holy Ghost bringeth, and worketh 
in the hearts of them that believe, is, " the gift of God." 
Nor is it in the power of every one to see and appre- 
hend this distinction of persons so manifestly signified 
in the prophetical scriptures and in the Psalms. For 
when any one lights upon such words as these with his 
carnal mind and with the judgment of reason, he will 
read the words, indeed, in this order, " The God of 
Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake unto me : he that is 
a just ruler among men," &c. But when he thus reads the 
words, what else will he think, than that all this is spoken 
of one and the same person in many and redundant 
words? Or else, he will fall into those deliriums of the 
blindness of the Jews, who make this just ruler over 
men, and this ruler in the fear of God, to be David him- 
self; and thus, they absolutely change this most sweet 
promise into a legal precept; as though nothing else 
were said, than that he who would rule over men, must 
be just, and fear God. Whereas, David glories in such 
plain words, and with all that ardour of spirit and gra- 
titude of heart, that these are the words of a promise 
which God spoke to him concerning the promised 
Messiah of the God of Jacob; and not a precept which 
he himself gives to kings or political governors. 

The same would happen to such a reader when reading 


the second Psalm, (the whole of which, it is most certain, 
is composed concerning Christ,) where, in like man- 
ner, three distinct Persons are represented, as three 
speaking. For, first, God the Father says, "Yet have 
I set my King upon my holy hill of Sion," v. 6 ; and 
this King concerning whom mention is made, must of 
necessity be another and distinct Person from him who 
appointed him King; and therefore, it immediately 
follows in the Psalm, v. 7, '^ I will declare the decree," 
or manner; (that is, of this King thus appointed.) All 
these words so far, sound as if it were that same Person 
of the Father speaking who first began ; nor will reason 
here understand it otherwise. But it is certain, that there 
is another person here speaking; that is, the Son himself, 
the King; as the series and connection of the words 
will shew, where it follows, v. 7, " The Lord hath said 
unto me. Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten 
thee," &c. For this person to whom the Lord speaks, 
and whom he said he had appointed King, must of ne- 
cessity have a human nature, seeing that he makes him 
a preacher, to preach the commands of God, and clearly 
declares above, that he is the Messiah ; when he says, 
that the world rages against th6 Lord and against his 
Christ. — And moreover, that this same King and 
Preacher is also truly and naturally God, is manifest 
from this; that God the Father says to him, " Thou art 
my Son, this day have I begotten thee;" all these things 
are well known to us Christians. The same also is 
manifest from God's saying that he gives to this Person 
the " inheritance" of the whole world; that is, all power 
and whatever the world possesses; which certainly is 
nothing else, than truly giving to this same Person that 
same power and that same dominion, which are properly 
God's alone. 

And therefore, this same Psalm commands that the 
kings and kingdoms of the world " kiss the'Son :" that is, 
that they profess that they adore him, and that they serve 
him, &c. And then it concludes, " Blessed are all they 
that hope in him ; " which certainly is due to God only. 
And although all do not obey him so as to embrace the 


Gospel, yet, this does not at all lessee his domimoti 
and power over all creatures. For he that does not will- 
ingly submit himself to this King under his grace, must 
of necessity submit himself to him under his wraUi; 
as the same Psalm says, " Lest he be angry, and ye 
perish from the way." He that will not reign with him 
eternally blessed and happy, shall be made his footstool 
auMl be trodden under his feet with the rest of his ene- 
mies ; fer i>e is appointed of God to be the only Judge 
of the quiek aiid dead. 

And thinkest thou that the Turkish fury, Popery, 
the Jews, and the whole mass of the violent world 
stmining with diabolical rage, shall, although they now 
reject and despise the grace of this King and Judge, 
and angrily set themselves against him, hereafter escape 
hi& power and judgment ? No ! they shall find it to be 
fer otherwise, as his enemies have ever hitherto found 
it. For the Psalm saith, that the Lord that " sitteth in 
the heavens shall laugh'' at their rage, and " speak unto 
them in his wrath." 

In a word, this Person is Lord and will be Lord as 
widely as God himself has dominion who gave this 
dominion unto him : as he himself says, ** All power i& 
given unto me in heaven and in earth," Matt, xxviii. 18. 
And this dominion is, and ever will remain, firm and 
sure unto him ; and that unto the eternal destruction of 
him who will not, willingly and under the grace of this 
Lord, acknowledge it; for he shall be compelled to 
acknowledge it under wrath and punishment eternal. 

Here therefore you have, again, the Persons of the 
Father and of the Son clearly and distinctly expressed : 
and the Person of the Holy Ghost is also at the same 
time clearly implied, who composed and spoke these 
Psalms concerning the Father and the Son speaking. 

TBiis scripture, therefore, by a manifest testimony 
distinctly sets forth a Trinity of Persons, of one eternal, 
indivisible, divine essence: and also clearly speaks 
concerning the Son of God, who should take upon him 
human nature, as being the promised Messiah.^— And this 


IS the same confession that is set forth in these ** Last 
words of David." 

But, as I said, men of carnal judgment pass by 
these words with an unconcerned mind ; and think that 
it was not the Holy Ghost the author that spoke these 
words, but the good and pious man David that spoke them 
concerning himself or concerning some other, no one 
knows who : and this is the way in which the greatest men 
among the Jews always understand this passage. Whereas 
David himself plainly declares, that this is not his poetry, 
but " the sweet Psalms of Israel ;" and that it was not 
he that spoke them, but the Holy Ghost by his tongue. 
And moreover, they are not spoken concerning himself, 
but concerning the Messiah of the God of Jacob. 

But, finally, how could it be possible that flesh and 
blood, and human reason and wisdom, should thus speak 
forth clearly concerning things so great, so mysterious, and 
placed so far beyond human comprehension, when those 
same human faculties consider them foolishness and an 
offence when set forth by and heard from others ? 

But however, that which I have asserted so to be, is 
the meaning of the words of David, that such most cer- 
tainly was his belief, and that he persevered in that faith 
even unto his latest breath, let us now proceed to prove 
by testimonies taken from himself. And in so doing, let 
us first set before us for a moment those words, 2 Sam. 
vii. wherein he had respect to the present passage where 
he says, that God spake to him concerning the Messiah 
of the God of Jacob, and rested upon it as a foundation, 
and from it as a certain fountain drew those " sweet 
Psalms of Israel." The words meant, are those that are 
thus written in that history which is contained 2 Samuel 
vii. from the 1st to the 17th verse. 

Also the Lord telleth thee, that the Lord will make 
thee an house. And when thy days be fulfilled^ and thou 
shalt sleep with thy fathers^ I will set up thy seed after 
thee which shall proceed out of thy bowels,- and I will 
establish his kingdom. He shall build me an house and 

20 i 

viU establish his throne for ever. I will be to him a father^ 
'd he shall be to me a son. And my mercy I mil not turn 
my from himy as I took it away from him who was before 
ee. But I will establish him in my house and in my 
ngdom for ever, and his throne shall be established 
r ever. 

T^ H E first member of this passage, " The 
Lord telleth thee that the Xord will make 
ee an house," clearly speaks of the very house or pps- 
rity of David, — that his family or posterity should 
main in possession of the sceptre of Judah until the 
anifestation of the Messiah : as I have proved from 
is same passage elsewhere against the Jews. 

And here again, at the very beginning, the Three 
ersons in the Godhead distinctly discover them- 
ilves unto us. — First, there is the Person of the Holy 
rhost, who speaks these things by the prophet Nathan, 
or, as we have before observed, the w^ork of speaking 
f the prophets in the holy scriptures is properly 
jcribed to the Person of the Holy Ghost : according 
) that saying of David, " The Spirit of the Lord 
3ake by me : " and he speaks in the same way by all 
le prophets. — And then, this same Holy Ghost speak- 
ig, introduces as it were the Person of the Father 
peaking, when he says, *' The Lord telleth thee," 
:c. — And then directly afterwards, in the same con- 
jxt, he adds also the Person of the Son, saying, " that 
le Lord will make thee an house." ^nd yet, it is but 
)ne God or Lord that speaks by the prophet Nathan, 
[lat tells unto David, and that makes him a house: 
hat is, it is the same that speaks, that tells, and that is 
be builder. And, if human reason cannot see and 
eceive this manifest distinction of persons, that is nothing 
us. Nor am I ignorant with what glosses scofSng 
avillers, who would become teachers oC the Holy 
jrhost, will elude this and the like passages. 

But do thou, reader, lay down for thyself this as a 
ertain rule — that, wherever in the scriptures thou readest 
f one God speaking of another God, as distinct Per* 

VOL. II. p 


sons, or, as one person of another person, there tfiou 
mayest safely affirm that the Three distinct Persons of 
the Godhead are signified and set forth. As it is in this 
passage, where " the Lord" speaks and " tells" that 
** the Lord will build" the house of David. And again, 
Gen. xix. 24, " Then the Lord rained brimstone and 
fire from the Lord," &c. For we are sure that the 
Holy Ghost is not devoid of cbmmon sense, nor 
intoxicated, nor a vairt' and futile trifler, so as that he 
should speak one word, or even one iota, utterly without 
cause to no purpose. When therefore the Lord, (that is, 
the Person of the Son,) is said to rain brimstone and 
fire from the Lord, (that is from the Person of the 
Father from whom the Son proceeds,) there is also 
manifested the Person of the Holy Ghost, who speaks 
this by Abraham, (and also by those who came after 
him, such as the writer Moses 'himself,) concerning the 
other two Persons, each of whom are called " Lord;" 
but so, that those Three together are but One Lord, 
One God, who alone rained the brimstone and fire. — 
But we shall hear more examples of this kind here- 

In the other member of this passage where it is said 
to David, " And when thy days are fulfilled, and thou 
shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after 
thee," &c. here is where the Messiah begins to be 
spoken of. For these words cannot be understood of 
Solomon, the successor of David; much less of any 
other of David's sons or descendants. This (** seed ") 
must of necessity be that one especial son of David 
who was to come after the sceptre of Judah, (that 
being removed.) Thus also when it is said, " He shall 
build me an house, and I will establish his throne for 
ever." By this " house " cannot be meant the templ6 after- 
ymrds built by Solomon : for the same Nathan had said 
to David just before, ** Thou shalt not build an house 
for me to dwell in. For I have not dwelt in any -house 
since the time that I brought up the children of Israel 
out of Egypt." And Solomon himself afterwards saith, 
1 Kings viii 27, " But will God indeed dwell oft the 


earth? BeHold, the heaven, and heaven, of heavens 
cannot contain . thee ; how mjuch less this house that I 
have builded ?" But the samfe is still iriofe expressively 
set forth By Isaiah, chap. Ixvi. " Thus saith the LorC The 
heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool : 
where is the house' that ye btiild unto me? and where is 
the place of my rest ? " 

Here he clearly and forcibly refutes the foolikh per-^ 
suasion of tH^ Jews, who gloried in the temple aS if they 
had built an house to God, and performed some great 
and especial worship : and being proudly pufFedf up 
with this their work, they became the furious murderer^ 
of the prophets. Whereas, God here plainly declarej^,;, 
that he cannot endure their temple, (as though he had 
need of that for an habitation,) but that he looks to the 
man " that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and tnayt ^ 
trembleth at his word."^ It is here he saith that he will 
dwell, and this he §aith shall be his temple arid' His 
rest. — The prophet refutes also in this same passage, 
aiid that in words the most severe and cutting, tne 
sacrifices and wdtsliip of the temple, saying, "'He that 
killieth an ox is as if he ^lew a man ; he that sacrificetto 
a lamb as if he cut off a dog's neck ; he that offereth an 
dblarticm ak if he offered swine's 'blbod ; he thiat Burneth 
iticense as if he blessed an idol." For God did hot \W^h 
and^ command -a temple to be built, that they iflighjt 
arrogantly and obstinately rfesist his precepts and pro- 
mises, and neglecting tnem, multiply sacrifices, and 
thus set themseflves off as the great saints of God : but, 
that his name,'(afe the sferipture every where saith,) that 
is;' the true knowledge of God according to the given 
Word, might there dwell and be celebrated, and ndt 
that he himself should be considered to be enclosed as it 
were in that place. That is, he wished his: Wbrd'tojbfe 
heard in the temple, that he might by it be truly kriowtt 
and called upon, and that thus true honour might be 
paid him. Whereas they, on the contrary,, arrbgated 
to themfeelves the honour and glory which are '^ue 
unto God, because of their having built unto hita so 
mttgriificent a temple : and irf this confidfericfe thi^' 

p 2 


killed the prophets on account of that Word which 
they preached. 

Wherefore, it must of necessity follow, that this 
** house," which it is said that the Messiah, proceeding 
from David and the Son of God, should build, must be 
quite different from, and greater and more glorious than, 
that temple of Jerusalem. For only consider with thyself, 
— when God says that this house shall be "his" house, 
that is, in which he himself will dwell ; it at once follows, 
that it must be much more extensive and holy than 
heaven and earth; seeing that the God him\>elf who 
is to dwell in this house is so great, that all heaven 
only forms his seat or throne on which he sits, and all 
earth is under his feet as his footstool. Justly therefore 
does he say, * What house will ye build unto me of 
wood or of stone, when the whole fabric of the world, 
the heavens and the earth, are by far too narrow to 
contain me?' 

Concerning this " house," therefore, that is to be built 
unto G#d, the scriptures of the New Testament espe- 
cially, fully instruct us, — ^namely, that this " house" is that 
which is, and is called, the holy church of God, which 
has existed throughout the world from the beginning, 
which is declared to be also an eternal house that shall 
conquer and remain for ever, and in which God shall 
dwell to all eternity, and reign and rule as the master of 
the house. — Here then you have a dwelling-place and a 
temple indeed, great and glorious beyond description ! 

Now THEN let us consider the builder and maker of 
this house. — He must of necessity be truly Man and the 
Son of David, as is here clearly expressed, " I will set 
up thy seed after thee which shall proceed out of thy 
bowels:" and yet, it is said that this Person should 
build an house greater and more glorious than the heavens 
and the earth; and moreover, one that should remain 
" for ever." Whence then shall this builder have so much 
wisdom as to know how, or so much power as to be 
able, to build so great an house ? It is certain that this 
is Above all human power, and so, not in the power of 
angels themselves. For the angels were not the makers 


of the heav^i and the earth, nor of any creature ; much 
less therefore was any man. 

It must of necessity be, therefore, that the builder 
and maker of this house is the true God himself, who 
has a power peculiar to his own divine nature ; that is» 
a power of making the heaven and the earth, and even a^ 
greater and more divine work than these ; that is, such 
"im house" as may be the eternal habitation of God! 
Hence therefore, this builder must of necessity be truly 
and naturally the Almighty God, the Maker of all 
things : and yet so, that he must of necessity be another 
Person distinct from that Person which spoke concern- 
ing him these words, " I will be to him a father, and he 
shall l)e to me a son." And again, " He shall build me 
an house." You here see clearly and manifestly distin- 
guished the Persons of the Father and of the Son : that 
is, of the builder and maker, and of him for whom the 
house is built. And yet, the Godhead does not allow 
that these Persons should be divided so as to make two 
Gods, or that the Son should be a different God from 
the Father. For the First Commandment stands directly 
opposed to this saying, **Thou shalt have none other 
gods but (or besides) me." And Deut. vi. 4, " Hear, 
O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord." — And, we 
have already heard it observed above, that, wherever in 
the prophetic scripture mention is made of the Persons 
of the Father and of the Son, the Person of the Holy 
Ghost is there to be understood as set forth also, for the 
scripture testifies, that it is he that speaks these things 
by the prophets. 

Hence, this very passage is, to any godly reader, a 
clear and firm testimony that the eternd Almighty God, 
the maker of all things, is One ; or, of one undivided 
divine essence, so as that, out of this One there is not 
and cannot be any God : and yet, that this same God 
or Godhead is Three true and distinct Persons, that is, 
God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost: and 
that so, that it was the Person of the Son only tjiat 
assumed human nature, and was made the Son of 


And without dojibt, God wished this Comroandr 
iiient, (that they-should neither adore nor worship any 
.other god but the One God who had revealed hi^piiself 
untbJljtiem.ip the given Word,) to be Inculcated, apd s^ 
it were staitiped upon the people of Israel^ for Jthis very 
reason; — ^that, being as' it were previously prepared l^ 
that Coiximandment, they niight not have any cause for ' 
taking offence if they should hear the Messiah, after Jiis 
manifestation, preached and acknowledged by faith to 
.be God, nor imagine that they were taught to worship 
any strange god contrary to the doctrine delivered by 
Moses ; but that, as Moses had commanded this God 
that should come to be heard, they might know, that 
they ought to listen with their ears and hearts, and 
learn from him the true and secret meaning of the First 
Commandment concerning having no strange God ; — 
namely, that they would not then have any strange God 
when they adored this Messiah the Son of God ; be- 
cause, he is in truth not another God, but the same 
with the Father, though of a distinct Person ; as the 
testimonies of their prophets bear witness. 

It now follows in the words tp David, " And I will 
establish him in my house and in my kingdom for 
ever." — What then have we here! Here let us give 
all attention ! It was before said, that the house which 
should be built to God should be everlasting and eter- 
nal : and therefore, its builder or maker must of neces- 
sity be an eternal Person, having an eternal and truly 
divine power. And here it is farther said unto David, 
* In that very house which the same my son and thy son 
shall build unto me, he himself shall be Lord, and shall 
inhabit it equally with me. He shall, I say, be of equal 
right and power with me in that house. For I will so 
set him over this house, that he shall have the same full 
power over it that I have.' And when it is said that 
this house of God is much greater, better, and more 
glorious than the whole wonderful fabric of the heavens 
arid the earth ; when, moreover, this son of David the 
Messiah, is said to be the builder and Lord of this 
house; that same Person is, without doubt, the builder 


and Lord of the heavens and the earth, that is, of the. 
whole creation of things ; and therefor^, he must be far 
greater, and exalted above, that creation ! — For, he that 
is the Lord of so great a house, must of necessity be far 
above the house itself, and therefore must also be Lord 
of heaven and earth, and One with God ! And such an 
one no one can be but the One true God, the Creator of 
all things ! — It follows, therefore, that this Messiah the 
Son of David is truly and naturally the One true and 
only God, and no strange God. For the eternal God 
does not suffer any one but himself to be God, or to be 
Lord over his house, but will have all the glory and 
power due unto his Godhead to be ascribed unto hint 
only, and to remain perfect, and not to be given to any 
other. Wherefore, these words clearly and expressly 
declare this, — that the Messiah, the Son of David, is the 
very Lord and King himself of this kingdom, (which 
properly belongs to God only,) or, is in all things equal 
with God. For it is certain that God in this place 
speaks concerning the promised Messiah. 

But if any one will judaize, and, resting on the in- 
terpretation of the Rabbins, will refer these words of 
God^ " my house," " my kingdom," to that visible 
temple at Jerusalem, and to the political economy of the 
people of Israel, he may do it for what I care, but it 
will be at his own peril. And yet, I am not ignorant, 
that God calls that temple which was made with hands 
* his house.' " For my house shall be called an house 
of prayer for all people," Isaiah Ivi. 7. And Christ 
himself cites these words with reference to that temple. 
Matt. xxi. 1 3, Luke xix. 46. And so also, he calls the 
people of Israel ' his kingdom,' Exod. xix. 6, " And 
ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests." But in that 
same place this condition is added, " If ye will obey 
my voice indeed, and keep m^ covenant," &c. I know 
also that God saith, Ezekiel xviii. 4, "As the soul of 
the Father so also the soul of the Son is mine." But 
what of that. Is not this wine which I drink, and this 
bread which I eat, God's also ? And what is there in all 
heaven and earth that is not properly God's? As Isaiah 


Ixvi. 1, 2, saith, " The heaven is my throne, and the 
earth is my ^footstool : where is the house that ye build 
unto me ? For all those things hath mine hand made, 
and all those things are with me." As though he had said, 
Had I not made the heavens and the earth, where 
would you have gotten the materials, stones, mortar, 
iron, and all those things that are necessary for build- 
ing ? Are not all these things mine, and did they not 
exist long before ? Where did you get them but from 
me ? Which of these things did you procure by your 
own power ? What are you yourselves, and whose are 
you? Am not I your Maker, and are not you ray 
creatures ? 

The same David confesses also when he gives 
thaftks unto God, 1 Chron. xxix. 16, for the materials 
which he had collected for the building of the temple ; 
saying, * All this store, O Lord, is thine : and what we 
have received at thy hands do we offer unto thee.' And 
he speaks in the same manner of the sacrifices of this 
temple, Ps. 1. 'What sacrifice will ye offer unto me? 
are not all the beasts of the forest mine, and the cattle 
upon a thousand hills ? Shall I eat the flesh of bulls, or 
drink the blood of goats? Were not all these things 
made without any work or help of yours ? Where would 
you have had all these sacrifices, had they not been 
given you by me?' — Here, what else is said, than that 
God has no need of our sacrifices, and so no need of 
the temple built by us? Wherefore he saith, 'Think 
not that ye perform to me by these things a service that 
is necessary to me, as though I should be the poorer if I 
received it not. — This therefore is the sum of the whole, 
and this is my design in the temple I have commanded, 
and in the ceremonies I have instituted, — that ye might 
acknowledge and confess by such works that ye receive 
all things from me, and that ye offer unto me all that ye 
are and have and can do, as having been before re- 
ceived at my hands ; so that, by such an attestation, ye 
might proclaim me as God your Maker, and might 
exalt me with true honour and praise. This, I repeat, is 
the reason why I wished these sacrifices and victims for 


a time to be call^ ^^ mine :" even as it was for the same 
reason also that I called the temple itself " my house : " 
not because there was any necessity for my being con- 
fined to that place, or that I might have some certain 
dwelling-place, or that I had need of your worshipping 
me with your works : but, it was for your own sakes, 
that I wished it to be called " my house," that ye might, 
in a place appointed by my Word, exercise the office of 
teaching and preaching, give thanks unto me for bless- 
ings received, and call upon me in time of trouble; 
knowing, that I should be ready to hear you when calling 
upon me thus. It was for this end that I commanded 
this house to be built : not that it might be a place for 
me to dwell in, but a place for you to pray in, as I said, 
" My house shall be called the house of prayer." And 
certainly it is not so called on my account : for I have 
no need of worshipping any one, or of asking any thing 
of any one, who myself want nothing. Wherefore, if ye 

- use this my house in any other way than as the house 
of prayer, I no longer acknowledge it as " my house," 
but as " a den of thieves." And such are they who per- 
suade themselves that they offer me some particular 
honour, and pay me some exalted worship, by that work, 
when they build me a house, and when they wish it to 
be spoken of, in order that the glory of their having 
performed for me so mighty a work might be their own, 
and that they might on that account greatly recommend 
themselves unto my favour, and signify to me, that they 
are deserving of some very great rewards. And in this 
way it must of necessity follow, that this house must be 
made a most awful den of thieves, destined only unto 

'■ destruction, and to be at last destroyed to its founda- 
tion, as being no longer my house, but an habitation of 

;, the devil, and a gulph of hell.' — These are (jod's own 
declarations concerning this house, as they are clearly 
expressed by the prophets. - 

And now, (as I at first observed concerning the 
meaning of this prophetical passage,) if any one is still 
determined to refer the expressions " my house," " my 
kingdom," to the very temple and kingdom of the 

j)flQple/of I»ael,;aiid.wMl have them , to be sp uiider- 
stQ0d ; h^ tiDust ip so doing t^ upon himself this tasl^ 
fU^;*r-*-he must prove by sound and true vgume^ts^ 
^yi^ the .temple, which was builf; at JerusaLeni, and thf 
pt^ljl^al.-economy of the people of Israel in the land of 
Canaan^ have ever remained the same from the time of 
.I>avid unto this day, and that they remain so still : fof 
the passage plainly de4^es, that the house of Dav^ 
shall remain ^' for ever/' and that his Son the Messtal^ 
shall rei^ in the house of God and in his kingdom 
^emally. We Christians must certainly confess that we 
<:annot prove any such thing; because it is manifest, 
■that that house of God, or temple of Jerusalem, has 
been destroyed for above five hundred years, and thiat 
the family of David and his kingdom, and the political 
economy of the people of Israel have ceased for nearly 
as many years, and that now there is nothing of them 

Wherefore, we are compelled to hold that opinicvi 
which I have declared above— that ^* my house" and 
" my kingdom" signify that eternal kingdom of God, in 
which he himself has determined to dwell and to rejgn 
to all eternity, and which this Messiah, the Son of 
God himself and of David, should build by his eternal 
and divine power and wisdom. 

BUT, as a confirmation of this, let us hear David 
himself, not by any means obscurely signifying how he 
understood these words : w hen, in answer to these words 
of the prophet, he thus speaks, ver. 18, 

Tt^en went King David in and sflt before the Lord: 
and he said, Who am /, O Lord God 1 and what is my 
house, that thou hast created me to this ? 

Here David himself clearly signifies, that he fully 
understood what those words meant, when God pro- 
mLsed him by the prophet Nathan, " I will be to him a 
father, aad he shall be to me a son : '' and also, " I will 
establish him in my house and in my kingdom for eyer." 
For, being now as it were astonished at the thought of 


a tfaikig.^ great and marv^ttous;' lie an^^eifs, ''i^bo aiki 
I, O Lord God ? and what?* my hoasef, fliat thou liast 
exalted me to this ?" It is too great, it id fob high, k is 
too glorious, that I should' receive this promise of 
God !— ^4iiat my house shotdd be exalted to that height 
so far above all human things^ that my Son, one bom 
of my own loins, should sit as King and Lord in that 
thine own eternal kingdom ; that is, with divine power 
and majesty ! What shall I say ! How shall I wonder 
.enough ! Wljat is this ! O Lord Godj^ to what height 
dost thou exalt me ! — That is, overcome by so ^eat, 
so wonderful, and so inlinite a blessing, he signifies that 
he cannot find words whereby to express himself in 
siich a case, and that he is wholly overcome by the 
greatness of such incomparable favour and incompre- 
hensible glory, the measure or end of which no human 
mind can imagine. And therefore, as he cannot express 
himself, he utters all his feelings, and as it were swallows 
them up in one word, when he says, What to this! What 
so high as this ! To what height am I raised ! To what 
wilt thou exalt me, O Lord God ! What ! Dost thou 
declare this ! — that I, that is, one born from my loins 
shall be equal M'ith thee, be in the same place, and be 
Lord and the Ruler of thy eternal kingdom ! Yes, it is 
to be so ! This is declared to me — that this same my 
Son is to be also thine, and truly and naturally God, 
who shall rule with a power and majesty equal to thy- 
self ! O marvel! To what, thou good God, dost thou 
raise me ! — It now follows. 

Thou hast looked upon me as in the form of man^ 
who J on high J is the Lord God* 

I know that nearly all Hebraists translate this 
passage far differently. But yet there are some, aiid 
among those Bernardus Ziglerus, a man most deeply 
eurquainted with the Hebrew, who testify that these 
words, according to their grammatical construction, -may 

* .Thia is Luther's translation of 2 Sam.vii. 19, literaUy rendered 
from the Latin of Rorary. — 'See Luther*s own reasons in the text, 
and in pages 219 and 332. 


be rightly and properly rendered as I have translated 
them. — Here therefore David clearly confesses, that 
this Messiah who should be born of him would be truljr 
^^ man^' in the very same nature, form, gesture, and habit 
or manner of life as other men ; just as Paul also speaks, 
Philip, ii. 7, " Being found in fashion as a man." And 
yet he adds, that this " man," " on high," or above, 
(where the whole is ordered, not in a human manner or 
fashion, but in a divine, that is, where he is truly God 
himself, and rules in his eternal majesty and power), 
" is the Lord' God." 

This, I say, is the meaning of this saying of David 
expressed in clear words. And this forms the reason 
why he ^aid just before, being overcome with astonish- 
ment, ' To what, O Lord God, to what height dost thou 
exalt me ! ' and so also here he says, ' What is the reasoa 
why thou lookest thus upon me ! ' ' In what light dost 
thou look upon me a poor, miserable, unworthy man, 
that thou shouldst will, that my Son should be the Lord 
and King of thy eternal king4om.' That is, David 
understood that such a power and glory as to be King 
of the divine and eternal kingdom, could be applied to 
no one, but to him who is truly and naturally God. 

Since, therefore, this Son of David is without doubt 
truly Man, and (with respect to his Person) distinct 
from the Father by whom he was appointed King of 
the eternal kingdom ; and since, nevertheless, there 
cannot be two Gods, nor more than One God ; David 
himself here, by an incontrovertible conclusion affirms, 
that the Messiah, the Son promised unto him, is truly 
and naturally God ; but so, that he is not a different 
God from the Father, but a distinct Person in the one 
same indivisible essence of Godhead. — And to these 
are added the Holy Ghost, a true God proceeding from 
the Father and the Son, who speaks these things by the 
prophets Nathan and David ; a Third Person of the one 
same essence ; because, no other could reveal these 
secret things concerning the essential God. . 

And this is, properly, that doctrine and faith whicji 
are delivered in the New Testament. — That Jesus Christ 



Nazareth, the Son of David, who was bom of his 
3ther the Virgin Mary, that is, was truly Man, is truly 
B co-equal co-eternal Son of God, and of the one 
me divine essence with God the Father and the Holy 
host, though their Persons are distinct. 

Since, therefore, the words of David in this place, 
ednly, and without offending against any grammatical 
opriety, but according to the nature of the Hebrew 
anner of expression, give this meaning; the same ought, 
ithout doubt, to be received by us who confess Christ, 
>r ought we to seek after or listen to any other that may 
5 set before us. —Let us then receive this as the sure 
id genuine meaning as revealed from heaven, and let 
J reject all other interpretations as searched out, ob- 
jurely forced, and wrested by human reason. For the 
3ctrine of the New Testament, which is the interpreter 
F the prophets, is certain, and by no means fallacious, 
herefore, the interpretation of the Books of the Old 
'estament which accords with the New, cannot at all be 

And here, if any one should ask, — If then these 
rords of David and also of the prophet Nathan set 
>rth the- doctrine of the article concerning the divinity 
f Christ, what is the reason that no one of the old 
writers, nor of the recent translators, saw this to be the 
(leaning of the words, noir ever referred to them as bear- 
ag such a testimony ? And how is it that you Hebraists 
bat have recently risen up, have been the first that saw 
liings so acutely ? Or, how is it that the Jewish Rabbins, 
rho must be allowed to have been well acquainted with 
heir own language, gave no such interpretation? — I 
inswer : It is evident that the Hebrew language and its 
K>oks were known very little, and by very few, in those 
iges that inmiediately followed the times of the apostles: 
md that, as I imagine, arose from the obstinate malice 
)f the Jews, because they would not that their books 
hould be read, or the Hebrew language known, by our 
>rethren ; and would have no intercourse with us, on 
iccount of our blasphemies (as they would have them to 
)e.) Wherefore, godly writers were content with the 


festimoniee of the books of the New Testament, in which 
tb^y abound. But the same doctrines wefe by no means 
obscure to the prophets and apostles themselves ; as wilf 
£lppear suffideritly plain' from what will hereafter foUd^. 

But that the Rabbins* of the Jews saw nothing of 
these things, and that they purposely corrupted ^nd 
miserably perverted and tore that meaning that was 
delivered in the clearest manner, was the punishment that 
naas justly inflicted on them, that they might not see, wImjd 
they chose rather to be blind : as Isaiah prophesied bif 
them long before, sayingi that it should come to pies, 
^thdt those who should see, should not see nor under- 
stand.' And hence it follows, that our modern Rabbins, 
their disciples, by following their own masters; must be 
blind also. Nor should we otirselves have seen these 
things^ 'hiad not the light of the New Testament moved 
before us; so that the veil being removed, we.midlt 
Ibofc steadfestly on- the face of the Old ; but' without 3ie 
New, the scrijrtnre of thte Old Testament has still a veil 
over it, as Paul saith, 2 Cor. iii. 

And- look even at thfe mett of our age, "wlien. the 
doctrine of the Gospel concerning grace and the benefits 
of 'Christ is^6a clearly delivered to us against that impiotfS 
and presumptuous confidence^ in our own works and 
righteousness; — ^how feware there who understand* this 
and seriously embrace it ! And whose vice and fault is. 
this ? What is there wanting unto the ail-clear light of the 
doctrine ? These things are c^tainly so clearly preached, 
tacrght, read; written, and even proclaimed openly, set 
before our eyes in sculpture and painting, and . so 
assiduously enforced, that they might hav^ become knowTi 
almost to stones and stocks, so continueJly have they 
sounded in the ears of all. And yet, the popes, the 
kings, the princes^ the bishops, the doctors; the great, 
the nobles, the citizens, and the peasants, cannot be 
induced to embrace them ; but with open eyes and seeing, 
they pass by them blind^ and with open ears they rem&in 
deaf to them ; that is, their minds and understandings 
wander as far from thejn as if they were in aiiother woila, 
and attending to things the most diverse. 


So, the prophets prophesied, in ' their taxtfe^ of Christ, 
witb sofficient clearness; ntoely, as being truly and 
naturally God, as is here dfeda^ \ty D^d. BM a 
trery few only among that people thted to bdlfeve ^tto 
words of the prophets, and all the rest were utterly bKnd 
and deaf to them, and followed the imaginatioiis^iof their 
owii hearts. And therefore, thi6 doctrine of the«Oospel, 
{ps Christ and Paul also say, is rightly called-, and is " the 
mystery, (or the secret thing) of the kingdom' of 
heaven/'' And hence; he that understands it aad 
ijenbusly embraces it, has reason indeed to gfve> thanks 
uiito God, and should utterly set himself against the 
rest' of the multitude who despise'that divine gift. 

AND what thinkest thou of the prophet 
Isaiah ? Dosl thou not judge that he had 
read and diligently looked into these words of David, 
when he thus prophesies concerning Christ, chap. ix. ? 

For unto us a child is born, unto us a Son is given : 
and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and 
his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, the 
mighty God, the Father of Eternity, the Prince qf 
Peace. And his government shall increase, and of 
his peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of 
David, and upon his kingdom, to order it and to establish 
it withjtulgment and with justice, from henceforth, even 
for ever. 

Here Isaiah goes on prophesying condensing Christ, 
as if he followed the words as he received them from 
the mouth of Nathan ; — that he shouM be an etemal> 
Kiiig, and indeed " the Father of eternity," in the king- 
dom of Grod ; and he gives him the name and appellatiott 
of God particularly, (as David also does in the passage 
in question.) For although the Hebrew word El, in its 
simple and primary meaning, signifies ^ strong,' yet, 
(Vhen it is given as a proper name, as it is every 
wheTO in the Scripture, it has plainly the same signi- 
Scation as God ; that is, the being to whom alone 
^long alt strength and mighC; as* the Jews and all who 


are acquainted with the Hebrew well know, and will at 
once testify. Therefore, Isaiah agrees and is in harmony 
with David and the scripture of the New Testament, — 
that Christ is an eternal King and naturally God. And 
therefore his government is eternal and truly divine, in 
the kingdom, or " upon the throne of David." 

Isaiah especially weighs these words ' eternal king- 
dom,' when God says unto David by Nathan, " I will 
establish him (thy seed or Son) in my kingdom for ever," 
and he perceives with sufficient clearness, that these 
things are spoken, (as David also understands them,) 
concerning " the Man" who is of necessity, " on high," 
El, that is, God. For the possession of the eternal 
kingdom of God, and kingly power and dominion in it, 
cannot belong to any one who is man only : nor can it 
be such a dominion as is of this world, that is political, 
corporal, and that will at some time cease ; the king of 
which and his posterity must of necessity cea^e from 
their government by death. But you hear, that 
this Son of David is to be an eternal King in the 
eternal kingdom of God ; and that, (as Isaiah beauti- 
fully saith in harmony with this,) " of his peace there 
shall be no end ; " and moreover, that this same Son of 
David, which is an infant Son " born" and " given" 
unto us, is " the Father of eternity," and " the Prince | 
of Peace," " from henceforth even for ever." It must 
of necessity follow, therefore, that he must be truly the 
God who is called El, who can thus by his divine 
power and might give and preserve eternal peace. 

But the same prophet Isaiah has frequently made 
mention of this eternity of the kingdom of the Messiah 
elsewhere : as in chap. li. 4 — 6. " Hearken unto me, 
my people, and give ear unto me, O my nation : for a 
law shall proceed from me, and I will make my judg- 
ment to rest for a light of the people. My righteousness 
is near, my salvation is gone forth." And a little after- 
wards, " My salvation shall be for ever, and my righteous- 
ness shall not be abolished." 

This is that everlasting righteousness concerning 
which Daniel, ix. 24, prophesies; " Seventy wjgeks are 


defermiiked Upoa thy pdo|^^^to bring inieveilastittg 
ili^fteousnesfi—icilid to anoint the Most Holy/- . 

l^is righteousness is the Messiah himselfvas'fdl thri. 
antient Hebraists interpiret it : aad the comm^il. versioa 
of that padsiage of Isaiah has it^ *^ my ri^tepus one^^: 
aiid ** my Saviour/' As, thero^Mre) eternal righteousness 
and salvation can belong to no one that is man only, 
nor even to the nature of angels ; it must of necessity 
follow, that this Person to whom this appellation is ap^ 
plied must be truly and naturally God ; and yet so, tluit 
the same is the Son of David and a Person distinct 
from the Father, who Says of him, ^^ my righteousness'! 
and ^^ my salvation." And the Third Person is the Holy 
Ghost, who speaks these things by the vocal Word con- 
cerning both die Father and the Son. In the same wiay 
also does the New Testament speak concerning Chris^ 
1 Cor. i. 30, saying that Jesus Christ ^^ is made Unto us 
wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, dnd redemption!" 
So beautifully does Paul harmonize with Isaiah, and 
Isaiah with F^ul ! 

So also the same Isaiah> chap. Ix. 19, SO, saith, 
^^ The sun shall be no more thy light by day, neither f<>r 
brightness shalUthe moon give her li^t unto thee : ibut 
the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy 
God thy glory. Thy sun shall no more go down, neither 
shall thy moon withdraw itself j for the.Lc^ shall be 
thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning 
shall be ended." 

-Here it is plainly said, that the " everiasting light" 
is the Lord our God himself. And it is the Lord 
speaking of the Lord ; that is, he that speaks is one 
Person, and he concerning whom it is spoken is another; 
as is plainly to be seen from the context of the whcde 
chapter. For in the whole of that chapter, even unto the 
end, it is not the Person of Isaiah, but of God; thctf 
is represented as speaking. This " L6rd, (saith the Lord 
who afterwards saith concerning hims^rlf, " I the Lord 
will hasten it in his time,) shall be thy everlasting light,^" 
&c. Whiqh Lord is it then that saith these* things ? it is 
without doubt God Uie Falhar t(imi!telf« Ai!|Klri¥fek^ J^rd 
VOL. ii. a 


18 lt4^tiMRiitie whom it is said ^ A^ Lord shafl'be^ 
everlasting U^bt? " What other but the Son of G^ 
Jiifkis For this name in the Hebrew text is what 

we ^eisU the Utr&grenimatonj which pecfoliariy and pro- 
perly belongs to th^ Goklhead alone, and which, for the 
fvttpoBe of distinction, we ate -accustomed to write in 
4^biGBd letters. And who is it that declares aU the^ 
Ibiitigs through the woulji 'and l^ the tongue of the 
ptofphet? Who, but Oikl the Holy Ohost Speaking by 
Ifa^ pdr(^he(s, and, as it wete^ introducing die Perton (^ 
God the Father speaking concerning the '^ everlast^ 
l^ht? " ^dt is, ^eonccflrtiing his Son the Lord Jesus of 
tfaigaiieth, the Son of Dfe^ iwtf ^f the Vir|in Mary ? 
i Ulis '' everlasting light,''^ati£i so, thi3i Lord, is cer- 
^i^l^m^it^r «mi Only, n^r «n Wtml. And moreovjgr, 
lllis :^Q{di0(^> df Isaftf^ a@E^^ 'Wim ^ W«ds of (^ 
'"New T4^tafiient 'l^dr^tlhriM hiniself som^tknei^ calls 
K^sis/tf '' the iight."^ AndJolm saidvchap. i. 4, '' The 
life wi^11«8 It^t of'itten. And the li^ shiitetii in dark- 
ness, and the darkness comprehended it liM:." As, tbere- 
$^yt\t^ words of the prophecy so ei^actly agree with 
tlie ddlfmir^ of the New Testament, th^ undoubtedly 
JQiahnot'be n^delh^od otherwise than conc^ping Jesiis 
Chntski who has himself prepared for us a kingdom^ tM. 
'(tahteet to this sim and light, (for mth a kinjgdom must 
'of necessity perish,) but he shows forth hknself unto ns 
;as the lig^t, the sun and inoon, the life,' af^ the Ova- 
tion of this eternal kingdom : as Isaiah hath said in the 
pr^ediftg' 5 tst chap.'ver. 6, " Lift up your eyes to the 
Heavens, and look upon t^e ^arth beneath: for the 
iieaveiiS'^iaJll Danish away ^ like siBoke, and the earth 
;diall wax old like a garment, and th^y l^at dwdl 
ikerein 'shidl die 'in like manner: but my sUlvatioii 
aijall be for ever, and 'iny righteousness shall not be 

- Here then tell mie, I pray you, — How can that 
imamnation of the Jews conc^ning the Messiah, (that 
*hb shpafd be a mortal or corporiEU and earthly King, 
and should rule at Jerusdem in a political manner,) 
^igMe willrtfais and ^ like dielaiftticms of l^ prophets? 


For God, here m^ifestly/ and by a dinqct f^taJt^esis, ;Qpr. 
poses his Messif^i and hjs* kingdom to ; this; o^r beftven 
£md eieurth, andrdeclares that this heaven ^^ph^ vfifiisii 
away Jiife smoke," (whfch certainly cannot ti^e pl^?: 
without fire and burning^^as it is spoken of 2 Pet iii. 1(>«)^ 
that thei.ear^ ^^ shall wax odd like a garment" and tliM' 
" tiiey. that dwell therein shaH die in like manner.'* But^ 
saith he,^ ^ iqy salvation which is now and ^er ;iQar»/ 
am} lOy righteousness which is gone forth, sh^ll be for 
^yer, and shall be ^n eyerlastiqg light ; for this righteoUn-. 
ness is the" Lord thy God hiqa^lf/ 

Hqife you see tha,t Isaiah certainly updei^stogd the 
wQr^ of the prophet Nathan^ whp introduces GOd 
saying, ^^ I ^ill he to him' a Ffitl)§r, and he shall be to 
in^rft Spn-r;! will set. him over my kingdom for evet ; " 
aJQ^. ;t;h^t he undei^tood also t^e^ wordp oCD^Vidi 
>^^^ ;|f6 9d.y^i ^^ Itiou hast loQJ^ed upqn m0 as in 
the- ig^ of m^, y[hOf on high, is the X^i^' God," 
9:.S§{n. vii(,;19 : where^the iqeaning is tw jsam^ as YirW 
Il}ave now gi^en; only the expression is^mot^brief^crr 
^* This is the law (or manQ^r) of the ^aji),:;t})Q LiOfd 
Grgid.?' For t|ie reading of the common: y^^ion Ux thitf 
passage, **Is diis the' law of ip^ui, "O Lord Gpd?*.' wJtfiJli 
is a^cocM'ding toi the interpretation of the ^Habl^Mbs, sighj^ 
nothing a^ all ! * ^ f o 

|D UT let US' hear also thp prbphet Damol," who 
exactly agrees with this proi^etical pagsag^ 
chap. vii. IS, 14, where he says, 

^^ And Isdv) in the night visions j and behold one liht 
the son qf man came with the clouds of heaven j and canuf 
to the Antient of days, and they brought him near bdfoft 
him. A nd there was given him dominion and glory j dpd 
a kingdom that, all people^ nations, and langtutgesy shj^jd 
serve him : his aoMnion is an everlasting dominitm 
which shall not pass away, and. his kingdom thatwhfch 
shall not be destroyed.^' -i 

• ■ ■ 

This passage is not pbj^Ure to us .CHri$ti$uis. But 
let Us see bow it ^agmets also wi^h the New Xi^VoV 

Q 2 






ment.— Daniel saw a " son of man" in the" ** clouds : ** 
by which it is undoubtedly signified, that his kingdom 
would be, not earthly, perishable, or measurable by 
time, but heavenly and eternal. And therefore, the 
prophet says, that " the Antient of days,'* or God the 
Father, gave him power over all things, and that his ^ 
power shall be " everlasting," and 3mll " not pass 
away." This eternity or "everlasting dominion" can 
be given to no one that is a creature only, nor to an an- 
gelic nature, nor to a mere man ; for it is properly 
aivine, or a power and dominion belonging to God only. 

For, what would Gdd have above me creature, or '^ 
what would he reserve as peculiar to himself, if he 
should put off his eternal poWer and eternal dominion, 
and give- them to another? He would thus leave nothing I" 
to hiniself whatever, and he himself would be reduced j^ 
to nothing, and some other would take his place to 
whom he had ^ven over his eternal power ! For it is 
certain that nothing whatever can consist apart from, or 
above, this eternal pow«- : because, this itself compre- 
hends air things in all nature, and allows of hotMng to 
be apart from it, above it, or greater or equal to itself. 
Wherefore, it must of necessity follow, that this Person 
to whom eternal dominion is communicated, is the One 
only God, the Creator of all things. 

And moreover, Damiel in this passage expressively 
sets forth the articles concerning the Three Persons in 
the Godhead, and the human nature of the Son. For 
he who gives, and he who receives, must/ of necessity, 
be distinct persons. That is, it is the Person of the 
Father that gives tfawp " everlasting dominion " to the 
Son : and it is the Person of the Son that holds it as 
received from the Father : and that from aU eternity, 
without any beginning or end of time : otherwise, it 
could not be truly said to be " everlasting dominion." 
And to theiiis is added the Third Person of the Holy 
Ghost, who speaks by the prophet Daniel.> For no one 
could know such great tmd deep things as these, unless 
they were revealed untb him from above by the Holy 
<jAimtf and by the Voice iuid nrtriistYy of the prophets,; 


a3 we have often observed alrendy ;^— that it was the 
Holy Ghost that spoke by tl^ prophets in the scrip- 
tures. Moreover, the prophet plainly calls this Son of 
God to whom this ** everlasting dominion " is siven, a 
^^ son of man;" that is, truly man and the Son of 
David.-r-You see, therefore, how diligently the prophets 
considered and set forth this article — the " everlasting 
kingdom " spoken of in this promise that was filjade to 
. David by the prophet . /. 

But here, that human reason becomes offended, 
and that fastidious wisdom which in many things would 
teach God himself, begins to answer and to dispute in 
opposition thus, — * How can it be that God should 
give to any other that eternal power, which so properly 
. belongs to himself that it cannot be separated from the 
divine essence itself, and without which he can be no 
longer God ? For when this is thus given to another, 
what will he retain to himself? And moreover, (isay 
they,) in the passage of Isaiah before cited, chap. xlu. 8, 
God declares that he " will not give his glory to 
another, nor his praise to graven images." Atid certainly 
he cannot give such a power to any man ; for man did 
not exist from eternity, but began Jn time, and was bom 
mortal.' — But this even we Christians alao believe and 
confess concerning Jesus the Son of David, and the 
Virgin. — Thus you hear that very exalted wisdom prate 
which is supposed to have come down from heaven ! of 
which kind, is the wisdom of the Jews, the Mahonle- 
tans, and the Turks ; and, add to these if you will, of 
the Scythii^s, who are now called Tartars, who are all 
men of that boundless wisdom, that they can as it were 
measure and exactly ascertain by the span of their reason 
the incomprehensible immensity of the Godhead, and 
wisely prove that God could not beget a Son because 
he has no wife! O shame, shame! And be thou 
ashamed, O Satan, and ye Jews and Mahometans, his 
satellites, 'and all ye that are of this reprobate school of 
Satan, who, leaving and casting away the Word of God, 
listen to and follow fooUsh, blind, and miserable human 
jneaaon as yourguide in things so great and so deeply 

Aysteridiiis; which jhe capacity of no ^ireatave can em- 
il^raee y^h all iti^ pdWers, nor any one biit God himself, 
and tts iK^ho heat the^ Word of God, as far ad the Holy 
Ghoist shall revedt it unto us by thfe prophets! 
^ We Christians^' how^ive^, who are illuminated with 
thehght of the Kew Testament, can easily, plainly, 
' Ihth*, and readily aniswer to such objections as these. — 
'h <feariy rikaintain, that therfe sxe in our Lord and Sa- 
viour two natures in the one Person of the Son of G6Q. 
And yet, thete are not two, nor is th^ Logos the Son 
bi God brie, and the Son of the Virgin another, ^as 
Nestorius impiotisly dreams;) but the same is oAe 
Ghrist, the Son of God and of the Virgin.- And he re- 
^fceited that eti^mal power, that is, the divinity itself, 
fk)m before his nativity ; not in tikn^ but in eternity. 
And the eternal Father delivered tl^ tb faira wholly axKl 
p^ffeet front eternity ; so that he hinxself hias it everhst- 
toffly. And yet, not so that the Fatltor deprived him- 
Ikdf of itj But, that same p6wer which, properly and 
IvhpUy belong to the Father, and which he hinisdf h^ 
h^ whoBy from eternity, and still hplds eternally ; — 
that same power I say, he al$o cbmmunicaXed to the 
Soil, and yet that same power is equally and pecnlkrly 
Moiigfng to each Person ! Rightly^ therefore, and truly 
i^it said, Isaidh xlii. 8; " My glOry will I not give to 
imother, neither niy praise to graven images." For the 
Son of God is not another God, nor an idol, but, toge- 
ther witfi th^ Father, the only One eternal God ! 
^ Thus Christ hitnself saith, John xvi. 15, '' All things 
that the Father hath are mine." — He here declares 
tiiat the Father has all things, and that he did not 
t^ase to retain all things after he had giveh them to the 
Son, but has all things still. And yet He does not say 
that he ha^ all things alone, or that the Father has all 
things • alone, so as that the Son should not have the 
'^kme thitigs also. Butj says he, ^ The Father hath all 
things; and yet, all things that the Father hath are 
ifiide.' Here this very particular is clearly declared,-^ 
tteAt th6 eternal Father and the Son have eadi the 
^mh Di viidty: and that, frbln ihe Father and the Scm 

having all tbingB, the; Holy Ghost i)eceivea^ th^: ^vlng 
of all thin^ also: as Christ saith in t^ same placeu 
" He shall receive of nune/'&c. Receive of mv what ? 
Undoubtedlyyof th^t which the Father has also ! TJiejpB- 
fore, the Holy Ghost receives from ^ Father and the 
Son the same full and perfect Diyini^ -from everlastiog 
to everlasting. 

Againr t)hrist sailb, John v. £6, ''As. the Father 
hath l2e in himseli^ so buath he given tp the Soql t0 hay^^ 
life in himself.'' And ver, 22. f^S, '• ^oy. as the Fadwtr 
raiseth up the dead and quickenetb them : even so the 
3on quickeneth. whom be wilL That all H;ien should 
honour the Son evm as they honour the Father."— Thjis 
far have I spoken of that eternal divine generatiotf. Qt 
nature of the Son ! , 

And now, as to the other nature or tixekutnfft^ 
nature of Christ, which began in time — the eternal 
power of God is given unto him thus also: but, aS:]( 
said, not from eternity, or before the beginmng of timef : 
because Christ was not Man, or the human nation oJT 
Christ did not exist like the divine,, from eteniity. For, 
according to our mode of calculation or reckoning of 
time, this Jesus, the Son of Mary, was born IS4S years 
ago from the time of my writine this treat^i^. But from 
that moment of time when the human naiiire iK[as joined 
to, and taken into union with, the divine, intone Person ^ 
from that moment, I say, this Son of the Vic^ tru^ 
is, and is called, the Eternal God having an etem^ 
power, the Creator and Preserver of all thin^, — that is, 
by a communication of identity, he is one Person with 
the divine nature ; and so, truly God ! 

And this is the same that Christ saith, Matt. xi. $L7, 
" All things are delivered unto me of my Father*/ 
And, Matt, xxviii. 18, " All power is given unto miB 
in heaven and in earth." Unto what, me? Unt9 VlZ 
Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of the Virgin, bom of maft ! 
And though that power was mine from eternity before I 
assumed human nature, yet, after I became Man, I ^ 
ceived the same power in time, according to my human 
nature; but yet, I did not laake a show of the saipje 


Openly in this my tiikie of infirmity and the cross, until 
my resurrection and ascension, or my return unto the 
Father, when it first became me to be manifested and 
openly glorified : as Paul smth Rom. i. ,4, " Who was 
declared, (or clearly manifested,) to be the Son of God 
^ith power.** And this is what John expressively calls 
his being " glorified," (being clearly, openly, apd glo^ 
riously preached and acknowledged to be the Son of 
God,) when he says, " Now the Holy Ghost was not 
yet given, because mat Jesus was not yet glorified." 

Now THEN, reader, judge thou for thyself, whether 
Daniel does not agree as it were by a very rule, with the 
prophet Isaiah, when he speaks of the " son of man ** 
receiving from God an* " everlasting dominion" and 
power? whether he does not also agree with Nathan 
find David, when they say, that God- would set up 
this Son of David as King in his eternal kingdom ? 
and whethej all this is not said, (as David expresses 
it) concerning that ^^ Man who is, on hi^ the ^ord 

But there is cause for much lamentation, that we 
who are Christians, and who receive this unmeasurable 
and unspeakable benefit, which is delivered to us in so 
much light, and with such an abundance of testimony 
both in the New and Old Testament, do not embrace 
the same with that greatness of joy, and return for it 
that gratitude, that we ought! It would be nothing 
strange or wonderful, if any godly man, could his heart 
once get to behold and fully and -completely apprehend 
the greatness of this unspeakable matter, should on a 
sudden and in a moment be killed with excess of joy, 
and be revived again in a moment by the power of the 
same joy ! For what can be described or thought of 
more wonderful, than, that God is now truly Man ? that 
he conversed together with us men, dwelt among us, 
lived after our manner of life, and at last died for us ? 
David was most certainly astonished at so great a 
thing, and, as one deprived of his faculties with joy, 
' knew not what to say, and could only utter these ex- 
pressions of one loflit in anazementi ^ Who am 11 

What am I ! What is my house, that thoo hast exalted 
me to this ! * 

THHESE things have I so far spoken concerning 
the words of the passage 2 Sam. vii. 1 — 17, 
to which these ** last worm of David " have refer- 
ence, and upon which they are grounded, — that is, that 
this Messiah is, of necessity, traly and naturally both God 
and Man. And what besides this is contained in these 
words, we shall (by the help of God,) see hereafter. Fo* 
there is not a doubt, that the prophets who followed 
David, nay, that David himself in the Psalms and in 
other places where he speaks of the Son of God, 
derived alV the streams of their doctrine concerning ihb 
divine ai^ human natures of Christ from this divine 
PROMISE delivered to him by the prophet, as frdm a 
certain fountain. 

So Psalm ex. 1, (to bring forth that now for the 
sake of example,) when he saith, ^^ The Lord said 
unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand until I make 
thine enemies thy footstool." — What else can be under- 
stood by these words, " Sit thou at my right handj** 
than that he, (the Son of David,) is eqiid with God, or 
is placed on a footing of an equality of majesty ? that 
is, that he rules in the kingdom of God himself? For it 
is not said, * over my head,* or * above me,' nor * at 
my feet,* or * below me,' but, " at my right hand : *' 
that is, on an equal footing and with equal power. So 
that the whole heaven is as much the throne of this 
King, and the whole earth as much his footstool, as 
they are so of God the Father himself ! And this is as 
he himself clearly declares. Matt, xxviiii. 1 8, " All 
power is given unto me in heaven and in earth." And, 
Mark xvi. IQj it is said that ^^ he was received up into 
heaven, and sat on the right hand of God/' And so also, 
Matt xxii. 43, when he asks the Pharisees, saying, 
^* If die Messiah be the Son of David, How doth David 
himself in spirit call hhn Lord ? saying, The Lord 
said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand ? '' This, 
it is said, he said '*in Spirit ;" ^at he oright signify, 


fUidt it was the Holy Ghost that spoke by David. ;- Aiid 
the Evangelist adds, that the Pharisees uncferstood not 
these things, and that they could answer nothing to 
Christ thus questioning them upon the meaning of the 

So, neither can- the Jews and the Rabbins of our 
day, their followers, answer any thing upon this point; 
nor will they ever be able to give any answer ari^ 
They can only, as blasphemers, fiercely and fiiriousl; 
Tail in order to distress us Christians. And that they do, 
not with any penetration of mind or learning, but only 
£rom an unbridled and empty insolence and abuse, just 
to vent the foam and poison of theu* enmity; and-. that, 
.with so impudent and brazen a face, as even to contia- 
dict the sentiments of their old Rabbins and interpre- 
ters ; as Nicolas Lyranus often shows. * , 

We, however, have the firm, clear, and sure autfuv 
rity of the scripture of the New Testament ; which beau- 
tifully accords with the scripture of the Psalm, and the 
Psalm reciprocally harmonizes with it. And thia most 
certainly is abundantly enough (as we have already 
tepeatedly observed) to enable- us rightly and safely to 
•accommodate and interpret the prophetic writings to 
our, tlmt is, the Christian, sentiments aiid understand- 
ing. And there is no danger of the scripture misleatfing 
us while it every where harmonizes with itself. All 
others, however, must of necessity^ be deceived* But \i 
Christ and his apostles are witnesses sufficiently weighty 
for us ; who set forth and confirm these our sentiments 
with open mouths, and with words and works sufficiently 

And aoain, this same Psalm is one of those 
places in which the Three distinct Persons in the God- 
head are strikingly set forth: the understanding of 
which belongs to the prophets and Christians only, and 
is revealed and delivered to them by the Holy Ghost. 
But thid Jews, the Mahometans, and human reason and 
wisdom, are not permitted to enter within the veil of 
these .mysteries. 

Firsts we hear in this Psi^bofi God the Father; ^h^ 


^ cal)^ ^^ the Lord," fmd who is h^re represented p» 

speaking thus, ^^ Sit thou at my right hand.", . And 

secondly, th^e is added another Person, the Messiah, 

or Christ, who is the Son of David, to whom Gcxi 

speaks these words. For the Father that here speaks 

most certainly is not the very Person of the Messiah, or 

the very Son of David concerning whom he speaks. 

Nor is this Messiedi the very Person of the Father who 

is speaking. And yet, this P.erson is commanded to sit - 

fm.tbe right hand of the Father; that is, to have |lie 

some donuytiioix, the same powef, and the s^me honour 

•wd glory.— As, therefore, God sujffers no other out of 

hunself to be joined to himself in the same power and 

majesty ; it must of necessity follow, that &is Christ 

the Son of David is truly and naturally God, co«etemal 

ivith the Father, and so, of the same ^ivine essence ; 

because, there is but One God ; as it is declare^ in th^ 

First Commandment of the Decalogue, ^\ Thou shak 

have none other gods but me/' 

And again, thirdly, here is the Holy Spirit (and he 
also is truly that One only God) who speaks to us jby 
David and by the prophets, and who alone reveals to us 
and teaehes us all truth concerning God: as David 
{(aid above, ** The Spirit of the Lord spake by me," &c» 
And Christ also, Matt. xxii. 43, saith, ^^ How th^ 
doth David in spirit call him Lord ? " That is, without 
the Spirit, he would undoubtedly neither have called 
Christ, nor even have known him to be, both his Soq 
and the ^^ Lord." And it is sufEci^iUy manifest, that 
jthe Holy Ghost is not the same Person as God the 
Filther and Christ, and yet, he cannot be another God; 
Tlie evident conclusion therefore is, thai God the Father^ 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost, are distinct Persons^ yet^ 
One God from everlasting to everlasting ! 

TJUT here, some one will perhaps ask, why David 

spoke thus — "Who am I or what is iny 

house ?" And also thus, " Thou hast looked upon me as 

in the fo?m pf man, who, on high, is the Lord God ?'^ 

Fot God, say they^ did not say to David himself> ^ Tlioii 


«balt be my Son,* or, ' I will estaUieh thee in my 
eCeroal kinsckmu' But he plainly saith ^^ He (thy son 
or diy seed after ihee) shall be to me a son," and, ^I 
will establish him in my kinfldcmi.' Why then (say 
they) does David alter and transfer the words oi 
God,, and apply them to himself, and so interpret them, 
-as if he were die person whom he says is ^^ the man" 
'who also, ^^ on hi^ is the Lord God?" 

First of all, it is certain diat David is the Father ci 
tfiis seed or son ; as it is here clearly expressed that he 
should be bom of his house or posterity. And there is 
this also impressed on nature frmn above — that the 
fiitfaer should not less rejoice and delight himself in the 
elory of his son, than, (to say nothing more,) the Sod 
Himself. That is, such is the power of pat^nal love 
^nd affection toward the Son, that he favours above all 
things the honour and interest of his Son, and seeks 
'^em even more than his own. On the other hand, if 
any indignity or insult be put upon the son, the father 
is hurt and fired at it no less^^ than if it were offered to 
himself. Rightly, therefore, does David also (not on 
his own account only, but on account of his whole house 
and posterity, when he says, " What is my4iouse?") 
exult in this benefit of God, and as it were triumph in 
this glory, — that that son should be bom of his seed, 
who should even sit cm the right hand of God ! 

There are in history many well known examples of 
the greatness and force of this affection of parents towards 
their children : as in the instance of Chilo, who died 
bf sudden joy when news was brou^t to him that 
his son had conquered at the Olympic games. And also 
in the case of diat Roman woman, who had felt fully 
persuaded, from the reports she had heard, that her son 
had fallen with the rest of the army at the battle of 
Cannae : of whom it is related, that, when her son un- 
expectedly retumed and-* stood before her on a sudden 
alive and in safety, she was so overcome with excess of 
joy at the sight of him, that she fell down and expired 
nbonediately. What wonder then that David, under 
a circumstance by hi more great> should, so overflow 

inith joy of spirit; a^d be so astounded as it weie, that 
le should not know how to contain himsdif, nor what to 
ay, nor how to express himself! and that he should say/ 
hat he was not less ove^oyed at the honour of his son 
^ho should be bom of his flesh and blood, than if he him* 
lelf had been placed in the same height of honour ! 

Moreover, there is this reason aliso why David spake 
)f himself. — Because, at this very time, this promise ^ 
son was in the loins of his father, (as the scripture often 
expresses it;) and nothing of this son as yet existed, 
^with respect to his human nature,) besides David him- 
self, as the only person of his flesh and blood, from 
which this son was at some time to be bom. For the 
things related in this histoiy were said and done before 
ever Nathan^ the son of David was bom ; from whose 
posterity Christ was bom, (as it is recorded, Luke 3.) 
And his mother Bathsheim was not then the wife of 
David, but of Uriah ; because it was somewhat befcxte 
die adultery was committed. 

There is nothing, therefore, absurd or out of the way 
in these expressions of David ; — that a fether, giving 
thanks unto God and praising 'him for the glory of his 
son, should speak thus, ^ What am I, O thou sracioii^ 
God ! What then is there in me that thoushouldst have 
respect unto, that thou shouldst exalt me to so ^mt 
honour, and shouldst will, that this " Lord" should be 
bom of my blood ! For certainly I stand in that situa- 
tion, that I feel the honour and the joy arising from it! 
For this is my flesh and my blood ; and, in very deed, 
he, of- whoin it i^ foretold that he shall be bom, is even 
now still in* me 1' ?., 

And IT is for this same reason also, that the Lord 
Jesus Christ is often spoken of in the prophets, under 
the very name of his father David : as in Hosea iii. 5., 
** Afterward shall the children of Israel retum and seek 
the Lord their God, and David their King, and shall 
fear the Lord and his goodness in the latter days." — 
In this place Christ himself is signified under the name 
^' David," and is said to be worshipped with the samel 
honoat as God. And therefore, the name also of ih^ 


]>«rd hboflelf, which belongB to God only, is giyeh:^ 
hip; Ajid the prophet aays, that he is to ba sooghtr^d 
wc^mhipped. Nor does he ^ay that God ifi to b^ sought 
Q^ worshipped io ohe. way, and this 'King in anetmrl 
Ev0ri so i?ee worship God tilie eternal Fatber, wd the 
Son, with the same 6dth : iumI. not the Father with oH^ 
ffdth, and the Son wi& ajiotb6n*-r-</\Ad h^ne isinQre^Ter 
seen the Thihi' Person, the! tHdy JShost: whois.iiififnK 
festjn his speaking these thmgi by the mouth .of the' 
prQI^et, and teaching us thusf fa> believe th^m. 

80 ALio, £asekiel xxxiii. 23,249 it- is ^aid^ "And 
I will ^t up one shepherd overtbemi. s^d he i^hall fe^d 
them, even my servant David : he i9haiL7feed them, fUd^ 
be 6hall be thek shepherd. Md^t.^ Loi^ wiU^be t^ 
God, and my servant Datid a prince anlong <heSh.?-?r 
flere also the name of David is gtveD toiGbtiM, ffmt h^ 
is ev€» called ^tbe ^' servant of Gctt.-V So lioi; Jsaiih' 
Hiiu ill, also,. and in many other pldehs^^heiscflillidv^ 
** servant" of God. So again Paul, mterpretrng-th^ 
s^p^he^Philip* ii, 7^''makes him a sarVtet: hutotfi^r- 
Wisfe, he fill^ays and in^^veiy instance >;l^ttj|y:Spea|$ oi 
hiiti as Lord mi God : . as ne does alK) ' i& that jSanrt^ 
plaice immediately before, ^^re he' says, ^* Who b^ing 
Hi' the hrm of God, thought it not rdfa^ry to' be ^\m 
with Gt>d« But made himself of no deputation, an^ 
took upi^ him the form df a servmt/* — Here then, 
Paul shall answer for himsdif, why he says things so in- 
coherent For if Christ be equal with God, how can hfe 
be also a servant and in liie,form of a i^rvant ? And if 
he be a servant, how can he be equal with God and in 
the form of God ? It is, however, by no means unknown 
to us Christians how these things consist together and 
harmonize. But the Jews confirm themdelves in theit 
p.b3tinacy by this, pasi^age of Ezekiel, and glory, as lif 
th<^ were fully persuaded in; their ibinds, (or rather in 
thefr. madness,) that th*y ai-e . ri^ht — ^fittt let us :now 
aw^y with'tbeiA ! 1 

,! In THE same. manner Jeremidh also speakia, xxfe ^ 
9, ^^ For itrshall come to {lass iii that day; sstith the 
Lord of hostSy that I will beeak his yoke ft^m ^ thy 


lecky/^tndwUl burst thy bonds, aM 'sbmigersysfaaU.lia 
Bore-fierve themselves o( hini .: but they, shall serve the 
Ejbrd tiieir jGod^ and David their kiiigwhom I wfltiaige^ 
ip unto them."*— Here again Christ is called David. 
\nd even the Jews themselves, both antient and mod^», 
ixe compeUed to interpret Ais as referring, to the Mes- 
dah: excepting. that,vthey ferr concerning &e ^^y^oke'^ 
iml the '^ bonds," which they twist round to make 
diem ^apply to the Babylonish captivity : whereas th^ 
prophet, through, three successive chapters, is speaking 
of that deliverance that shall take place undar^e pro-<- 
mised Messiah: that is, a deliverance from sin and 
deaifa, which are indeed a grieVous yoke aAd heavy 
bcmds, imposed upioh us throng the ministraition of the 
Iftw, but cdnceniingwkich Jewish blindness and huinait 
ntean can tmderistmid notiiing whatever. Tins is a 
sebret known otly .to Quiltians, and which has been 
kftown tOi those who:have been of the same faith from 
the Ij^mniBg of the chutch. 

; . &it Jeremiah in this place makes this same ^'>King 
David" to. be, without exception, truly and naturally 
God: that is, he connects and unites God and this 
Ikurid inthat same reception of worship and reverence 
wiiereih;tibe people of Israel are to serve them. And if 
this King David were not truly andnaturally God, God 
woidd not make hi^ equal with himsdf, nor command; 
that "they should serve God and David their King. For 
this is an immutable precept, ^ Thou shalt have no 
stiange gods : but thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, 
mod wm only shalt thou serve,' Deut. vi. and x. 

And a^^am, this passage of Jeremiah exactly accords 
.with tlie words of the prophet to David, 2 Sam. viii 
l-4fl7, "J Tirfll establish him (thy Son) in my kingdom 
for even"' ^'^Him," I say, who is " Man," (for others 
tme he'cotddnot be the seed or the Son of David) and 
who also, ^ oh high, is the Lord God," who is wor- 
shipped, together with the Father, in equal and eternal 
tionofur, and to whoin is yielded an equal obedience.-:^ 
And /here also must of necessity be present, together 
uttb/^se^Jthe Person of the Holy Ghost,, who revepds 

unto U8 these mysteries by Jeiemial^ and iikmimle^ our 
mkids with a new li^t that we may understand these 
things and believe them. — And yet, these are bat One 
God^ out of whom we worship no one, we serve no 

What I have so far advanced is quite sufficient 
concerning that prophetical text, S Sam. vii. 1— 17 : in 
whidb, as ' on a foundation we have seen that these 
f^ Last words of David" rest: and which, as we 
now see, plainly show, that Christ is truly God, and 
Man bom of David. 

A ND now, time calls us to enter upon these 
^^ words of David," of which we have purposed 
to give an exposition : in which he himself acknowledges 
and confesses Christ to be his Son, and declares him 8^ 
to be, and glories in him as, his God, in those memoraUe 
words, ^^'Thou hast looked upon me as man, who is, on 
highy (or in the heavens, or above) the LcMfd God."-*-^ 
For that which in the common version^ by a change of 
case, is put in the vocative, " O Lora God," leaves the 
passage abrupt, mutilated, and without sensie : making it, 
2 Sam. vii. 19, to be thus, " Is this the law (or manner) 
of man, O Lord God ? " but what sense is that ? The 
reading would be much more plain and correct thus; 
" This is the form (or law or manner) of man, the Lord 
God :" or, ^ who is the Lord God :" as I have observed 


But as we have here entered upon a subject, that is 
so delightful to the godly, and so copious; and. as we 
are of that little flock, (O what cause of grief that there 
should not be more ! ) together with the prophets and 
apostles, who seriously desir^ to acknowledge and.cdnfeas 
Christ crucified, our promised David and our etemd 
God ; let us here stay awhile and meditate. And, 
before we bring these "Wokds of David" to tiie 
concluding goal, let iis expatiate a little, on the plain, and 
take a few more tastes out of the immense field o^ 
scripture; that we maiy thereby feed and .confirm oar 
faith in this our Deliverer the Son of I>aii4<^; aitd:tfi8t 


we may gall Satan and his satellites and maddened 
cabal, — the Jews, Mahometans, and Papists, — those 
enemies of the Son of God ! 

And to whom can we better go, first of ail, than to 
Moses, the very fountain, yea, the parent and master of 
all the prophets ? — Let us see whether he will not join 
himself to our company as a Christian, that is, a witness 
and a teacher of the Gospel of Christ : and whether he 
will not give us a taste of the heavenly wisdom out of 
his stores. And we will the more readily go to him, 
because Christ himself especially commends him to us 
in this highly distinguishing way, and as it were, repre- 
sents him as his pieculiar servant, where he says, " Had 
ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me : for he 
wrote of me," John v. 46. As, therefore, Moses is said 
to have written of Christ, he undoubtedly prophesied 
and taught of him under the influence of the spirit of 
prophecy, and, with his voice, took the lead of all other 
prophets and teachers of the people of God that should 
succeed him unto all posterity : which they themselves 
testify of him by their voices and in their writings. And 
indeed that they did so, and that studiously, is testified 
irom proofs of fact : for the doctrines and predictive 
declarations of the prophets are so well known and 
spread abroad every where, that all the Jews that ever 
existed 9 and that exist unto this day, the great, the 
young, and the old, hold it as the most common thing 
among them, that the Messiah was to come. But they 
have this sad misfortune, — that Moses is to them no 
longer alive, but has long ago been buried, and they 
cannot know where he is buried ! And indeed he cannot 
be found but by God's shewing us where he is! — • 
Wherefore, we will send away after him two trusty and 
faithful messengers, who may search him out, and call 
him forth, and bring him before us. And who shall 
those messengers be ? John the Evangelist and the 
Apostle Paul ! For we are fully assured they will not 
err, but will effect that which we wish. 

But I would have thee bear that in mind, which I 
before laid down as my principle to go upon — that I 



establish it as a certain rule to abide by, that, whereyer 
the Hebrew text naturally offers itself in harmony with 
the scripture of the New Testament, we are to receive 
that as the sure and genuine sense of the prophetical 
scripture. Nor are we to regard what the Rabbins or 
other judaizing Hebraists that follow them, may prate 
about their grammatical jpeculiarities, vamped up out of 
stops and points, and miserably wracked as on a cross; 
but we are to look upon such things as their own 
figments and fables. 

JOHN, then, at the very beginning of his 
evangelical history, is ready at our hands, 
where he says, " In the beginning was the Word, and 
the Word was with God, and the Word was. God. 
The same was in the beginning with God. All things 
were made by him, and without him was not any 
thing made that was made," John i. 1,2,3. — These 
are the words of the Evangelist, or rather, of the Holy 
Ghost himself, who giveth and restoreth life unto all. 

Let us see, then, whether this messenger cannot 
bring back Moses unto us and set him alive before us. 
For Moses does not hear unwillingly; but, being awaked 
by the Spirit s voice, saith, * Behold here I am, and I 
add my voice in your favour ! For this very particular 
which you here relate concerning the Logos, the Son of 
God, I committed to writing long ago : and therefore I 
wrote, in a way of leading and directing, those words 
which you and all others might take up after me. 
]f or, at the very commencement of my Books, beginning 
where the nature of all things began, I thus wrote,rTr 
*^ God said. Let there be light, and there was light." 
^^ God said. Let there be a firmament in the ipidst of the 
iraters." And again, *^ God said, Let the waters under 
the heaven be gathered together into one place, and let 
the dry land appean" ^^ God said. Let theisakb bring 
forth grass, "&c. '^ God said, Let there be li^tesrin the 
firmament of the lieavea, to divide tJsie day from die 
Aight/' And so o» as It theie follows.' 

■ 4 


Thus, you hear Mo^s qx^ctly i^l^iag with John,— • 
that, in the very beginnuig of the creation, "was the 
(Logos or) Word," by whom God made or created all 
things, by speaking. And Moses here neither stammers 
nor speaks imperfectly like a babe, nor are his words 
either obscure or ambiguous; but his expressions are 
clear, and his grammatical construction of a certain and 
simply kind ; so that, where there is the Person speakr 
ing, there, of necessity, must be also understood the 
Logos or Word. ^ 

And as to those things in the way of objection which 
the Jews, the Mahometans, the heretics have scraped 
together from all sides, from designed cavillings and 
from dreams of their own fabricating, — all such things 
we at once hold ih contempt, resting on this certain 
Word of God, and upon the simply grammatical mean- 
ing of Moses; who, we know, recorded plainly and 
without ambiguity, that which God said in the very be- 
ginning before any creature had existence. And there- 
fore, the Logos or Word was " with him" when he 
spoke, (for without a Logos nothing can be spoken,) 
"by" whom God made all things; as John i. clearly 
sets its forth. And all the old orthodox ecclesiastical 
writers, Hilary, Augustine, Cyril, &c. have so copiously 
and diligently expounded this meaning of John, that, as 
their books are still extant, there is no necessity for our 
entering now into any full length discussions of the 
passage. . It is enough for our present purpose to see 
and hear Moses himself, as it were, (without using any 
far-fetched or violently forced interpretation,) standing 
before us, and, of his own accord, so plainly and simply 
harmonizing with the words and meaning c^ Jqhn, that 
even reason herself, (though ignorant of these " secret 
tbingS),") has nothing to gainsay, but is compelled tX> 
confess with us, that such is, according to the certain 
rules of grammar, the simple and native meaning of the 
words ; and that both Moses and John say the same 
thing, and speak in the same way concerning the Logos 
or W ord ; by whom iD the beginning all things were 
madffimdl 9j^.t§d.— rFor the design 6f each is to shew 

R Z 


by what, or with what instrument eto it were, or whimce, 
or out of what materials, God wrought that mighty 
work, that universal fabric of the world. 

But, this work or fabric was such, that there was ho 
instrument, nor could be any, nor any materials for the 
work that was about to be wrought. The whole creation 
of things came forth and was made out of nothing : nor 
can it be called any thing but nothing. And, all things 
were made by the Word only: or, as John says, " by him 
(the Word) all things were made." Now the Word 
itself, is not that which was made or created : (for there 
•was as yjBt no creature :) but this Word was " with God" 
from all eternity, before the world first had its beginning : 
as Moses here saith, "God said, (that is, before any thing 
was as yet made,) Let there be light," " Let there be 
fl. firmament," "Let, there be lights," &c. : that is, 
Moses saith, that all things were brought into being, or 
were made, by the Word. And it is quite certain that 
nothing could fie " with God," apart from, and before, 
all things that were created, but that which is in itself 
and in its nature, God ! 

Wherefore it must follow, that the Logos, which is 
written of as having been " with God," is of necessity 
/God, or a Person having a nature divine, infinite, 
eternal, and omnipotent : seeing that, it was " by 
him" that " all things were made." Nor can he be the 
same Person with the Person who speaks, or whose 
Logos he is : but the Person who speaks must of ne- 
cessity be another, and truly distinct from, the Person 
who is the Logos. And yet again, there cannot be two 
Gods, nor can the Godhead be divided as it were into 
many : for it is the principal article of our faith and of 
the scripture, that there is but One, essential, divine 
Essence, and One Creator, of the heavens and the earth, 
and not many. Wherefore Moses testifies together with 
John, and with the same voice and mouth, that the God 
who speak9> and the Logos or the Word, are indeed 
Persons distinct from each other, but are together the 
One same God, the Creator of all things. 

So ALSO our David confesses that he had read and 


understood Moses, when he says, Psalm. xxxiii. 6, " By 
the Word of the Lord were the heavens made^ and all 
the host of them by the breath of his mouth/' — He 
says that *' the heavens were made and all the host of 
them ; " that is, whatsoever is contained by them and in 
them. Whence I pray? Whence, but out of nothing? 
By what, or by what kind of instrument? Not cer»* 
tainly by any things that were created, (for there wais 
nothing as yet created !) — By his '^ Word," saith David, 
and " by the breath of his mouth." 

And does not David in this place agree with Moses 
and speak thus, and almost in the same words, — ' God 
said. Let the heavens be made, and the heavens were 
made?' And since the heavens, and all that they con* 
tain, came forth and ^ere made by the Word of God; it 
necessarily follows, that the earth and all that is in it 
came forth and was made by the same Word. And it is 
evident, that the Word of God speaking, or the Locos, 
is not the heaven or the earth, or any one of those 
things that are contained in the heaven or the earth, or 
that came forth into being by that Word. Wherefore, it 
is left as a necessary consequence, that the Word is the 
Creator God himself: yet so, that it is a distinct Person, 
and a Person different from the Person who speaks, 
and who does all things by this Word in the one same, 
indivisible, inseparable nature and essence of divine and 
eternal power, might, and efficiency ! 

And when the Person of the Son of God, or of the 
Logos, is made manifest from these words of the Psalm; 
then, the Third Person, the Holy Ghost, will easily and 
at once discover itself; for it is signified in these very 
words, when the Psalmist says, " And all the host of 
them by the breath of his mouth." For what he had 
just before said " by the Word of the Lord," he now 
repeats, " by the breath of his mouth." And without 
doubt, he thus adds the word " breath," (Spirit uSy) that 
he might embrace both thcf Logos and the Holy Ghost. 
For it is evident, that this Person is every where denomi- 
nated "the Spirit:" as in the beginning of Genesis, 
"The Spirit of God moved upon the face of the 


waters/' And again," My Spirit shall not always judge 
in man." And it is signified that he is equally of, or 
proceeds equally from, the Father and the Son : be- 
cause, he is called the Spirit of the Father, and bf the 
Son also. And so also it is said here, the " breath 
{Spiritus) of his mouth;" (that is, of his Word,) 
meaning, undoubtedly, of the mouth of the Father; from 
whom also is the Logos or Word. 

And let this also be particularly remarked, — that the 
words '* were made" are only put once. The Persons 
are plainly and distinctly named, " the Lord," " the 
Word," and "the breath (Spiritus) of his mouth:"' 
but there is only One Maker, or Creator intimated : or, 
the work and creation of One only, without distinction ! 
That is, all things were made. By whom ? By One 
Maker or Creator : who is the Lord, the Locos or 
Word, and the Spirit. Nor does the Lord, (that is, the 
First Person, the Eternal Father,) do any work of his 
(yw7i peculiarly or separately by himself: nor does the 
Logos do any work of his own separately from the 
Father : nor the Holy Spirit any w ork of his own sepa- 
rately from the Father and the Son> 

They are therefore different Persons, but they are the 
One same Maker and Creator of the same work, that 
is, of whatsoever is made. And, all things that are made 
are singly and collectively the common work of the 
Three Persons, as of the One same Creator, and, as it 
were. Architect. For as the Lord is said to make the 
heaven, so also, the Logos makes the same heavens, 
and the Holy Ghost makes the same heavens; and 
neither, any thing that is not made by the other. It is 
the same workman that makes, and it is the same work 
that is wrought by the Three Persons. And again, as 
the Lord himself made all the hosts of heaven by his 
*^ breath" (Spiritus); so, the Spirit himself made the 
same (and not another) host of heaven ; and so also, 
the Logos (the Word) hirtiself made the same host 
of heaven ! 

Wherefore, we are here diligently to ponder that 
which Athanasius teaches in the Creed that bears his 


name.—* Neither confonnditis the Persons, nor dividifag 
the substance,' or separating tne Unity of the substance 
in the Persons. For if any work of the things that are 
created be ascribed to any one of the Persons in the 
Godhead apart, (as we term it,) and be not received as 
the work of the other Persons also; here, that most 
simple and most intimately united Unity of the Godhead 
is divided and torn asunder ; and, instead of One God, 
we make three gods or creators, which is false and 
impioas ! Agaiii, if you do not make a distinction 
between each of the Persons within the Godhead, (so to 
speak,) apart from, and above, all creatures ; and do 
not ascribe to each his own peculiar properties which 
cannot be ascribed to the rest; then, you confound 
the Persons, which is equally false and departing from 
the faith ! 

And here, the rule of Augustine may with pro- 
priety be introduced, who says, — *The works of the 
Trinity without, or, which are wrought out of the God- 
head in the creatures, are indivisible : that is, no divi- 
sion or distinction of the Persons is to be made, with 
respect to the works which they work in the creatures : 
nor is each separate work, out of the Godhead, to be 
ascribed to each separate Person. But, the Personis 
within the Godhead itself are to be distinguished : yet 
so, that each work, out of the Godhead, is to be ascribed 
to all the Persons in the Godhead equally and without 

But, to make this still more plain by an example.—* 
I rightly say, — that God the eternal Father is thy G6d 
and Creator, and mine, who made me and thee, and all 
things. So also I say, that the Logos the Word of God, 
who is co-eternal with the Father, is the Author and 
Maker of the same work which I and thou are. And so 
also, I say again, in the same manner, that the Holy 
Ghost made the same work, me and thee, and that he 
is, equally with the Father and the Son, my God and 
Maker, and thine, and the Creator of all things. And 
yet, that there are not three gods or creators, but One 
God and Creator. 


By this faith and confession, (which is the true con- 
fession of the whole church of God, and which it has 
ever held from the beginning,) I am fortified against the 
mad dreams of Arius and others like him, and am kept 
from dividing the all-simple Unity of the divine Essence, 
and from separating it into three gods or creators ; and 
1 acknowledge by a true and sincere faith, and worship 
and confess, One God the Creator of all things. And 
again, when I raise my meditations apart from, and 
above, the things that are made, or the work of the 
creation; there, I learn from the scriptures, (for the 
judgment and penetration of human reason can avail 
nothing here,) — that the eternal Father is a Person dis* 
tinct from the Person of the Son in that one same 
simple indivisible Godhead ; whose property is, that, as 
it is written, he is the Father ; and not of the Son, nor 
of any other, but self-existent. — That the Son of God, 
the Logos, is a Person, distinct from the Father, but of 
the one same divinity as God the Father ; whose pro- 
perty is, that he is the Son ; that is, born of the Father 
before all worlds, and having a divine nature, not of 
himself nor underived, but yet, derived from none but 
from the eternal Father. — So also, that the Person of 
the Holy Ghost is distinct from the Father and the 
Son, proceeding from both, and having a divinity, not 
from himself, but equally from the Father and the Son, 
and that from everlasting to everlasting ! 

Fortified by this faith and confession, I steer clear 
of the mB,d error of Sabellius and others like him, and 
also of the Jews, Mahometans, and all others of the 
same class, who imagine themselves to be wise above 
God. Nor do I, like them, confound the Persons, as 
though there were but one Person altogether. But, ac- 
cording to the sound and true sense of the catliolic 
faith, I confess Three Persons, distinct in their pro- 
perties, equal and co-eternal in the Unity of the eternal 
Essence : which Persons; nevertheless, w ith reference to 
us and to all things that are made, are the One only and 
true God, the Creator, the efficient^ Cause, and the Pre- 
server of all thinors ! 




These things, perhaps, i^re not quite so familiar and 
3lain to the more simple and the generality among us; 
and may seem more proper for subjects of discussidn in 
the schools. But since we see that Satan draws up that 
Leviathan-tail of his, and is attempting to spit forth at 
once this terrible venom, that he might in these " last 
days" stir up all the whole sink of heresies together: 
since the world is filled with light-minded and curious- 
spirited characters, whose itching ears are delighted 
with novelty, and who are soon tired of hearing sound 
doctrine : and since, on that account, the mouth of 
Satan stands open ready to vomit forth all kinds of 
maddened deliriums among sound doctrine : — it is there- 
fore useful and necessary, that there should be some, 
either of the commonalty or of the learned, and espe- 
cially of the pastors and teachers of the churches and of 
the youth in the schools, who should expressly devote 
themselves to speaking on, and teaching rightly, properly, 
according to the scriptures, and in the common lan- 
guage, these grand articles; the true knowledge of which 
ought most necessarily to be possessed by all the 

And if there be any one who is not able to appre- 
hend these abstruser things, as they may appear; let 
such an one, together with the children and others who 
are training up under the catechism of the Christian 
doctrine, hold fast by a simple faith, and follow, those 
things which he has learnt in our Creed of the articles 
of faith ; and let him assist others by his godly prayers ; 
praying against Satan, against all the furies stirred up by 
him, and against all the deliriums of the Jews and Ma- 
hometans, that he fall not into temptation. 

AND now, since we are thus entered upon this 
discussion, let us, with a design to assist those 
to whom our labours will be acceptable, and to confirm 
and testify our own faith by this our confession, collect a 
few more authorities, both examples and figures, which 
tend to declare this same article. — which teaches, that, 
in the Godhead, the divine Essence is neither to 


brdM^ed nor sundered, nor the Persoius t6 be con- 

In that glorious, and perhaps the greatest, manifes* 
tation that was made from above, — ^the baptism d 
Chrfet at the river Jordan, it is written, " The heavee ^ 
was opened, and the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily 
shape like a dove upon him ; and a voice came from 
heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son, in thee I 
am well pleased," Luke iii. 21, 22. 

Here, it is evident, that Uiis dove, or this " bodily i 
shape" of a dove, "(as Luke expresses it, that thou: 
ioiayest not dream, that this was a visionary vanity, or a 
phantom, or a trick,) was a creature ; made, not by the 
Holy Ghost only, (who nevertheless distinctly discovers 
himself therein,) but by God the Father -and the Son 
also ; as it has been already observed, ^ The works of 
the Trinity that are wrought out of the Godhead arc 
indivisible.' For whatsoever is made, is, of necessity 
made equally by the Father, by the Son, and by the 
Holy Ghost, as One God. And yet, this dove is called 
the Holy Ghost only : or (to use the words of Luke) it 
was the Holy Ghost only that descended from heaven 
" in a bodily shape like a dove." For the sincerity of 
the Christian faith, by no means suffers it to be said, 
concerning that shape of the dove descending, ' Be- 
hold, This is God the Father : ' or, ' This is the eternal 
Son of God.' But we must of necessity here say, * Here 
you see the Holy Ghost descending:' though it is 
nevertheless true, that the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost, are the One same eternal God. So that you may 
rightly say, when you behold the dove descending, * This 
is the One eternal God, and there is none other god 
besides him.' Yet again, you cannot righdy say, * This 
is tlie eternal Father,' or, * This is the eternal Son of^ 
God.' You can only say, by way of distinguishing the 
Person, ' This is God the Holy Spirit ; ' or, ' This is 
the Person of the Holy Ghost.' 

And so also, the voice^ that was heard from heaven, 
saying, " This is my beloved Son," &c. is a creature 
made, not of the Father only, but of the Son and^ of ' 


oi^r Ghost. Accorcimg to that ruler-* The w«>rk»o^dM 
inity are indivisible : ' that is, all things that are cheated, 
it of the Godhead, are created equatty by all the^ 
Mnee Persons, as by One same God ; and those Three 
ersons, with respect to those creatures, are the One 
me eternal God. And so again, all the things that are 
eated, are, with respect to the Persons in the God- 
»d, one work, and not a three-fold or three-part 
ork. And yet, the voice that was heard to speak from 
mven concerning Christ, is, and is said to be, the voice 
r the Father only. Nor would it be orthodox or 
insistent with Christianity to say concerning this voice, 
This is the Son of Gqd speakitig,' or ^ This is the 
^erson of the Holy Ghost speaking.' But we must of 
ecessity say, ' This is the voice of the Father.' Al- 
lough both the Holy Ghost and the Son, are, with the 
father, the One same eternal God. So that it may be 
ij^tly said, concerning this voice that speaks, ^ This is 
be true God, nor is there any god besides him.' And 
et again, it cannot be rightly said, ' This is the eternal 
k)n of God,' or * This is the Holy Ghost.' But we must 
ay this only, * God the Father speaks this voice, or, is 
R this voice.' 

In the same manner, must we also think and speak 
i the human nature of Christ standing in the river 
Fordan. — That is, that it was a creature, made equally 
)f God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Nor 
loes faith permit it to be said without injury, that either 
he Father alone, or the Son alone; or the Holy Ghost 
Ibne, was the maker of this work; that is, of the 
imnan nature in Christ. For it is the indivisible work 
i the Trinity ; and each and every Person, as One 
Sod, were the maker of this one work : as the angel 
Sabriel saith to the Virgin, Luke i. 35, " The Holy 
Shost shall come upon thee, and the power of the 
lighest shall overshadow thee." Not only shall the 
foly Ghost (saith he) be with thee, coming upon thee 
rem above, but the Highest hitiaself ; that is, God the 
tfiffnal Father shall overshadow thee by his power or 
IMm Strength ; that is by his Son or Looos. And 






therefore, that which shall be bom of thee, shall be Ji 
called the Son of the Most High. Thus, therefore, the ft 
whole Godhead is the Maker or Creator, and made i 
that one same work, that is, the human nature. And 
yet, it was the Person of the Son, or of the Logos, Jiii 
only, that was united to it : it was not the Person of the 
Father that assumed it, nor the Person of the Holy 

And therefore, it cannot be rightly said of this Man, 
Jesus of Nazareth, ^ This is God the Father,' nor, 
* This, is God the Holy Ghost.' But it must of necessity 
be said, ' This is the Logos, the Son of God.' Al- 
though it is true, that the Father, the Logos, and the 
Holy Spirit, are the One same God. So that, it may 
be rightly and truly affirmed of this same Man, that he 
is God, and that there is none other god besides him. 
And yet it cannot rightly be said, * This is God the 
Father, or the Holy Ghost.' But it must of necessity 
be said, * This' is the Logos the Son of God : as Paul 
speaks. Col. ii. 9, " In him dwelleth all the fulness of the 
Godhead bodily." And yet, nothing is hereby taken or 
diminished from the divinity of the Father, or of the 
Holy Ghost : but each of them are, together with the 
Son of God and the same Man Christ, One eternal 

From these things I think it may be clearly under- 
stood, how it is, that the Three Persons in the eternal 
Godhead, and distinctly in the Godhead, are believed 
in, and are not compelled to be confounded into one Per- 
son : and yet, that you are not forced to divide the Unity 
of the divine Essence, or to make three gods : but that, 
when you look out of the Godhead unto the creatures, 
you may confess, that there is but One Maker or 
Creator : and that he is so smiply, and only One, that 
even these creatures, in which each one of the Three 
Persons distinctly and separately manifests himself, (as 
we have shewn in the baptism of Christ,) are the work 
of th|B One same eternal God ! 

And, in order that the more simple -may by some 
means or other be brought to think on these mysteries 


reptesented before them as it were in a picture, MtAe 
writers, and particularly Bonaventura, make use of 
quite a plain similitude. — That it is like unto three 
virgins, two of which among them clothe the other one 
with a new garment : yet so, that all the three put their 
bands to the same garment at the same time, and the 
third, together with the other two, puts the garment on 
herself. Here the three virgins together clotne the one 
with the garment: yet so, that one only, and not the 
other two, is clothed in that garment. 

According to this similitude, it is also to be under- 
stood here, that the Three Persons in the Godhead, the 
One God, Creator, and Maker, were the One Author of 
the one and same work ; that is, of tlie human nature of 
Christ ; and united it with the Son of God, the Logos, 
in the same Person. Yet so, that the Son, the Locos 
only, and not the Father nor the Holy Ghost, assumed 
that nature. — And in the same manner also are we to 
understand it concerning the " dove," in 'the " shape " 
of which the Holy Ghost revealed himself at the bap- 
tism of Christ. — And in the same way also we are to 
understand it concerning the " rushing mighty wind " 
and the " tongues of fire," under which the same Spirit 
revealed himself visibly on the day of Pentecost. And 
also in all other testimonies and manifestations that 
are ascribed to the Holy Ghost, which he is said, in the 
church or in the scriptures by the prophets, to have 

"DUT here it will, not perhaps improperly, be 
asked by some, why it is commonly said in 
the Confession or Creed of Faith, or rather, why the 
scriptures teach us to say, ' I believe in God the 
Father. Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth,' and 
why the Son is not properly called * the Maker ? * 
And again, ' I believe in Jesus Christ, who was con- 
ceived of the Holy Ghost,' (not of God the Father?) 
And again, why it is said in the Nicene Creed, * I be- 
lieve in the Holy Ghost (not in th^ Father or the Son) 
who spake by the prophets ?' — Here certainly distinct 


works sure ftscribed to each Peraoa as thpii^ 
them from the rest, that they may be truly distin^i^^ 
from each other. But these things will, perhaps, ajqw 
to the mprp simple to be too abstruse. If, then, they 
canno); apprehend things any higher, it is enough Jk 
the^rto hold this plain article of faith, — That, althou^ 
there be Three Persons, God the Father, the Son, edcI 
the Holy Ghost, yet, these Three are but One and tbe 
sanie eternal God.— But however, in the doctrine of the 
church, it is necessary that these things be explained in 
some nieasure ; to the end that we may learn to under- 
stand them and speak of them righdy ; that the corrup- 
tions of the devil, and the mad dreams of heretics, may [Jf 
"be guarded against and refuted. 

First of all, then, it is certain and indubitable, that k 
was the will of God, that he should be known in tlSis 
life by faith, and in the life to come by an eternal open 
vision, that he is One eternal Mind, and Three distinct 
Persons: which knowledge is "life eternal:" as it is 
written, John xvii. 3. And, that he might be thus 
known, he has given us his Word and the scriptures, 
confirmed by testimonies of miracles and divine works ; 
that we might therein learn that which he would have 
us know concerning himself. For, to the end that he 
might be thus rightly known, there was need of reve- 
lation and doctrine, wherein he might reveal himself 
unto us, and might discover himself to our view : for of 
ourselves, and by our own wisdom, we were not able tp ] 
penetrate into that heavenly mystery, nor by searching . 
to find out what God is, nor what is the nature of the 
divine essence. But, that we might in some degree in 
our minds attain unto these incomprehensible things, he 
uses similitudes to set them forth unto us, whicn are 
taken from things created and visible : for things invi- 
sible do not affect our senses and minds. 

The creature, then, or all things that are created, 
are to be considered in a two-fold way. 

First : Each work is to be considered absokttely^ (as 
we coinmonly use the term,) and in itself, or in its xiature; 
that is, distinctly from it^ des^ in. being created of 


00!^ t^In tbi9* view ifdl ^r^aturai wHboiit distinctiao arst 
; iffd itre colled, the creatures of God ; (or of ^tbe God- 
.J)im4;) thikt is, tb^ works or workmanship of the Three 
^erson.s equally ; as it has been before observed. For 
$his consideration does apt convey any distinct, know- 
?)<^ge of any cme of the Persons distinctively : seeing that, 
l^^ch one of the things which are qiade are mutually 
^nd equally the work of the Three Persons, or of the 
*Qne God. 

, Secondly : These same things that- are created are to be 
considered also relatively: not as they are in their nature, 
JHit as they are distinguished by their use, whereby God 
makes use of them to reveal himself unto us. Thus, 
God uses his creature, that is, the mutual work of the 
Three Persons and One God, for this purpose, — that he 
ought discover and manifest himself by these, as ima^s 
and similitudes, in a certain ^^ shape " as it were. By 
these means, therefore, the creatures become visible 
imager, or signs, or testimonies and manifestions, of 
the Three distinct Persons. 

Thus, in that wonderful revelation made at the 
baptism of Christ, he used a " dove," that it might be 
an image or sign of revelation, whereby the Spirit might 
visibly manifest himself This therefore is a distinct, or 
proper, and incommunicable " shape " under which the 
Person of the Holy Ghost, not of the Father or of the 
§Qn, is peculiarly revealed. For so it seemed good unto 
Ae eternal God the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost, that this shape of a dove should signify and set 
forth unto us the distinct Person of the Holy Ghost : 
that is, that we might be made certain, by distinct 
images being set before us, that the Godhead itself, or 
the one e§$enc« of the eternal God, is truly Three 
Persons distinct from all eternity. And therefore it is, 
that Luke expressly §ays, that "the Holy Ghost (not 
l^e^ Father or the Son) descended in a bodily shape liko 
a dove," &c. 

And in the same manner also we rightly speak con^ 
ceming the Person of the Son of God : that is, that- he 
leveled himself by a^p^mning thisour huiMn natvK.; or. 


MiFteil saith^ '* the jform of a^'^H^iit;' being ' ^uad 
ikshion/ (or as his more expressive Words ate, in tl 
scheme; that is, all the gestnres and mode and mam 
of life,) as a man;" that is, being truly man. Tl 
" form," therefore, or human nature assumed by Chrii 
is not the shape or manifestation of God the Father, 
the Holy Spirit ; (although it is true that it is the i^oi 
or creature both of the Father and of the Holy Ghost 
as well as of the Son ;) but, is properly and distinctly tl 
shape or form of the Son of God only. For thus 
seemed good unto the eternal God, that is, unto 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, that the Son ct\ 
God should be manifested unto the human race under 
this shape or form of the human nature; that he might' 
be acknowledged as a Person distinct from the Person 
of the Father and of the Spirit, and yet, of the One sam» 
co-eternal, indivisible, divine Essence. 

In the same manner also are we to speak of the 
Person of God the Father, — that he manifested himself 
unto us in the *' voice from heaven." For this shape or 
form is not a form or manifestation of the Son, or of the 
Holy Ghost, but of God the Father only ; who under 
this shape distinctively manifested, willed himself to be 
revealed as a Person distinct from the Person of the 
Son and of the Holy Ghost, but yet, of the one same 
indivisible Godhead. 

But take, if you please, a more plain and homely 
example of this different view or consideration of the 
creature, drawn from those words which we commonly 
use in the church. — When a minister of the gospel acf- 
ministers baptism to any one, he does it in these words, 
* In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost.' All these words are certainly creatures, 
and a work made of God in our mouths, even as we 
are ourselves, and all that is ours. And yet, no one of 
these is properly or separately the work either of God 
the Father, or of the Son, or of the Hojy Ghost : but 
the common work of the Three Persons, and so, of the 
One God. 

But if you look at the signification and meaning of 


wordsyor at the things signified by them, yoa amiiot 
^^ fj^itly say that by^ these words, ^in the name of God 
Father,' the Three Persons are equally signified; 
separately and particularly, the Person of Gpd the 
ther. So also by these words, * and of the Son,' is 
lerjiainly signified the Person of the Son of God, or of the 
Gos. And by these words, * and of the Holy Ghost,* 
properly and only signified the Person of the Holy 
Jyfthost. — ^Thus, I say, there are Three Persons singly 
^ui^ttd distinctly signified, yet of the same divine essence^ 
these words, or signs, or marks. For it is not said in 
^pfce names y as if they were more than one, or as if each 
te Person had a name and peculiar essence dis- 
ict from the others; but it is said, ^ in the name of the 
'ather and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; ' be* 
se, there is but one name in the one undivided 
xssence, though there are, nevertheless. Three distinct 

From this example, that which I have said concern- 
ing the twofold consideration of the things that are 
tf created, may, I think, be understood with sufficient 
ac clearness. — That they are to be received as things^ and 
> as signs. That is, as subsisting by themselves as they 
fc were created of God; and, as used to signify and teach 
ft something which they are not in themselves. — Thus, for 
\ instance, smoke, is both a thing created of God in 
itself, or in its nature, and is also the sign of another 
thing, which it is not by nature, but which it only sig- 
nifies and shews forth,-*-as fire. Of which kind of 
signs, Augustine has collected many in his books con* 
ceming Christian doctrine. 

But in this manifestation of the divinity we must 
understand something more than has been set forth in 
these general arguments. For the human nature in 
which the Son of God manifested himself, was not a 
bare sign only, or a mere empty representation of 
another thing which was not its own by nature, that is, 
of the Person of the Son of God : (even as also we are 
not to understand concerning' the dove that appeared,* 
that it was a mere empty sign or representation : or, of 

VOL. II. s 



the voice that spake from heaven, that it was a mere 
empty sound or image:) for, this human nature in 
which the Person of the Son of God was distinctly and 
properly manifested, was fulFy and wholly received into, 
and united with, the divine nature, in the same Person; 
that is, in that Person which sitteth at the right hand 
of God the Father to all eternity, ruling in his eternal 
kingdom; as we have heard it declared above in the 
promise made to David. But the dove that appeared 
was a shape assumed by the Holy Ghost for a time 
only, that he might by it manifest himself : it was never 
taken by him into personal and eternal union, but was 
afterwards laid aside by him : even as the angels some- 
times appear in a human form, which they assume for 
the time, and afterwards lay aside again. And so also 
we are to judge of the Person of the heavenly Father. 
For there was no promise made concerning . Uiis voice, 
nor any decree from above, (as there was concerning 
the Person of the Son,) that there should be a perpetual 
tronj unction or personal union ; it was only used as a 
manifestation for a very short time. 

When therefore it is said in our common 
Creed, * I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker 
of heaven and earth,' it is not to be understood as say- 
ing, that the Person of the Father only is Almighty and 
the Maker of heaven and earth, or that that same Person 
only is our Father. For the Son also is truly and equally 
Almighty, the Maker of all things, and our Father. And 
Bo also the Holy Ghost is Almighty, and Maker, and \ 
' Father. — And yet, there are ; not three almighties, or 
three creators, or three fathers; but. One Almighty, 
One Father, and One Creator of the heaven, the earth, 
end us all. And so also, God the Father is our Saviour 
and Redeemer, the Son our. Saviour and Redeemer, 
and the Holy Ghost our Saviour and Redeemer: and 
yet, there are not three saviours or redeemers, but 
One" Saviour and Redeemer or Deliverer, And, in a 
word, as the Father is our God, so the Son is our God, 
'and the Holy Ohost is our Gt)d: and yet, there are not 
three godis^ but One eternal God. And bo, in the 


teitoe maitiier, llie lioly Ghost ^Ctifie^ tli'e churdV, 
arid tfiife Father and the Son sanctify the church: arid 
yet, there are not three sanctifiers, but One Sanctifiei*. 
For, as we have already said, the works of the Trinity, 
out of the Godhead, or with respect to the creatures, 
are indivisible. 

I have thus spoken on, and set forth these things, 
that it may be plainly and clearly understood, that we 
acknowledge, believe in, and confess, Three Persons in 
One Godhead ; and that we do not mingle nor confound 
the Persons, nor, on the other hand, divide or sunder 
the Unity of the essence. For the peculiar property 
of the Father, wherein he is distinguishable from the 
Person of the Son, is, as we have already shewn, this — 
that he does not derive his divinity from any other than 
from himself; and he communicates the same unto the 
Son by an eternal generation. Wherefore, the Son also, 
together and equally with the Father, is God the 
Creator of all things: but he has this from the Father 
from all eternity. For, in that the Father is God atid 
Creator, he has not that as derived from the Son : but, 
in that the Son is God and Creator, he has that as de- 
rived from the eternal Father. And so, the Father arid 
the Son, in that they are each God and Creator, have 
not that as derived from the Holy Ghost : but, on the 
contrary, in that the Holy Ghoi^t is God and Creator, 
he has that as derived equally from the Father and frorii 
the Son fiiom all eternity. 

This, therefore, is the reason why, when mention id 
made of the Person of the Father first in tlie Cree^^ 
these words are added, * Father,' ^ Aliriighty/ atiid 
* Maker:' Which are npt added to the Person' of ihe 
Son or of the Holy Ghbst, to the intent that the Perkbri 
of the ]Pather maybe Considered distinctively from tiie 
Persons of the Soii iand of the Holy Ghoist, in tKe'atti 
sittiple Unity of the Godhead. ' And afterward^i 'wheh 
mention is hiade of the Persons of the Son atrd of thb 
Holy Ghost; then again, there are peculiar marks 6f 
(Ksimction- added, to the intent might lid mdet- 
stood/ ^that the F^rsOn of the Sort is distinct frdin tMfe 

s 2 


Peraons of the Father and of the Holy Ghost; aii4 
again, the Person of the Holy Ghost distinct from the 
I^rsons of the Father and of the Son. And these j 
distinctive marks are thus.— The First Person is called 
Father and Creator, because it is derived from him that 
the Son and the Holy Ghost are each Father Almighty, 
and Creator. So that, the Father may be understooid as 
being, as it were, the origin, beginning, and fountain, (if 
we may be allowed to use such terms when speaking of 
God, which terms the old ecclesiastical writers some* 
times used,) of the Godhead : for it is from him that 
the Son and the Holy Ghost derive an equal divinity, 
from all eternity: but the Father does not derive it 
either from the Son or from the Holy Ghost 

These things have I advanced concerning the pro- 
perties whereby the Persons in the Godhead are distin- 
guished. But in addition to these interior distinctions^ - 
^if I may so term them,) there are others also which we 
may term exterior distinctions^ or, ^ distinctions exter- 
nally manifested in the revelations and benefits vouch- 
safed to the church. — Such as, the manifestation of the 
Person of the Son in human nature. For this nature the 
Son of God only, the Logos, assumed; who was con- 
ceived (or as the Greeks have expressed it, evcretpKvO^if, 
incarnate^) of the Holy Ghost, bom of the Virgin Mary, 
was crucified for us, and died, &c. as the confession of 
the Creed teaches. And yet it was all so, that it may 
be piously and rightly said, that God suffered for us 
and was crucified, &c. Because, the Son of God is 
truly the One God, without and besides whom, diere is * 
no god. And yet, nevertheless, the other Persons in the 
same Godhead are others beside him ; that i?, the Per- 
sons of the Father and of the Holy Ghost. 

. And so alsoy the Person of the Holy Ghost was 
distinctly and separately manifested in the fiery tongues, 
and other gifb and miraculous testimonies that were 
vouchsafed to the church^ And as it is true that the hu- 
man nature which was assumed by the Son of God, was 
a work of the whole Godhead, made by God the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost; so also, the flames of 


fite in the form of tongues, and the sifts of the Holy 
Ghost, were the work and workmanMip of the whole 
Trinity, or of the Three Persons ; as I have already often 
shewn before, and with sufficient fulness for a short 
treatise like this. For if any desire to hear more upon 
die subject, there are some books upon these things 
extaqt, ably written by Augustine, Hilary, and Cyril. 
And this very doctrinal article concerning the Godhead, 
l^ the peculiar blessing of God, has been left to, and, 
spread abroad in, the church, even by the writers of the 
schools, (as they are called.) and in such a manner, that 
I find no reason for differing from them. ~ 

TJUT here, some are distressed upon this 
point. — Whether, when they pray the com- 
mon prayer, * Our Father which art in heaven,' they 
should consider themselves as addressing properly and 
distinctly the Person of God the Father, or as em- 
bracing together the whole Godhead, that is, the other 
Persons also at the same time. — It is no wonder that 
the human mind should be variously exercised upon so 
wonderful and stupendous a mystery, and upon an 
article so far above the capacity of all human reason ; 
that it should be tossed as it were to and fro by various 
cogitations, some of which should sometimes err from 
the path of the real and pure truth ; and that, although 
the main truth should be firmly held, it should yet be 
warped by an improper mode of expression, or by terms 
ill suited and ill adapted. But still, while the truth and 
feith are held as a certain and sure foundation, these 
little sticks and straws of errors, like trifling blemishes 
in a sound and beautiful body, do not hinder our 

And that foundation on which faith rests, is this. — 
That thou firmly believe and confess, that there are 
Three Persons in One eternal Godhead ; and that each 
distinct one of those Persons is the same only eternal, 
and in every respect true, God. That is, that thou so 
believe and confess them, that thou neither confound the 
Persons7 nor divide the essence or the Unity of the 



Godhead: but, that the distinction of Persons be uildci(* 
8tood> «tid that the ait-simple Unity of the essence, (oli 
as the okl church termed it, the o/tovo-ioy,) be not <kP 
stroyed. — This is that very mystery of hidden and won- 
derful wisdom, with looking ilito and admiring wfaicbi 
the angels themselves cannot satiate themselves ; tt 
Peter saith. They are unceasingly delisting thems^vei 
in it, and gazing upon it as with fixed and rivetted ^e^ 
and in this b^olding of it are eternally happy : bat, tf 
they could foresee or suspect any end to such a wonder, 
theie would be an end to their felicity. And so vfe slsbf 
by the all-great favour of God, shall behold the same id 
that eternal dwelling in the presence of God, and shall 
enjoy that vision saved and blessed for ever and ever! 
as Christ saith John xvii. 4, ^^ And this is life eternal, 
that they may know th^ the one true God, and Jesus 
Christ whom thou hast sent." 

But before we enjoy that eternal vision: in die pie- 
seace of God, it is necessary that we in the mean time 
rest on the Word by faith ; in which God reveals hioH 
self unto us, and wherein as it were we lay hold of tte 
promised life. Beason can know nothing in these all*' 
high things, and can do nothing but raise her voice and 
exclaim against them ; and cavil and say, that these 
things are impossible, and that they are inconsistent and 
militate against each other ; — that there are three, (wh(Hn 
we call Persons,) and that each of them is perfectly, 
and in respects, God ; and yet, that these Three are not 
a plurality of gods, but the One eternal God; and that 
one of these Persons only, that is the Son of God t^ 
Logos, assumed human nature, and is truly Man. He 
however Avho shall have come to the knowledge of God 
the Father and of the Son by the Word, will soon coine 
to the knowledge of the Holy Ghosts proceeding from 
the same Father and the Soa. 

And, as we have said above, as God the Father is 
the God, Fath», and Author of tis«U, and so, of aU^ 
ttiings in nature that are created; so, the Son, the 
JLoGos, is equally God the Creator and Fathcar of ^all ; 
aod so also, the Holy Ghost is equally God, and Ae 


^i^^Xjox or Author, and.Father of all, And yet, theri^ 
£s but One God and Father of all. For there is no dif-' 
ffeirence or distinction of essence. Therefore, whichever , 
«Df the Three Persons you name or think on, you at the ! 
same time name and think on the One true God, or the . 
^hole Godhead: for each Person is the One same eter- 
ngL^ and in all respects true, God. And there is no- 
danger of falling into error or offence here: for Jesus- « 
Christ the Son of God is not a God, or Creator, or, . 
Father of all creatures, different from God the Father . 
iMijd from the Holy Ghost, although he is another Per- . 
SOD. And you may rightly say the same also, concerning r 
the Fatlier and the Holy Spirit. 

Hence, it is not only an error and false, but also an 
impossibility and a nothing at all, if thou address the 
Person of God the Father as ^Our Father,' alone, anii ' 
separately from, the other Two Persons, and do notem-!- 
brace in thy address at the same time, and conjointly 
with the Father, the Persons of the Son and of the Holy ^ 
Ghost also. For by so doing, thou thinkest upon the true 
divine essence, or the very Godhead, separately and 
dividedly, and excludest from it God the Son and the, 
Holy Ghost; which is altogether to be rejected as de-' 
parting from the faith. 

But it is another thing to speak of the personal 
Fatherhood, (if I may use the term,) of God the Father, 
which is his personal property, and wherein he is dis- 
tinctively called God the Father. For in this respect he 
is, and is called, the only Father of this only begotten 
Son our Lord Jesus Christ, begotten before all \vorlds. 
But he is not in such a respect my father and thinis, aiid 
the father of all others ; nor am I, nor thou, nor any others, 
ix^ such a respect, his children. For there is but One 
only Son begotten of the Father before all worlds : and 
that is he of whom it is said Psalm ii. 7, " Thou art my 
Son, this day have I begotten thee." And yet, this sa^e 
Son, according to his human nature and its age, that is, 
which was about thirty years old when he was baptized, 
^d then became forty, and then fifty years old, and 
whi^ If^s , now existed more than one thousand five 


faondned yeats since the time when he first absumed thai' 
nature, — this same Son, I say, who was bom at a cer- 
tain time of the Virgin, may be called the Son of the 
whole Godhead, or of the Three Persons who are the 
same One God. 

And, as the works of the Trinity, from without^ are 
indivisible, so also the knowledge and worship of the 
Trinity are indivisible: and whatever God does with 
respect to the creatures, the same do all the Three Per- 
sons do and act together without difference; because, 
they are the One same eternal God. And, on the other 
hand, what we or any creature do towards any one of 
the Persons in the Godhead, by believing, by suppli-^ 
eating, or by any kind of spiritual worship, the same we 
do also towards the One God, or the whole Godhead, 
and toward all the Tliree Persons without difference. 
Because, with respect to us, or toward us, there is but 
One, undivided, eternal God : and yet, there are in that 
same One Godhead, Three Persons distinct from each 

Concerning this worship, Christ himself speaks 
thus, John xiv.-T-" He that hath seen me, Philip, hath 
seen the Father. Believest thou not that I am in the 
Tather and the Father in me?" And also John v. 23, 
", That all men should honour the Son, even as they 
honour the Father." Again, John x. 30, " I and my 
Father aje one:'' that is, (as. we should say in our 
mode of expression,) of one and the same eternal nature 
or essence, that is, One God, One Lord, only to be wor- 
shipped. And it was for these very words that the Jews, 
when they heard them, judged Christ worthy of being 
stoned to death as an awful blasphemer. And again, 
when he said, John v. 7, " My Father worketh hitherto 
and I work," the Jews (as John says) " sought the 
more to kill him, because he not only had broken the 
sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making 
himself equal with God." 

But I shall now come to a conclusion upon this part 
pf our subject. — I designed to write but a short treatise ; 
and I know not how it is that I have gone out intoargu« 


ments and discussions of such a length. But however, 
if any one desires to arrive at the true doctrine, and a 
solid knowledge of these things, let him diligently and 
attentively read and ponder the Gospel written by John, 
m which the whole of this doctrine is copiously set forth. 

So far, then, (to return now to the point from which 
we have thus digressed,) have we listened to John as 
the interpreter of Moses ; or rather, have heard Moses 
himself testify that he fully, and in all respects, agrees 
with John. That is, that in the beginning, or before ^ 
any thing was made, was the Logos or Word, by whom 
all things were made or brought forth into being ; that 
this Logos is not and cannot be a thing created or 
made; and that this same Logos is another thing, or 
rather another Person, from him whose Word or Logos 
be is. For since the Logos is not by nature created, 
but all things were created by him ; it must of necessity 
follow, that this Logos is the true God himself, the 
Creator of all things; because, it is evident that there 
can be nothing out of, and apart from all creatures, but 
God himself the Creator. And yet, as it has been 
observed, this Logos the God and Oeator by whom all 
things were made, is a Person distinct from the Person 
that speaks, or of whom he is the Logos. 

Moses therefore is unto us a sure and faithful 
witness ; and therefore he confesses, that he subscribes 
abo unto Christ, or is a Christian ! For he confesses and 
teaches that same thing which we and the church of 
Christ teach : namely, that God the Logos by whom 
all things were created, was with God from all eternity \ 
as J6hn also testifies. 

AND now, let us hear iox a short time our 

other messenger, Paul the Apostle ; that he 

may also call Moses forth, and place him before us. 

Paul, then, in his Epistle to the Colossians, chap. i. 15, 

manifestly speaking of Christ, saith, 

" Who is the image of the invisible God, the Jtrst- 
bern of every creature. For by him were all things 
cffMedj that are in heaven^ and that are in earth j visible 

and invisible^ whether they be thrones^ or dominions^ or,,: 
prifwipaUiieSy or powers ; all things were created, by him ] 
and for him. And he is before all things^ and by him aU \ 
things consist.'' 

It is evident that these words cannot be understoocj ■ 
concerning the human nature of Christ ; for it is certain 
that he had not the human nature ^^ before all things ' 
were wade," because it is not above one thousand five • 
hundred and forty years ago that he began to be Man. — 
And indeed, this is a glorious and memorable te^timopy of 
Paul, that Christ is truly the eternal God, the Creator of 
the whole nature of things ; and that, from the beginning 
ufito this day, and from henceforth even for ever, aU ' 
things exist, consist, subsist and are preserved by him ; : 
even those things which are the highest and in the 
highest degree, either in heaven or in earth, angels or : 
spiritual creatures, and in a word, " all things, visible 
aiid invisible." In which words, the Apostle beautifully 
agrees with the expressions of John,' and declares pre-* 
cisely the same things as he declares, that, ^' all things 
vyiere made by him," and that " without him was not: 
any thing made that was made." When therefore Moses 
hears these words, as he had just before by his con- 
fession approved the words of John, and declared that 
he held them as the sound truth; so, as soon as he 
bears these words of Paul also, he immediately sub- 
scribes to them, and thus gives his vote as if declaring ijt 
in person — ^ Thou sayest rightly, Paul. For concerding 
this which thou art now setting forth, I wished to leave 
my testimony, which I also publicly recorded in my 
.writings long ago ; — that the whole nature of the things 
that are created, was created by the Logos, or the 
Word of him that spoke,' Gen. i. 

Moreover, when the same Paul saith, 1 Cor. x. 4, 
" They all drank of that spiritud rock that foUoiyed 
them, and that rock was Christ," we must from this 
necessarily gather, that, if Christ then existed; -in tibyait 
very Ntime of the history which is written by Mosejs, and 
if he followed the children pf Israel while wau^edog 
ioFty years in ihe desert, and they all drew their spirkiw 


drink from him and were baptized of him with a spiritual 
baptism, that is, believed in Christ who should come in^ 
the flesh ^ith the same faith as we believe in him as now 
manifested ; — then, this Christ is truly and naturally^ 
the eternal God. For faith in God, can neither centre 
in the angels nor in any creatied thing ; because, such 
things cannot be meat and drink unto us ; nor can any 
thing be s6, but the eternal God only. 

And again the Apostle says in the same place imme^ 
diately after, ver. 9, " Let us not tempt Christ as some' 
of them also tempted and were destroyed of serpents.* 
What then is this that I hear ? Moses certainly saith 
that this Person whom the children of Israel tempted 
was the Lord (Jehovah), himself : that is, the One 
true eternal God : as he saith, Exod: xvii. 2, " Where- 
fore do ye tempt the Lord?" And Numb. xiv. 24, 
" They have tempted me now these ten times." Here, 
when Moaes writes that hQ whom the people of Israel 
•tempted was the Lord himself (Jehovah) how can the- 
same be Christ (you will say) whom Paul represents as 
having been tempted by that people ? Yet it miist of 
necessity be that both of them speak rightly and truly, 
and that the one agrees with the other; for the Holy 
Ghost no where contradicts himself. 

Here then it is established by a certain and uxcoiit 
trovertible conclusion; that this Lord who broi^ht the 
people of Israel out of Egypt, led them through the Red 
Sea, ackd conducted them through the desert, going '. 
before them in a cloud by day, and a pillar of fire by- 
night; who fed them with manna from heaven, aud. 
w^rought all those miracles which are recorded by MoseS ;; 
and who gave to them the promise of the land of 
Caeaari, and appointed for them their political economy^, 
their kingdom^ and their priesthood; — it is established, 
I say, by a certain and incontrovertible conclusion, that- 
the Lord is truly none other than our Lord Jesus -of 
Nazareth, who was bom of the Virgin Mary ; whom we 
Christians call and >CQntes6 *to be our Lord add G<od^' 
atfd whom the Jews^ (who nevecthetess glory in th^ir-. 
origin, because oif the Messiah,) once ccmdemned fiii4, 


cmdSeA, and whom even to tins daw, in die midst tl 
their aatcast state, ibey most awinlly Uaspheme aad 
cone; as Isaiah prophesied of diem d»t they would do^ 
tmying, that in the midst of dieir straits and calaniitiei; 
they should ^' corse their King and dieir God, and 
looK npward," Isaiah viii. 8 1 . 

AiCD IT IS moreover certain, that it was this God 
that delivered the Tea Commandments to Moses on 
Moont Sinai ; in which he said, ^^ I am the Lord tby 
God, which brought thee out of the land ol Egypt Thoa 
shalt have no other gods bat me," Exod. xx. 2, S. 
Wherefore, this our Jesus of Nazareth, who was made a 
victim for us on the cross, and died, is that same God 
who said in the First Commandment, ** I am the Lord 
thy God," &c. But if any Jew should hear this, or any 
Mahometan, how furiously would he rage, and how 
would he foam, and exclaim againt it. We howev^ 
know, that diis is affirmed rightly and truly, and will be 
equally true through all eternity, in defiance of Satan 
and the gates of hell ; -and that every one that will not 
believe it shall be compelled to tremble at it, and to 
bum in the torments of hell for ever. 

For here again Moses is ready at hand as a witness, 
plainly declaring, that all things were made by Grod 
speaking ; (that is, by the Logos or the Word of God ;) 
and so is David also, Psalm xxxiii. 6, ^' By the Word 
of the Lord were the heavens made." For, if the 
heavens were made by the Word or Logos, it must of 
necessity be, that all other created things were made by 
the same Logos. Because, the Creator of one and of 
all creatures is the same ; and he who did not make all 
creatures, could not make one creature. — Therefore, 
Moses and David agree with John and Paul, who all, 
in harmony and as it were with one mouth, say, that all 
things were created and made by the Word, or by the 

Wherefore, if " all things were made by him, and 
without him was not any thing made that was made," 
as all these four, Moses, David, John, and Paul, plaii^ 
testifyi it follows of necessity, that in this word ^* all,*" 


'liich they use, the leading of the people of Israel 
at of Egypt, and all the miracles that were brought 
xna above, must be included and comprehended, and 
annot be excepted; nay, eveiy thing that was ever 
lade from the very beginning of the world, or that shall 
e made from henceforth for ever. For these words are 
ill of weight, when they say, " all things were made by 
lira ;'' or when Moses says, ^ God said, Let it be 
i^ade, and it was so.' 

And although Moses does not express the name of 
lie Son of God, or write Christ in those very letters 
ind characters; yet, he truly expresses and confesses 
his same Logos, or Word of God speaking, by whom 
ill. things were made ; wherein, he plainly signines, that 
Q the Godhead, the person speaking, (that is, whose 
be Logos, is,) is one ; and the Person who is the 
LfOGos, or the Word that is spoken, is another ; and 
r^ thaJt each Person is the One eternal Essence, the 
creator of all things. For as to the more clear ex- 
)ression of these high things, there was something to 
« left for that wonderful revelation which was to be 
nade under the New Testament, where this mystery was 
be set forth more clearly, and in these very words 
hemselves : that is, where the names God the Father, 
be Son, and the Holy Ghost, were to be expressed 
iainly and explicitly : who before, in the scripture of 
be Old Testament, were thus designated — " God said," 
nd, " the Word " or Logos, and, " the Spirit of the 

Therefore, it profits nothing either to the Jews, or 
le Mahometans, or to heretics, diat, with a great show 
f zeal and piety, they glory against us Christians, that 
ley believe in the One God the Creator of heaven and 
uth, and pay him that greaiL and devoted honour of 
dling him Father. For all such honorary appellations 
re but^vain and idle terms, whereby they " take the 
ime of God in vain" and impiously abuse it, contrary 
Kj^. Third Commandment And thus, is verified that 
bleb Christ declares concerning the Jews among 
bom he was in the days of bia flesh, ^^ It is my Father 



" • • • • > 

that honoureth me, of whom ye say that he is your 
God. Yet ye have not known him," John viii. 54, 55. 
- — And surely it is no very honourable testimony which 
is thus left concerning them, that they said that God 
was their Father, and yet knew not who he was ! 

Thus, if thou shouldst meet with any such Jew, 
Mahometan, or heretic as this, thus pufFexi up with a 
conceited opinion of his own holiness, and shouldest ask 
him to tell thee honestly, whether or not he believed in 
this One eternal God the Creator of all things, whose 
name he worshipped so religiously and with so much 
veneration as even to call him Father,-^if thou shouldst 
ask him, I say, to tell thee honestly, whether he believed 
him to be the eternal FatheV" and to have a Son apart 
from, and above, all creatures, within the very Godhead 
itself; — what answer supposest thou he would make 
thee ? He would burn with that zeal for defending bis 
own piety, and would be so thunderstruck and terrific, 
that he would wonder why the whole fabric of the world 
did not tremble, together with himself, at thy blas- 
phemies ! 

And, if thou shouldst still proceed to ask him, 
whether he believed that this same God the Creator and 
Father of all, (whom they with a lying mouth so deno- 
minate,) was truly the Son born of the Father before all 
worlds; — at such an expression, he would stop his ears, 
would gnash his teeth, and would fear lest the earth 
should open to swallow up both thee and him together! 
And, if thou shouldst go on farther still and ask him, 
whether this same One eternal God, Creator, and 
Father, (for so they denominate him,) was also the^Holy 
Ghost, who is the Spirit of the Fatfaier a»4 of the :>Sod, 
or proceeding from both; — he would here dunk > it 
perilous to stabd any longer before thee, and would ^^ee 
away to som0 secret comer, as far as possible out of 
Ay sight, and would for ever after avoid thee as an 
exnissary of Satan coming from the lowest hell ! 

Hence, therefore, it is sufficiently manifest^ iiiat 
they in reality ^^ know not God,^' as Christ saith --ttiid diat 
they know noty that he is not the God whom th^ 4SaU 


(beir God and Father; and therefore, they ** know not 
what they say, nor whereof they affirm." For, if God be 
not he whom the scriptures that are given ua from above 
reveal unto us, who is truly and naturally Father, and 
truly and naturally Son, from each of whom proceeds 
the Holy Ghost, and yet so, that these Three Persons 
are the same One undivided Essence ;• — then, there can 
be truly nothing of a God at all, there can be no God ! 
And hence they, as far as it concerns their religion, are 
altogether " without God :" excepting that, they impiously 
and horribly "abuse the name of God, and lughly insult 
him, and falsely dream of a certain God as their God 
and Creator, who is their Father, and of whom they are 
the sons . While they are at the very same time robbing God 
of that which truly and properly belongs to him as Father, 
or to his paternal nature, that is, of his true and natural 
Son ; and are robbing both of the Holy Ghost ; which is, 
in reality, taking away God altogether, and leaving 
nothing but an empty dream, and the falsely fabricated 
tc^rms of God the Creator and Father. Nay, they affix 
the all-sacred name of God to this their lie or self- 
imagined idol, that is, to the devil himself; who, in 
reality, is their god and father, as being the only 
father and maker of every lie. And yet, they all the 
while boastingly pride themselves upon being the only 
true and dear children of God, the elect and the saints ! 

. We, however, know it to be sure and indubitable^ 
that God has revealed himself by the most signal testi- 
monies, that he is the One eternal God the Creator 
and maker of all things in heaven arid in earth ; and 
that he the s^me One Creator and Father of all things 
that are created, is truly and naturally the eternal Fiaither 
of his only Son, in the Godhead itself. Arid again^- that, 
in. : this same Godhead, the same God the Creator and 
Ff^therof all things, is truly and naturaUy the one eternal 
SoQ of the eternal Father. And finally, that the siame 
God: the Creator and Father of all things,; is the Holy 
Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son> « ana 
eoreteiHal with each. F(»r these Three di&tinct Persons 
aft: One eWnal' God^ the Q^eatoriand Father of all 


tiungB : and each distinct Person is truly that same One 
eternal God, the Creator and Father of the whole febric 
of the world. 

Wherefore, if under this confession of God, and in 
this faith thou shouldst offer up a prayer, and shouldst 
direct thy petitions unto Christ in such a form as this, — 
* I call on thee, O Lord Jesus Christ, thou One only 
eternal and living God, the Creator and Father of us all,' 
—thou wouldst have no cause to fear that thou shouldst 
ffive offence either to the Father or the Holy Ghost, as 
Having taken any thing from the one or the other whidi 
was his own: but thou mightest rest fully satisfied and 
assured, that thy prayer was approved of God, and that 
the whole Godhead acknowledged it and gave testimony 
unto it; and that, on which one soever of the Three 
Persons thou mightest have called, thou thereby calledst 
on alt the Persons, and so, calledst upon the One God. 
For no one of the Persons can be addressed without, 
apart from, or separately and dividedly from, the rest. 
Because it is manifest, that the divinity of all the Per- 
sons is one and the same undivided, unsundered Essence, 
and the divinity of each one distinctly also. And so, on 
the other hand, thou canst deny and insult no one of 
the Three Persons, without denying all the Three, and 
so, the One true God at the same time : as it is written 
1 John ii. 23, " Whosoever denieth the Son, the same 
hath not the Father." — ^Thus then, I say, in calling in 
such a manner upon our Lord Jesus Christ, thou errest 
not nor doest wrong. For so also the church singing 
concerning the Holy Ghost, thus directs her prayer 
unto him, * Come, Father of the poor, &c.' 

But however, in order to retain the simplicity and 
propriety of the doctrine concerning the distinction of 
persons, and to follow the example of the apostolic form, 
and of that general custom of the church received and 
mutilated-from the apostolic form, it is more convenient 
to follow and retain that order or series wherein the 
Persons of the Godhead are mentioned; and, whenever 
we would offer us our prayers or do any thing in the way 
of teaching or setting forth the confession of our faith. 


to ibention; firsrt, (iy tAiAe, Ifte porsott itf the Faditr^ 
cording to that form which Christ lias^ hit- ttB, * Om* 
jPatter which art in hea^ireD/ &c. BecaaM} this person 
ife; As it were, die fountain-spring 'atid fottHtaii-heed of 
the ii^bity (if I may use such terms) of the Son and of 
di6 Holy Ghost. And therefore, when the name ol Qoi 
the Father is mentioned, the Son cannot be separated Of 
feft^ out, but must of necessity be understood as mi^ 
dressed by name at the same time. And so also liie 
Holy Ghost, when the Father and the Son are named^ 
ttust of necessity be understood to be addressed by 
name atod to be present also. For no one of the How 
Perscms in the Godhead can be separated froUk the 
others, nor be considered apart from them as another 

And hence, we find the apostles Paul and Pet^ to 
speak thus — " Blessed be the Gt>d and Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of all mercies, &c« 
Eph. i. S, and 1 Pet. i. 3. And Christ feimself eveiy 
whSSre^ in hh sermons recorded in the Gdspels, €dwayg 
mentions or names the Father before himself, a^ r^eH^ 
hunself and all his unto him: and yet, he himself 
plainly saith, ^ that men are to honour the Son^ even qs^ 
tJiey honour the Father,' John v. 23. And ftpia iaMb' 
he, " All things that the Father hatfi Are mliiej- Johti- 
xvi. 13. And, "What things soever the Father ddf«h,- 
these also doeth the Son likewise," John- v. 19.^ Thus 
making, himself in all divinity equal unto this f\ath^ : 
excepting that, he would have it to be understood, that 
the First Person in the Godhead is the Fathier ; and that 
the Son, in that he is the Son, derives that firom'^the 
Father ; but that the Father does not derive what Ifelfe 
firom the Son. - ^ -^-^ 

And with respect. to what is said cOncemiilg the 
dtfierence between certain sins ; — that some are ptotfoh* 
lafly said to be committed against <jrod the ^Ffttt^, 
others against the Son of .God, and^ others agaiinstthfe 
Holy Gfipst ;-^^this respects^ tfie manifestation of ^Ihbse 
particular Persons ; but there is not thereby, any ' dlvi- 



fioo to be unckntood as iwW of die Godliead or of 
ite/eMeiice of God* 

llitiB, when the Sod of God, die Lord of ^ory, is 
mid to be crucified ; or, when the Uood^if die Soo of 
God is said to be trampled under foot, or to be denied, 
ftc these sins are ri^dy and properly said to be com- 
■litted against the Person of the Son, who manifested 
himself 1^ assuming the human nature ; in which, be 
suffered, died, rose ag^n, and now reigns for ever and 

And so B&in, when Christ saith, '^ the blasphemy 
against the Holy Ghost shall not be forj^ven," it is 
said paAicularly in reference to blasphemy against the 
doctrine that is revealed clearly and with the most ma- 
nifest testimonies, by the Holy Ghost ; for those adver- 
^saries themselves feel that they are all the while con- 
vinced by the most manifest truth. — As diis revelation, 
J say, is properly ascribed to the Holy Ghost, it is 
riflditly . said that the blasphemy is against the Holy 
G host ; . because even when the truth of the doctrine is 
acknowledged, it is yet obstinately and furiously contra- 
dicted. £ven as the sin is rightly said to be committed 
against the Son, when his person is injured, in which 
the human nature is united with the divine. But we 
have spoken something to diis point before, and more is 
frequently said elsewhere. 

But what shall we have to reply when Johu thus 

§008 on to write farther concerning the Son of God or 
lie Logos, " And the (Logos or the) Word was made 
flesh ? " Surely this does pot agree (one might say) widi 
tjhose words of Moses concerning the Logos or the 
Word, " And God said, Let there be light; " nor, with 
diat of David, " By the Word of the Lord were the 
heavens made,'' &c. Surely the same Moses, or rather 
the Son of God, the Logos himself, (who revealed him- 
SjBlf mito Moses and who was the leader of the people 
of Israel, as Paul saith 1 Cor. x.) when he spoke from 
Mouilii Sinai severely forbad that any image or likeness of 
him should be framed from any thing that is in heaven 



or ^acth ! AAd yet John llere/does not only- (note an 
image or likeness, but makes the Son of Grod to be truly 
a creature and man, when he says, ^^The Word was 
niade fieshi'^ And Paul also does not hesitate to say, 
that this Son of God is the Son or the seed of David, 
and was ^^ made of the seed of Da;v«d>^ Rom. i. 3. And 
again, Gal. iv. 4, he saith, '^ God sent forth his Son 
;Xiiade of a woman," &c. It must of necessity be, then, 
<one might say) that Moses tnust be understood as 
speaking of some other Word, by which all things were 
made : for nothing can be created by a man, 'whd is by 
nature, a jcreaiture himself. And then again, do not John 
and Pftal contradict each other when thiey affirm that 
the Son of God was Man, and yet say that all things 
w6De:made by himS^— 

• •; - . • . • ■ r » ■ 

then come, let us see whether Moseis 
will not willingly present himself before us 
testifying the same things as John and Paul ? For, 
recording. Gen. iii. 15, the first promise that was made to 
man after the fall, he saith, that God said unto the 

And I will put enmity between thee and the. womaHy 
end between thy seed and her seed: it shall bruise thy 
head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. 

■ ^ ' ■ 

It is evident first of all, that God, (when the 
" serpent " is spoken of) is not here speaking concern- 
ing any living creature that creeps in the grass, or that 
feeds upon frogs or any other such creature of the marsh, 
whk^h we call a snake or a scorpion, butconceming that 
serpent which was then the most beai^ftil among . the 
living creatures, in which there was an excellent spirit ; 
and which not only had the faculty of speech, bdt also 
knew how to dispute artfully concerning the great(ei9t 
matters, that is, concerning the divine will ajod Ibe 
command of God; displaying a wiadom appa,r^^y 
divine and given from heaven, (things that certainly lEUe 
given to none but to the angelic or human nature;) 
and which indeed could so dispute^ as easily to g^t the 

T g 


mcmdmcy mdt m^n liiisMtf, and to bring him into 
Mb bwh Dj)itiien, who, tievertlieless was enltghten^ 
with the knowledge of God as revealed by himself ; 
and "Vf^hieh also, ' having under a specious shew of truth, 
iiid uhder eover of the name of God$ thus deprived 
iman df.hist* right mind, could drive him headlong into 
«in and eternal death. 

i It is not therefore a common reptile snake of the 

'ground which devours fro^ that is here intended, but 

tffie' 4mt could devour the Whole human race at one 

A^bening of his mouth : namely, it is the very enemy of 

the Son of God, the devil, whb f^ke in the serpent, 

taiid who by sin brought ^th into the wbrld. It is con- 

eeming this dreadful^ muttlerdr, this author and framer 

of sin, and this destroyer of die hmnan race that God 

saith, his head shall be bruised; that is, his power; that 

Js, ttmtddd;th shall be destroyckl, and life and righteous- 

'ttess^restoned. And he saith that this shall be done by 

cthe Sked of the woman. — ^That, as it was by thewcnn&ii, 

<diade Irom the man without a mother, that tiie devil 

■jdfove the human race headlong into this miseraUe fiedt; 

so, this Seed of the woman, bom without a man, should 

again bruise the head of the same devil ! 

This Seed of the woman, therefore, must of necessity 

be truly man, a male offspring bom of a woman. For 

by the term human seedy according to the phraseology 

'^f tll(^ prophetic scriptures, it is evident that nothing 

iflse 'fe "Signified than the race or offspring proceeding 

^fronfi man. But there is in this place this particular to be 

.liotiGed—Aat this offspring or this man is called the 

^W*/^ the>Wtf»i^ otherwise, the term ^^seed," 

J^iJHvays gigtfffi^s the seed of the man or of the father; 

that is, the race proceeding' from the man or the father; 

as,- 'Ae " seed of Abfeham," the "seed of David;" 

*«tid 80 aliJo every where in the prophetic scripture it 

'>(k^snifie& the seed or offspring of the man. — Therefore, 

flk^is^'in this place; fully harmonizing with Luke and 

'M^AAn^,' plainly signifies, that this woman or mother 

' WotiW^b^W^;rtrgin, who, without any male seed, would be 

ifaeittotlier of her'bwn seed, or son. And, as this mean- 

ii^ hiUiifmiaeB wkbthe ti^toKe viidiiga; <rft tjhsr^NMt 
TesliliMil^ let us who :ih^ €brii»tians ftdvM noiDtbglr} 
acc(HK]i«g lo the ^ mk' abo?^ laid dbwik •> ^ ^ n; 
In a woiri theii^ it' j» ckwr, thtA this Seed ^ef lUl 
womaiib is ti^ly md Mtundly loan. — And toir, jli ii 
equally certain, that th6. sw^ie mtist neoe^aairily ds6<iid 
truly uid natiMaUy God: twr i£ H b^ aot so^ tbfaii we 
post coasider Mose$ to be^ oM fii true and feilhfid 
piophet of God^ but a lyiog and iddattous praphel of 
Satan, for ascritHi^ to this Seed that power and BiigbC 
which belcmg to God only : namely, that , he shoiiU 
destioy death in the hijiman race and him that had drib 
power of d^th, and so, take away sin and the wradi; of 
Grod also and bring in righteousness and life. — And 
this certainly, no one angel of heaven, nor all the angeb 
in heaven together, can effect : but it must of necessi^ 
be a Person greater, higher, and more powerfiil than att 
angels and creatures t(^ther. Ai^xtly, tfaetefore, do 
I affirm and repeat, that Moses is to be held m 
idolatrous, damnable, and accursed prophet and teache<v 
if he ascribed the might and power of abolishing sin and 
death, and, after these are destroyed, of restoring righ^ 
ousness and life, to die seed of a woman, which is 
nothing hat a mere creature, and not tibe One only God 
who alone is the reviver, or ^ver and author of Ufe ; as 
John saith chap. i. 4, concerning the Son of God or tht 
Logos, ^^ In him was life," &c.-^Fer this also must ^ 
necessity follow, even in tli^ judgment and confession of 
human reason, that, he that has the power of abolishini| 
death and trampling it under foot, has also the power m 
restoring life ; because, taking away death-, is, in realil^^ 
nothing more or less than restoring the lifc^ that is Itet ( 
and the abolishing of sin, is the very restoration of 
righteousness; from the possession of which, the sdr^ 
pent, or rather the devil throu^ the instrumentali^ ^ 
the serpent, cast out as it were our first parents tc^thdr 
with sdl the human race their posterity, and, havili^ 
ensnared them by a lie, drove them into the evil of Bin 
and to eternal death ; as the vcnoe of the divine coiti^ 
mand {dainly declares, ^ In the day that tboa eatest ^ 


the tTMy diou shall die by death/ Bat 4iere, on the ctm^ 
trary, that liar and niurderer daid, ^ Do ye really thiDk, 
then, that this prohibition is put npoii you in earneit, 
diot ye mi^t not eat of the tree ! No ! For if ye do eat 
of it, ye diall be so far from dying, that ye shall be as 
God, kniiwing all good and evil/ 

All these things, then, as I have said, were i^keii 
expiesdy concerning sin and death, which this serpent 
bron^t upon the human race. And therefore, by these 
words of this promise concerning bruising the head of 
the serpenty nothing more or less is to be understood, 
than that the works and power- of the devil, that is, 
sin and death, should be destroyed and abolished : even 
as Paul saith that Christ " hath abolished death, and 
hath brought life and immortality to light through the 
Gospel," 2 Tim. i. 10. And what the Jews or Maho- 
metans may here prate with their patched up interpreta- 
tions, is nothing to us. We are firmly persuaded, that 
Moses in this place agrees with the scripture of the 
New Testament. 

And moreover, that our first parents Adam and 
^Eve themselves understood this promise, (that the Seed 
of the woman should bruise the head of the serpent), in 
the same manner, is without a doubt. And it appears 
fully evident from the very Jiistory contained in Gen. iv., 
that Eve, after she had brought forth her son Cain, 
thought that he, because he was the first that was bom 
of woman, would be the most excellent arid ^especial 
flower of the whole human race. And thereforer she 
hoped that he, the same, would be that promised Seed, 
and that she was to be the mother or woman, of whom 
that Seed should be. And hence, in the midst of so 
great a hope, and of her joy at the son that was bom, 
she says, * I have, or I have gotten, and now have, a 
man [who is] the Lord (Jehovah).' As though she 
had said, ^ This [Son] will without doubt be that very 
Lord, concerning whom God spoke unto us ; and whom 
we believe is to be, according to the promise, the "seed 
of the woman ; ' " that is, she thus spoke, calling this son, 
pr male child, or man, the Lord himself, or God. 


For, IB this passiige, that one pecuUlur proper mom 
of God, JEHOVAH, is plainly written; which i thejr 
otherwise term the ietragramfnatan, and which is ap^ 
plied to no other, and 'Signifies no othw^ than God 
alone, br^the essence of God.- And the other term 
IscH, that is, mdn, wheft put absolutely and by it^f, 
without reference to woniaB,i is not a term* that distin- 
guishes the one sex from the other ' <MiLy, ' as when aU 
persons of the male sex are called men ; but, it signifies 
some excellent num conspicuous among many ; just als 
we, from the term man ft;/r,; say excellence in man 
(virtus); and, from excellence in man (virtus^) say man 
(vir), when we would signify that such an one was, or 
would be, a great man. 

So, in this passage. Eve thus blesses herself — * Wow 
God, according to his promise, has made me a mother. 
I have now brought forth a son. This son shall he, yea, 
this son is, that man, [who is] the Lord God; who 
shall bruise the head of the serpent, according to that 
promise given us from above.' Otherwise, how could it 
possibly be, that it should come into her mind to say 
any such thing as this concerning her son that was just 
bom—" I have gotten a man, the Lord," if she had 
not fully understood from the promise concerning the 
Seed, that he who should accomplish what God had 
promised, (that is, bruise the serpent's head,) should be 
truly God? 

Nor did she alone understand this promise thus. 
For Adam had without doubt pondered it over with her 
long before, and talked with her about it ; and both of 
them had dwelt upon the promise often and with pious 
meditation, and had mutually comforted each other 
against those most distressing senses of sin and death ; 
both of which this promised seed was to abolish, and, 
having taken them out of the way, was to restore right- 
eousness aiid life : for, if they had not supported them- 
selves by this consolation during the whole time of their 
life, they must soon have be^ oppressed and swallowed 
up with despair. 

And since God did not wish nor ever permit his 

jpMoiaBii' d|iiob ua revedM in' dKrelottdttwcmfi^ (as 
f^ fii8tl|m)miee also.traB deUvend tcrrtben^) U le 
iqadeikMihi tOiAo purpofiieBiHl withoiit pfofit^ cnr-tobe 
iip6kenntb ^Iwinds wkliout beii^ miderstood) {m^k 
JBimrriUdBL katah It. U^ f' The woid OmA gpeth farik 
ilbtpi^y moudi^ shsil not retam onto me v(^ bofe^ft 
4iiafiMCtfxMnplBBh thai whidi:-!' please^ and! it dbaU 
l^itoaper. in thething whereanto I sent k; ") dnd i^inoe 
ibere .w^e in the beginniiig only these two of die 
faiilBan mee who could hear this promise and understaiid 
at) dt was aiecessary that it should be imderatood by 
iihem rightly i->inily, and savingly, and altogether jilst'ite 
Are Christians understand it now, and as me patriarchs 
and prophets understood it long b^ore us. 

But the pious, yet poor miserable mother, Eve, 
erred in this.-r-Ia thmking that she should be, and now 
«wi^, when her son Cain was borii, the mother of this 
promised Seed, seemg that there was no other mother 
ilVfaig' : , and because, from her ardent desire, and febrebt 
iloJE^iiig, she hoped that this son of hers would be that 
jsromised. seed^ and that man, Jehovah^^ — Because, 
those hdpds of heis were premature, and her joy was 
hasty aiid ptesuinptiious : and yet, her dei^b^s found 
Lf>ardon, yea, even &vour, as she desired i^o fervently to 
be delivered from sin and death, that is, from the 
:^wer of, the devil. But God had not said to her, 
* Thy seed (and particularly the first-bom) shall brufae 
.the serpent's head.'. Nor had he said to Adam, * The 
-sded oithy woman, or of /% wife, shall do this.' — But, 
afiti^ he had pronounced, first, the terrible and sorrowfiil 
isenteiiee'oh Adam and Eve, (the weight bf which all the 
.Mce of nsen n&w experiebce^ and will do so even unto 
the end >of the world,) he th^ 'turned the cutse toward 
idle ^erjient, atid said, ^ Becku^ thou hast £rom horriUe 
hatred. cif one, burtbened the hutnan rabe with sin ^ind 
dedhywho were orealed by me without sin, and hast 
inddethein slaves tmto; thee'; I therefore will raise up 
OBR but of the human rao^4»nevthat shall be the Seed' of 
the woman, who shall bruise thy head. Thus, I will 
:Afet]liwi6 Jhee a pioud, powerful, malicious spirit, hy the 



son of man ; that t^u in* turti shadl be over^me aad 
trodden under foot by the human race^ even as nofw dhia 
misera^ble human nature has been overcome by thee/-^ 
And this treadkig usider foot our hord Jesus Christ han 
ahready begun and has accomplished, and still goes on. fo 
accompli^, and still wiU go on to accomplish unto the 
(md ; who is, with God the Father, the same Lord or 
Jehoyi^ ! Amen- ! 

, I , 

13 UT with regard to tlus text of Gei^esis, some 

one will perhaps say — How comes all this I 

tihat even unto this time no commentator before, either 

among Christians or among Jews, saw this to be the 

meaning of the passage ? For all thcf versions that are 

extant read it quite otherwise. Atid our Common ver- 

•sion has ity " I have possessed a man by [the help of] 

God." And othe^ Hebraists commonly render it thus, 

* I have obtained, or gotten, a maQ from God, or, by 

[the help of} God.' — Here I answer, firfet of all, that I 

pay no regard to all this : for I declared it at the very 

outset to be my determination, not to have any thing to 

do with other guides, but to give my own opinion cottr 

cerning the true meaning of the original : and if tkds 

shall not please others, yet, I shall have this satisfaction 

that it pleases myself ! 

But^ that I may make some reply concerning thf 

passage in question, for the benefit of those who seek 

such information with a good intent and to profijb 

thereby ,r-*there is in this passage the Hebrew partidle 

£Th; which, as those who have even the slightest know^ 

ledge of, or acquaintance with, the Hebrew, well know i^ 

an article ; which we in our vernacular language render 

by an aoSusative case, eithei' in the masculine pr femif 

nine gender; and which the Greeks also e^presi^.by 

TfK and rvfi. As when Moses says at the banning of }^ 

.fiooks^ ^' In the beginning God cheated the heaven ja94 

the earth:" which is, in the Hebi^ew, ETb hasomai|i|[ 

1ir££TH HAAREz : and which, in the Greek or Gerlnaii, 

by thefvefixing of the article, is rendered E\afxn^^m<'^ 

i 9€h rh\wim6v xoi t^ yi^v : wd it ia tender^ in JtH^ 


same way universally. As it is ako id tliis and die 
following chapters ; when it is said, ^' And Ackun knew 
his wife/' tV yv)MUKa avrw. Again, and, Eye bron^t forth 
£TU Cain, roy ISmv. And again, she Inronght forth eth 
Abel, Toy Kfi^K And again, Adam begat eth Seth, -m 
Yffft. And Seth begat eth Ekos, rw Ew»r. And so on 
throu^out the whole chapter. — And it is exactly in die 
same manner that Eve saith in this place, when she had 
brought forth her son Cain, Canithi isch eth Jeho- 
vah, "I have gotten a man, [who is] the Lord,'' m 
Kvpiov. Because, as I said, she had conceived a hope, 
that this Cain would be that Seed promised of God, who 
should bruise the serpent's head. 

Nor have I the least doubt, that those most aban- 
doned of all men the Jews who nailed Christ to the 
cross, nay, that even men who are worse than those, (for 
such there alfe, who even now would crucify Christ more 
cruelly than their forefathers, — I mean that scum of the 
Jewish race who are now mingled with the Turks at 
Buda in Hungary, concerning whom we have lately been 
informed, that, joining with those Turks, they have, for 
the sake of mockery and insult, carried about for pub- 
lick sport a cat or kitten fixed to a cross,) even those 
deplorable murderers and tormentors of cats and kittens, 
I say, would, if their minds could be brought to believe 
the scripture, or even if, destitute of all faith as they are, 
they could be brought to declare and plainly to confess 
the truth as it appears upon the face of the plain mean- 
ing of the scriptures, even those, I repeat, would cer- 
tainly make this confession — * Even though we hold you 
accursed, yet we confess, (if what you maintain could be 
true, that the seed of the woman is truly God and man,) 
that it cannot be denied that this text exactly accords 
with such a meaning, when Eve says ^ I have gotten the 
very man, [who is] Jehovah, or the Lord/ For it must 
be confessed that with respect to these words themselves, 
they do, without offending or violating any grammar- 
tied construction, naturally give that meaning. And, 
when they now, as they do, give a different meaning to 
these words, ^ I have gotten a man iy [means of] the 


Lord/ or, */ram the Lord/ or, * fnf [the kelp of] the 
Lord/ it is violently forced and wrested, and conveys ct 
something wholly foreign to the nature, phraseology, and 
genius of the language.' — ^This confession, I say, the Jews 
tfiemselves even the very worst of them would make, if 
Aey could be brought to give such a testimony, and to 
declare plainly the conviction which they feel in their 
hearts. But now, as they execrate this article, — ^that 
God took upon him human nature from a woman, they 
oppose this text and the whole scripture, and do violence 
to the plainest words by their forced interpretations. 

And the same confession also all other Hebraists 
would be forced to make, if they would rightly consider 
this text and candidly declare what they felt ; and espe- 
cially, if they could be brought to believe that this Seed 
of the woman is the Lord (Jehovah); that is, truly 
God and Man. For, that the Hebrew particle eth, is 
a sign of that case which we call the accusative, signify- 
ing hunc or hanCj is confessed, and that, without any 
doubting, by all Jews and Christians who have the 
slightest knowledge of the grammatical construction of 
the Hebrew. But that the same particle signifies also 
by (ab)y or from (de) or with {cum,) has never been 
proved by any one, or by any arguments or authorities, 
nor ever will be. For as to their bringing examples out 
of the Rabbi Kimhi, or out of some particular passages 
in the scriptures where this particle seems to be so used 
that we cannot render it without a preposition, as in that 
passage " the Lord was eth Joseph," Gen. xxxix.'S and 
81, — concerning such passages, we may answer wdth 
readiness and truth, which they also cannot deny, that 
the native phraseology of the Hebrew language, has not 
been clearly discovered even unto this day, and that they 
themselves are ignorant of the force and signification of 
many Hebrew words, as fact and experience fully prove : 
so far is it firom possibility, that they should know the 
force of any particular phrase, Jigure, or idiom. And it 
is evident that they sport their fabricated equivocations 
upon certain words and constructions, where there is no 
necessity for it whatever ; doubting, hesitating, and com- 

876 I 

plainiiiig, juat lil^e imy unskilfiil player qp^ a& hutik. b 
mmU "^ho ^i^ ^^^ ^^ same strings a^tin and agj^*^ i 
complaining and attempting, to see what sounds ikflur 
ivill give, and wanting diose sounds to be consid^^ 
measure and harmony. 

Moreover, as, with respect to the Latin lan^ 
all who are acquainted with that language, or who 
its mode of expression, will confess, that it is one 
to speak Latin idiomatically, and another to speak 
grammatically ; so, in the Hebrew languagie, there m 
wide difference between speaking it Hebraically, 
speaking it grammatically. — ^That the Jews know how 
speak it grammatically, I would grant: (though 
cannot even do that well, for they frequently err, 
especially so in the very names of things :) but, that 
should speak it Hebraically, purely, properly, and accoi 
ing to the native phraseology of the ancient tonguei 
that I consider, now the vernacular use of the lang 
is lost, to be impossible. Fpr it is certain, that ev< 
language can be much more ccM'rectiy and genuini^ 
learnt from domestic use and the daily conversatioOiki 
families, and from public places, conventions, ciroMl} 
and assemblies, where men use the vernacular langua^^ 
than from writings and books only ; which are, for t^ 
reasoji, rightly called dumb masters. For writings aK 
nothing more than dead words, but vocal conversa- 
tions are living expressions ; the import of which cimnot 
be so properly, significantly, and fully conveyed in 
writing, as by the very enunciation and feelings ^f 
the person who is speaking; (as Hieronymus jua% 
observes concerning Demostiienes and iEschines and 
also Livy ;) for the living. voice carries with it a sort of 
secret energy. 

And that which some of the grammarians fabrio^, 
.is utterly rejected as unsupported either by r^as^ 
or proof, — that the particle,'XTH here has the signifiqi^- 
tion of the prepositions /row =(«) of{de) oriy (flo); for 
they would render the passage thus, " I have gottm, or 
I have obtained, a man from God." And as to the ex- 
amples which they bring forward out of Geq. xliv. ^ a«4 

*^.ix., when they were gone oat of -the citi^ (eth 
^),'* it is manifest that it is rightly rendered^ Sgfesitil 
urbe; as it is atso in other places. And; with 
;t to that passage Gen. v. 28, and vi. 9j " Enoch 
with God," ETH Deumj and, " Noah walked* 
Grod ;" they interpret those passages thus, ^'walkefd 
God, cum Deo ; - ' which also is absurd and with- 
any sense. For, where, or on what road, are thqf 
be understood as having walked with God as compa- 
DDs ? — ^Toward the east or toward the west ! But, it is 
fhdy rendered and expressed by an accusative ^^ walked 
od, ambulavit Dewn^ In the same manner as the 
itins, in imitation of the Greeks, say. He lived a Sar- 
mapulus, vixit Sardanapulum. And again. Who pre- 
&d Curiuses, but live Bacchanals,"*^ qui Curios simulant 
Bacchanalia vivunt. He put off the father, exuit 
Urem, &c. — So, Noah ^ walked God :' that is, in th* 
wm oif Gtxi : or, ha lived a divine life : he wrought atid 
id " the works of God." And Paul also speaks in th^ 
Boeway Gal. i. 10, "For do I now persuade men, or 
lod ?" that is, do I teach human things, or divine ? And 
fl^ain, ii. 20, " What I now live — I live by the faith.*' 
md again, Rom. vi. 10, " In that he liveth he liveth 
Dto God." And so again, 1 Pet. iv. 6. — ^Tliese obser- 
ations, &c. I commend to those who are desirous of 
ttowing the Hebrew, that they may consider them and 
adg^ concerning them. ' 

And there is that also Gen. xxxix. 3, " And the Lord 
fas with Joseph," which we cannot conveniently render 
dierwise than by a preposition, " was M;f^A Joseph," erat 
urn Josqph; but we do not by such a rendering convey 
be force of the Hebrew accusative, which in the Hebrew 
5xt is the same here as every where else ; and the ex- 
rression: is, in its form, something like that when we say, 
be for Caesar, esse a Casare; that is, to be a 

* It msi be obienred, that the Latin examples here adduced are thus 

ridet^d in the most strictly liberal way, in .conformity with the desiffii 
Luther ; who adduces them to exemplify the nature and force of the 
Mteew expiessiOD* to which Ihey are exactly similar. 

t ^t I h^e now said enoa^ concerning this p oMa gB J| 
of Genesis, wherein Eve, or rather the writer Moses, 
fiilly agrees with the New Testament, plainly affirmind) 
Uiat the promised Seed of the woman is the Lord him^ilf 
(Jehovah) ; and that it was so understood and believed 
by the mother Eve and by Moses ; for had they not so 
understood and believed it, they would have used other 
words, and expressed themselves in a different way. 

npO this same point tends also that passage of 
Modes Gen. xxii. 18, where God confirms by 
an oath this promise unto Abraham. 

And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be 

The term here read is Goim : by which term, these 
very dregs of the Jewish nation in our day, (if they really 
be Jews,) call us, by way of curse, op|jrobrium, and in* 
suit ; for this reason only, — because we ^ory in the blessing 
contained in this promise which God clearly made unto 
Abraham in these words, when he. says, " In thy seed 
shall all the nations (Goim) of the earth be blessed." 
For they, with their haughty brows on account of their 
jcircumcision arid their opitiioh of sanctity, say that we, 
contrary to this divine promise, are execrated and ac- 
cursed: and they glory that they, only are the blessed 
seed of Abraham. But by that very thing, their cursing 
the nations, and being in truth that seed by whom all 
nations are cursed, they openly betray themselves as being 
the seed, not of Abraham but of the devil ; as Christ 
himself says of them, John viii. 44, " Ye are of your 
father the devil.'* — For we hear the true and just decla- 
ration of God, saying, that the Seed of Abraham should 
not curse the nations as they do, but that all nations 
should be blessed in him : which ever has been done in 
truth by Christ hitherto, and ever will be done by him 
untd" all eternity. 

But this promise given from above, arid revealed in 
the Son of God, is not a blessing ^ter a huinan kind or 
manner ; as when men vnsh well to each other in words, 


uid say things ineadi others mvoiuv mid Inve it not in 
tfaeir power to do any thing £etrther« Nor is it any ma* 
Epical or rather diabolical incantation; as when sorceresses 
previously prepare children, or cattle, or any other kind 
:>f living creatuies, by certain invocations, tlutt they may 
^ow up and increase prosperously, and may not be hurt 
by the incantations, spells, &c. of others. Nor is it a 
Jewish benediction; such as those which they dream are, 
by means of their Schemhampheras^ as they call them, 
(more properly their Schampheres) and oUier familiar 
tricks, effectual, through certain letters or figures, Or 
through the name of God the tetragrammaton, and able 
to perform I know not what miracles, rendering them 
safe against all steel and weapons of every kind. Nor 
are they Popish benedictions ; such as those, which, when 
their mass-priests have counted over certain prayers, or 
passed them over with their hands, or marked them, con- 
secrate^ (as they say) water, salt, herbs, meats, and other 
things innumerable, and cause them to have I know not 
what peculiar efficacies, besides their own natural ones 
which were given of God when he created them. 

But, let us know, that this is properly a divine bless- 
ing ; that is, which God only can and will bestow. And 
this is not a certain vain incantation pronounced in words 
only, wherein God signifies that he wishes us well, and 
prays that all things may turn out unto us prosperously 
and happily; but, it is such a blessing as is truly 
effectual, and which freely gives and brings with it all 
those things which are signified by it. Thus, when it is 
said Gen. i., that God blessed all the living creatures, 
and afterwa]:ds man also, and said, ^' Be fruitful and 
multiply ;" — this was not an ineffective empty sound or 
saying, but truly effective ; so that the reality imme- 
diately followed upon the words that were spoken ; that 
is, all the race of living creatures, and man also, began 
to be fruitful and to multiply, even until they had filled 
the earth. And this very blessing has been effective 
continually unto this very day, and will be so even unto 
the end of the world. For it is by reason of this bless- 
ing that all we men exist, and whatever we are or have 


in body, minid, or estate, together 'with all which now m 

•or ever ^11 be. • i 

So also, thi& divine blessing-promised in the Seeded 
Abraham is truly a living, ratified, €md effective bleaif 
mg : that is, bringing wim 'it* that which it -promises 4Uid 
loHUs. And it is especially promised 'and delivered to u 
4hat it might be an antidote as it were iigainst thai tap- 
ijble curse under which we were laid by the sabtletycf 
{he serpent, ditough the disobedience and sin of Ad^Mju 
'And ttiis' promise concerning the Seed of the woman is 
"Aus repeated h^re, and as it were' : renewed and espe* 
daily eonfined to Abraham, for <thil( very end^ — tfaat> it 
might be manifest, that it is, and is called> ^ Seed of 
Alu'aham, as it is afterward also calleat the Seed ^ 
iDavid, and at last the Seed of the Virgin, or^ a sm 

Hence by this saying, that all nations should be 
blessed in the Seed of Abraham, is plainly signified the 
tame thing as was spoken to our first parents, — that the 
Seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head t 
that is, that by this Seed sin and death should be taken 
out of the way and abolished, and righteousness and 
eternal life restored. Fdr sin and eternal death are that 
very curse to which all the race of mankind were sub- 
jected, after the miseriable fall of our first parents, wid 
under which we must all lie for ever, unless we be again 
tdessed by this Seed ; that is, unless there be freety 
given unto us a new righteousness and life, whereby we 
may be made holy and saved ! 

Thus therefore we nations, (who in this promise are 
called GoiM,) glory in this blessing which we have in 
the Seed of Abraham, and humbly claim it to ourselves 
^ by faith ; and, relying on that, we lift up our heads, and 
with courage despise Satan and his power, and sin and 
death, and' whgitever otherenemy Is opposed unto us, as 
being all now' cohopkemd and j triuttiphed over* Yea, we 
joyfelly sing this^ song of victory — that we havie, in this 
Seed of Abn^am, of David, and- of the '- woman Ihe 
Ykrgin, the remission of our sins, aii eteniai washbg 
fifSm them, Md a deliverance from ali sin and id^aiitji'l 


For this seed is become unto us (as Paul saith) our 
righteousness, our wisdom, our sanctification, our re- 
demption, oar blessing, our hope, our life, and our eter- 
nal rejoicing ! For which be praise and glory unto the 
eternal God, for ever and ever ! Amen ! 

Since therefore, this Seed of Abraham brings 
with him and freely bestows this efficacious blessing to 
aH nations, it must of necessity follow, that he is not 
only Man, and one that, after the manner of men, wishes 
us well in words ; but, that he is the One true eternal 
God, who has it in his hand and power truly to effect 
and freely bestow this blessing. For, to abolish sin and 
death, and to restore righteousness and life, is not the 
work of man nor of an angel, but of the One eternal 
God, the Creator of all things, only. 

Again, when this very author or giver of this blessing 
is said to be, and is, the Seed or Son of Abraham, and 
bom from his posterity ; it of necessity follows, that he 
has not a divine nature only, but is also truly and natu- 
rally Man, of the flesh and blood of Abraham ; that is, 
that the divine and human natures were truly united 
together in the One same Person ! 

And again : as this promised Seed is not the same 
Person that said to Abraham concerning this seed, " In 
thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed;" 
it of necessity follows, that this Seed is another Person 
distinct from the Person that promised the Seed. For 
he that spoke these words to Abraham, " In thy seed," 
&c. most certainly is not that very Seed of Abraham, 
but one that speaks concerning another who should be 
his Seed. It follows therefore of necessity, that there are 
here two distinct Persons : and yet, each Person is the 
same eternal God in the unity of the divine essence. 

And moreover, we have here the Third Person of the 
Godhead, manifesting himself also, that is, the Person 
of the Holy Ghost, who spoke these things concerning 
the other Two Persons, in the vocal word by Moses, or 
by the angel that appeared unto Abraham ; as we have 
observed before^ that the ministration of the vocal word 
is ascribed unto the Person of the Holy Ghost; in 

VOL. II. u 


>vhi(ih, he reveals himself a«d will have himself ackdo^ 
ledged separately and distinctly ; even as the distinct &ii 
proper revelation of the Person of the Son was made in 
^hat human nature which he assumed. 

And farther, we Christians are certified from thfe 
scripture, that it was necessary, that the mother of this 
^promised Seed should be a Virgin, which ^hou^ld bring 
forth this offspring conceived of the Holy Ghost with- 
out sin. For, if he had been conceived and bom, after 
the general manner of human generation, from the seed §f 
of man, he could not have been born without sin; as 
the 51st Psalm declares concerning all men that are 
born after the manner of human generation, " Behold, I 
was shapen in iniquity," &c. Wherefore, it was neces- 
sary, that he should be borri of that seed by which he 
might be blessed; that is, free from sin and death; 
othermse, he could not have been himself a blessing 
4into us, nor have wrought that blessing effectually 
in us. 

But however, we have the all^ull observation of 
Paul upon this scripture, and especially in his Episdes 
to the Romans and to the Galatians, where, bringing 
forward many things out of the promises concerning the 
Seed of Abraham and of David, he teaches us like an 
especial messenger from heaven: so that there is no 
Heed for us now to enter upon any farther observations 
concerning this matter, seeing that these things ought to 
be familiar with us in our daily'&llings upon God, in 
our constant reading, and in our perpetual meditations. 

Here then, see whether Moses does not prove 
himself a Christian and join himself unto us, when he 
in so sweet a way breathes, as it were, the same breath of 
sentiment as Paul and the whole scripture of the New 
Testament! And what think ye our Jews would do, 
those enemies of Christ, those lovers of cupfring only, and 
that seed, not of Abraham but of the devil, if tbcy 
should hear their Moses saying these thin^? WdBW 
they not stop their ears, and cry out that he should he 
^^oned to death as a blasphemer? (for tJiey «csreely 
%ept^heir hands off from him in the^€le8eIt, arid 'that 





$^wy^4iin^) Would those very .dregs of mankyid hear 
SiKJh a preacher, prophet, and teacher as this r Nay, 
would they judge him worthy of being, heard^ or that 
any one out of the number of the circumcised, that is, 
of those most holy of all men that live, should lend his 
most holy ears to a spreader of such heresies ? No ! his 
>ery name would be an execration in their eyes, toge- 
ther with all the accursed Goim, to whom he makes 
<ki)own from above so great, so glorious, and so blessed 
A promise. 

Though Moses by that expression, when he says 
^'^all nations," does not exclude the Jews themselves. 
For in the scriptures even the people of Israel are fre- 
•quently spoken of under the term ' nation' (goi); as in 
•Deut. iv. 7, " For what other nation is there so great 
iwho hath God so nigh unto them," &c. ? But they 
4hem£ielves wilfully exclude thiemselves from this so- 
ciety ; in which, the .first part as it were Mas given untp 
them; as David has testified of them, Psalm cix. 17, 
,* He delighted not in blessing, (that is, that which was 
promised in the Messiah,) therefore it shall be far from 
nim ; he loved cursing and it shall come upon him. He 
clothed himself with cursing as with a garment, (that is, 
as an under garment close to his body,) and it shall 
come into his bowels like water, (that is, into his veins 
<end inward parts,) and like oil into his bones,' (that is, 
into his very marrow.) 

The words thefljfore of Christ unto them concerning 
Moses, " Had ye believed Moses ye would have be- 
lieved me : for he wrote of me," John v. 46, are suffi- 
ciently clear. And he does write of him, whenever he 
ispeaks of God or of the Messiah. The same .also is that 
in John viii. 56, " Your Father Abraham rejoiced to 
see my day, and he saw it and was glad." Where did be 
see it ? Where, but in this promise whe^re he heard that 
a seed was promised him who should be- God, and 
'Should be born Man from his posterity, and should bless 
^aJl nations: that is, should deliver them from sin and 
^ideath, and should give unto them a new aud eteipal 
-ni^twusness; innocenqy^ life, and joy : eveR^ we ^^^Y.e 

u 2 V 


heard above, 2 Sam. vii. 1 — 17, that David rejoiced 
with the same joy when the same Son, the Messiali; 
was promised him. 



UT let us hear one passage more out of |( 
Moses, Exod. xxxiii. 19, 20, which is a 
very remarkable one, and by no means to be passed L 
by. — When God, incensed with just anger against the ,[ 
people of Israel on account of their idolatry in the case 
of the golden calf, declared that he would not go before 
the people through the desert; and when, as it were, 
laying aside all care of them he now committed all the 
government of them to Moses, so that he said he would 
send him an angel which should be the leader of the 
people, and that he would no more speak with the 
people but with Moses only; hereupon, Moses most 
ardently and instantly prayed, saying, " I beseech thee 
shew liie thy glory." And God answered, 

/ will make all my goodness to pass before thee, land 
I will proclaim the name of the Lord before thee ; and I 
will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will shew 
mercy on whom I will shew mercy. And he said, Thou 
canst not see my face : for there shall no man see me, 
and live. 

Now, only diligently consider this passage, laying 
aside all Jewish and Rabbinical (or rather diabolical) 
corruption, and see how sweetly, according to the 
simple nature and genuine propriety of the Hebrew 
language, it agrees with the scripture of the books of 
the New Testament. Here, God plainly answers Moses, 
praying that he would shew him his glory, that that 
glory could not be seen by mortal man : and yet he pro- 
mises him, that he will shew him openly, or cause to 
pass before him, all his goodness, or, all the goodness 
that he possesses. 

In this passage you hear, first, the Person of the 
speaker, that is of the eternal God the Father, and that 
too, speaking of the Son, who is promised to Moses 
and the people ; in whom consists, or rather who him- 


self Is, all that goodness of the Father; because it was 
by~him that he created all things, and, with a goodness 
. unspeakable, gathered unto himself an eternal church, 
to which he freely gives himself and all the inexhaustible 
treasures and riches of his goodness to be enjoyed unto 
all eternity. This is he whom he saith Moses and the 
diurch shall behold ; not in that invisible glory of his 
divinity, but revealed to us for the catching of a glimpse 
of him as it were in this mortal life. 

For we are to understand from the wonderful 
description of this conversation with God, and from all 
similar places, that Moses does not bear his one private 
person of one man, born of a Levitical family from 
Amram, but that he is a prophet and ruler called of 
God to be the leader of the people of Israel, holding a 
public office and ministry, and representing in his 
person the church of this people, the political economy 
of which was ordered by him, and the doctrine of 
which was made known by him as received from 

And in this very conversation, there directly, con- 
nectedly, and (as we say) immediately follows the words, 
above-mentioned, another Person ; (not however another 
God, but the same Lord ;) who says unto Moses, " I 
will proclaim in the name of the Lord ; " (for this is the 
proper signification of the words, and propriety is here 
most religiously to be observed.) You hear, therefore, 
the Person of the proclaimer or the preacher, and in- 
deed of the Lord himself, who declares that he will pro- 
claim before Moses ; that is, before the people of Israel 
and during its political economy ; and that he will 
proclaim in the name of the Lord. What then is the 
meaning of this ? And what is intended by it ? — * I the 
Lord will proclaim in the name of the Lord !' Is it not 
evident, that we must here understand a distinction of 
Persons, that is, the one Person of the Lord, who 
proclaims, and the other of him who is proclaimed, or, 
in whose name that Lord proclaims? 

According, therefore, to this dispensation of God, 
this person of the Lord that proclaims must, of neces- 

d[ty, ^sum'e humati nature, atid pimclaiim in that wUSf 
it should be among men ; otherwise he could not be seew 
or heard, nor be said to be, a proclaimer or preachd*;; 
for God has ever from the beginning, committed this? 
office of teaching or the ministry of preaching antafiaeh, 
^ unto the patriarchs, the prophets, ancf the apostles; ^ 
by whose ministry atid voice, he willed his Word- to hi 
sounded forth and to be handed do^ii unto us. 

And what this wonderful teacher was to proclaim m 
the name of the Lord, or what voice he was to utter, is 
shewn immediately after in the text, " I will be graciots 
to whom I will be gracious, and will shew mercy on 
whom I will shew mercy." — As though he had said, My 
preaching and my doctrine shall be of a different kind 
from thine, Moses ; to thee is committed the office of 
teaching the law, and thou hast to sound forth and to j*^ 
inculcate these declarations. * I, saith the Lord, com- jt' 
mand thee this day to keep all these my commandments/ 
And also, * These are the precepts and the judgments 
which ye are to do : and he that doeth them not, shall 
he under the wrath and Curse of God,' &c. — But 1, 
introducing a new kind of preaching, when I proclaim in 
the name of the Lord, will first of all testify that no man 
can be righteous and acceptable in the sight of God by 
the law ; because, no one can yield that obedience which 
he ought, and which the law requires. Wherefore, thy 
voice, or the doctrine and preaching of the law, can effect 
nothing else than the making all men wretched and 
miserable, that is, subject to the wrath and curse of God, 
by shewing them their sins in which they are entangled 
and immersed : under which sight, they cannot yield the 
obedience commanded by the law, but^ being filled with 
the terrors of the wraths of God on account of sin, they 
rush on unto death : and hence it is, that this voice of 
the law of God sounding, is rightly called ' the ministra- 
tion of sin' and ' of death,' 2 Cor. iii. 7, and Gal. iii. 10. 
But this preaching of mine shall be a new preaching, 
and properly mi/ voice, that is, the voice of the Lord 
proclaiming in the name of the Lord: it shall be a 
preaching proclaimed by me the Lord at the command 

I M7 

dmd^ decree of the eternal Father : which shall be efFec<^ 
ftdul, through his grace or gift, and power: that is, the 
? Lord himself will no that which could not be effected by 
= the law :- — he will make us righteous and acceptable 
before him by a free gift. Here, there will be no glory 
erf human worthiness or righteousness ; but he that shall 
become delivered from sin and the eternal wrath of God, 
and acceptable unto God, and pronounced righteous, 
sjiall obtain that in no other way than as a free gift, or 
by the free bounty of a merciful God, or through mercy 
Q^y ; and that for the sake of the Son of God, who thus 
proclaims in the name of the Lord, having taken upon 
him human nature, he himself having been offered up as 
a sacrifice for the human race, to appease the wrath of 
God and to. abolish sin and eternal death. And he who, 
without any false opinion of, or trust in, his own righ- 
teousness, shall look to the grace and free bounty of 
God, and shall flee to his gratuitous mercy, and seek 
from that only his righteousness, that is^ remission of 
sins and the inheritance of eternal life ; and who, believ- 
fag my voice, shall rest confident that he shall obtain 
those things because of the promise, for my sake ; — such 
an one has, most certainly, already obtained all those 

This, then, is what is meant when he saith, ^ I will 
proclaim in the name of the Lord, I will be gracious to 
whom I will be gracious,' &c. For this is the immut- 
able decree of God. — Not those who have the law, or 
who trust in their own fulfilling of it and in their own 
worthiness, but, those who flee unto me as merciful, or 
who rest in my mercy, — these are they who find me 
merciful, pardoning, appeased, and propitious ! 

For, these words, " to whom I will be gracious," 
*' on whom I will have mercy," are not to be understood 
as spoken to frighten back and involve in doubt the con- 
sciences of those, who, acknowledging their sins, and 
feeling that they are accursed and condemned by the 
law, struggle under the terrors of the wrath of God. 
But these declarations of God, in their true and proper 
deaigo^ are opposed to that impious and obstinate per* 


saasion of, and confidence in, self- worthiness by ffip 
law, which, in the ungodly, works a hardened adamantine 
obstinacy and contumacy against God. 

You see therefore, what it is for this Lord to pro- 
claim in the name of the Lord : namely, that God, by a 
fixed and immutable counsel and decree, wills, and will sr 
accomplish, what this Lord, Christ the Son of God, J 
proclaims : and he proclaims, not the law, but the free g 
mercy of God. Thus John plainly saith, John vii. 19, fe 
" None of you keepeth the law." And again, John viii. a 
24, " If ye believe not that I am, (that is, the Lord him: i 
self, Jehovah, the preacher who speak also unto you, or, l 
as he saith also directly afterwards, " the same that I 
said unto you from the beginning,") ye shall die in your 
sins." And again, still ,more clearly, John i. 17, " For 
the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came 
by Jesus Christ." 

^VrOW then, compare this passage of Moses with 
the scriptures of the New Testament, and 
judgfe for thyself, whether it does not beautifully and 
naturally harmonize with them ; and so harmonize, as to 
leave no occasion for doing any violence to it by im- 
proper, forced, and foreign interpretations, nor any need 
of any thing but an attention to the native signification 
of the words. For if we retain the simple propriety of 
the Hebrew construction and mode of expression, all 
things exactly agree, as instruments in perfect harmony, 
with the profession of faith which the church of God 
holds ; concerning which, the scripture of the New 
Testament thus teaches us ; — That Jesus Christ is truly 
the Lord, Jehovah, God and Man, who was the preacher 
in the church of that people of Israel; as Paul saith, 
Rom XV. 8, when he calls him the " minister of the cir- 
cumcision," that is, of the circumcised people. And the 
Lord himself saith, Matt. xv. 24, that he was " not 
sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel." And 
hence also, when the apostles were first sent forth, there 
was given unto them an especial command, that they 
should not go out unto the nations. And so, he here 


-'Mith to Moses, " I will proclaim or preach before thee.** 

> As though he had said, * I myself or I this person, whom 

thou hearest speaking unto thee, will be a preacher in 

the midst of this people only, this political Israel, which 

have the circumcision ; and especially unto those who 

have been alarmed and humbled by thy ministry, that 

is, by the preaching of the law accusing them of sin and 

denouncing the wrath of God .against them;' as he 

clearly speaks concerning himself, Isaiah Ixi. * He hath 

sent me to preach good tidings unto the miserable and 

afflicted,' &c. This ministry of the Gospel therefore, 

is, in truth, nothing else than the voice of the Son of 

God sounding and proclaiming grace and mercy in the 

name of the Lord .the eternal Father, who sent his Son 

for this very end, and through him freely bestows these 

blessings upon us. 

This, therefore, is that passing of the goodness of 
God before Moses and his people, as it is expressed in 
this passage ; and it is in the same way that he manifests 
himself unto us also ; and by which it is, that the foun- 
tain of all goodness is opened and communicated unto 
-us; seeing that, that glory of his divinity in which h6 
involves himself when he takes upon him the human 
nature, cannot be seen naked and without a veil ; for 
the sight of that pertains not to this life, but is laid up, 
as it were, and reserved for the life that is to come, 
when we shall have put off this life by death; as he 
saith, * No living man shall see me,' that is, no one that 
is yet in this mortal life. 

It is not by these words declared, that no man shall 
see God: but it is rather declared, that a resurrection of 
the dead is necessary and will take place, and that there 
remains another and new life in which God may be seen. 
But it is in reference to this Hfe that it is said " No man 
shall see me and live : " that is. It shall come to pass that 
man shall see me, but not in this my passing before him 
while he lives in the mortal body : he must first die, and 
pass into that eternal life, and then he shall see me : 
nay, he even now clearly and fully understands and knows 
that I have, mercy on whom I will have mercy, and 

that I do not shew mercy for any worthiness in tbft 
man, on account of his own righteousness oi! the work; 
of the law. 

I AM NOT however ignorant, that the judaijziog; 
Rabbins may eavil respecting this text of Moses in this 
place ;; and say, that the Hebrew-word Kara, to preach, 
signifies also to call aloud, as* we express it, or to name, 
or even to read, as Lyranus and Burgensis remark. But 
this is also evident — that when this same word is, (as it 
is in this passage,) joined in the syntactical construction 
with a preposition, it has, properly, the signification of 
preaching, as examples from many other passages will 
shew. As, Gen. iv. 26, '' Then began men to preach 
in the name of the Lord." And also. Gen. xii. 8, " And 
there he builded an altar unto the Lord, and preached ia 
the name of the Lord." But, if our contentious Rabbins 
and judaizing interpreters will not receive this, that is 
nothing to me. It is, as I have before observed, quite 
enough for me, when the words of Moses rightly, ac- 
cording to the native propriety of the Hebrew language, 
harmonize, and, of their own accord, without any wrested 
or forced interpretations of the Rabbins, fall in with the 
sense of the scripture of the New Testament. And that 
they do so, all, even though not Christians by profes- 
sion, who are well acquainted with the Hebrew language 
and manner of expression, are compelled to' confess. 
And, if the doctrine delivered in the writings of the 
apostles be true, there is no doubt that Moses beautifully 
illustrates the very sense and meaning of those writings : 
for his words do not properly and sweetly harmonize with 
any thing but with their . sentiments : so that it is suffi- 
ciently evident, that the sense of the one, is exactly ex- 
pressed in the writings of the other. 

And it is in this way that I wish to see the text of 
. the holy scripture vindicated and cleared from all the 
calumnious and blasphemous corruptions of the Jews, 
and restored to its primitive purity. But, this is not the 
work of one man only : nor is it enough that I have by 
my example shewn the way to others more learned and 
better acquainted with these things than myself: npr that 

fhave thm g^eti proof of my istmBes* and will in tdUs^ 
impoftatit matter :-^let others, thus invitedv themselves! 
pi«odu5ce something more and better than I l^ave done. 

TJUT again, with respect to what immediately 
follows in the context of this history of 

And the Lord said^ Behold, there is a place by mey 
thou shalt stand upon a rock : and it shall come to pass^ 
while my glory passeth by^ that I will put thee in a cliftof 
the 7^Qck, and I will cover thee withWny hand while I pass 
by : atid I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt sec 
my back parts: but my face shall not be seen. — 

Here again, we hear two persons speaking, and each 
of them Jehovah, or Lord: the one of whom saySy 
** while my glory passeth by." This is the Person of 
t-he eternal Father speaking of the passing by of his 
^ory. And the Son himself saith, that he is that Person 
that passes by : for all these things are spoken concern- 
ing Christ who is God and Man, who came into this 
world and passed through it as we have before shewn.— 
And then, when he saith " there is a place by me," and 
when he commands Moses to " stand upon the rock, 
aftd promises that he will *' cover him with his hand 
until he shall have passed by; I understand these things 
thus : — that God, for the sake of this rock that should 
come, (that is, Christ, who should appear iii the flesh 
according to the promises,) would defend and preserve 
this people of the law, or this Israel, by his long-suffer- 
ing and mercy, even though they did not yield that obe- 
dience in keeping the law which they had promised God 
they would do : (nor indeed could they do it.) And it 
is thus also that Paul understands the passage, when 
he say Rom. iii. — that now, the righteousness of God 
is manifested for the remission of sins that before existed, 
(that is, under the law,) through the forbearance of God, 
&c. These I say are now manifestively remitted, since 
Christ has been revealed in his ' passing by.' 

Bat now, after this passing by, God has removed the 



ri^t hand of his forbearance with which he covered and 
protected that people. For since "the end of the law," 
(as Paul saith concerning Christ,) has appeared, there is 
now no need of that forbearance and protection under 
the expectation of Christ to come. Nay, let him be ac- 
cursed who is yet expecting a Christ to come, and who, 
like Moses; is still asking for such a passing by. For 
now that passing by has taken place some time ago, and 
that stretching forth of the right hand in the passing by; 
and the Lord himself has been manifested, until whose 
coming, that stretching forth of the hand of God and that 
long-suffering were toremain. And now, we behold as 
it were the back parts of him having passed by, that is, 
what he himself has wrought before our eyes ; for this is 
to behold his back parts, or those benefits which he pro*^ 
cured for us and left behind him ; that is, that the Son 
of God, having assumed human flesh, became a sacri- 
fice for us, w as crucified, and rose again from the dead. 
So that the human nature itself may not improperly be 
called his back or " hinder parts," in which he manifested 
himself to be contemplated and known by us here in his 
passing by, until, in that eternal and immortal enjoyment^ 
of his presence^ we shall behold, not his back parts only, 
but his face and the glory of his divinity, in open vision ! 

It is in the same manner also that he introduces 
this same Lord in the following chapter xxxiv. 5 — 7. 
And the Lord descended in a cloud, (that is, the Son of 
God himself Jesus Christ,) and stood by Moses, (or 
with Moses,) and proclaimed in the name of the Lord. 
And he passed by before him and proclaimed, " O Lord, 
the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and 
abundant in goodness and truth, who keepest mercy unto 
a thousand generations, forgiving iniquity, transgression, 
and sin, and before whom no one is innocent ; visiting 
the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon 
the children's children, unto the third and fourth gene- 

The reading however of this passage, is shamefully 
corrupted in the Latin version of the Bible that is com- 
monly received, however it was that such a.n error crept 


in. For, instead of that which is delivered to us in the 
Hebrew text, that the Lord proclaimed and preached, &c. 
some one has substituted the person of Moses, that 
Moses called upon the name of the Lord, and that 
Moses said, " The Lord, the Lord," &c. This arose per- 
haps from an offence being taken at the absurdity of the 
scripture language which was not understood ; and be- 
cause it did not seem consistent, that it should be said, 
that the Lord proclaimed concerning the Lord, (or cried 
aloud concerning God :) and therefore the person, who- 
ever he was, thought that it wouj^ be better to underr 
stand it concerning Moses. 

That, however, which Burgensis has observed, does 
not displease me : who judges that this text may from 
the Hebrew be rightly read thus — ' And the Lord passed 
by before him and called aloud, or proclaimed, or pro- 
nounced, " The Lord, the Lord God," &c. : or declared 
aloud or proclaimed, " The Lord, the Lord God, mer- 
ciful and gracious : " or as we commonly express our- 
selves, spoke, or held a discourse concerning, " The Lord, 
the Lord God, merciful, good, and gracious : " by which 
may be signified, the substance or subject-matter of this 
wonderful proclamation. 

You have, therefore, in this passage, an evident and 
remarkable testimony, that this same Lord is calle^, and - 
is, the proclaimer, and proclaims in the name oif the 
Lord. For you hear plainly two called Lord : whereas,, 
it is evident from the scripture, that there are not two 
Lords nor two Gods. Nay, when he saith that the Lord 
proclaimed in the name of the Lord, " The Lord God," 
you hear the name Lord repeated twice, and God men- 
tioned as a third time. There are then Three to be 
understood as named, arid yet there are not three Gods. 

We have moreover shewn above what it is to proclaim 
in the name of the Lord : — namely, that our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ, the Son of God and the Virgin, 
is that preacher, who, in the name of the eternal Father, 
and sent by the eternal Father, proclaims concerning the 
same Father unto Moses, and so, to the whole of that 
people, whom the person of Moses represents when God 


speaks unto him ; and he proclaims concerning the in- 
finite mercyj and free goodness of God ; that is, be- 
cause no one can be justified by the law, seeing thai 
no man can fiilfil it. 

The same meaning of this proclamation is also re- 
peated, only in other words, where it i& said that the 
Lord "stood by (or with) Moses" and proclaimed.— 
For why is he said to stand by Moses, and not to stand 
above Moses, or at a distance from him ? Why ? but to 
shew, that these two ministries, the one of the law the 
other of the Gospelftoiust be joined together, althou^ 
each has its proper office and peculiar effects. For the 
ministry of Moses is to preach sin, (that is, to strike 
the terror of punishment and of the wrath of God,) and 
so, by this same preaching, to kill. But, the ministry d 
•Christ, is, to proclaim the Gospel of grace, and, by that 
preaching, to make alive. 

These ministries are certainly quite contrary to each 
other. And yet, the ministry of grace cannot be effec- 
tual, but then, and in those persons, where sin has been 
•revealed and felt ; that is, where minds have been terri- 
fied by the preaching and doctrine of the law, shewing 
them the eternal wrath of God ; as Christ himself 
plainly saith. Matt. xii. that he came to preach the 
'Gospel to the poor, the afflicted, and the lost sheep of 
Israel ; that is, to those who, by the preaching of the 
law, feel themselves to be lost. 

What then does this Lord proclaim near Moses or 
" with Moses ? " This, saith he, is the substance or sum 
ef the proclamation. — He proclaims concerning the 
Lord, the Lord God : who is merciful, gracious, &c. : 
that is, concerning that God who has revealed himself 
in his given Word, by his Son, that, in the Godhead 
itself, there are Three co-eternal Persons ; that, before 
this One only God, no man can be received or can 
stand, trusting in the opinion of, or confidence in, his 
own worthiness or merits, (because, such a worthiness 
must be false, and a thing that has no existence ;) that 
they who are saved, are saved by his mere mercy, and 
-gratuitous benefits, for his goodness sake, and dte yt- 





»acity of hh promises ; and that therefore, it is he who 
Awrgives all sins, iniquities, and transgressions, and that 
:no one can be guiltless in his sight. 

This, therefore, is what this divine proclamation 

teaches us — that, if thou wouldst apprehend God 

surely, and call upon him by his true name, accorcfing 

to this revelation of himself, thou must acknowledge 

Wm as being merciful and gracious and pardoning sin ; 

that before him, no one* is innocent, sinless, or without 

-guilt ; and that, there is 'no room for any man to glory 

^before him in his own worthiness, even though it be 

iMoses, the Baptist, or any one even beyond these in 

^fts and excellence. But thou must <:onfess from a true 

iieart, with Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, that the 

airhole world is guilty before God ; and that all have 

icome short of the glory of God ; that is, that no one 

can glory that he is, before God, innocent and just. 

And whosoever does not bring this confession before 

God, this sentence stands against him which is added 

at the end of this proclamation, " Who visits the sins 

of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and 

fourth generation:' or, as Christ saith, "He that be- 

lieveth not, is condemned already." 

And it is also to be observed in this passage, that 
it is not given in the same words exactly as in the 
giving of the first commandment in the Decalogue. It 
is there said, ' I am God, shewing mercy unto thousiands 
in them that love me and keep my commandments.' 
But here, instead of that part, this negative is added, 
'" before whom no one is innocent ; " that is, no one of 
all man either loves or keeps my commandments, but 
those only, who, without any glorying in, or opinion of, 
their own merits and worthiness, believe, acknowledge, 
and proclaim me a God merciful and gracious; and 
who confess themselves to be guilty and unworthy, and 
unceasingly pray with a true heart that prayer, ^ Forgive 
OS our trespasses, as we also forgive them that trespass 
against us.' — And this most certainly is nothing else, 
than proclaiming grace and free mercy. — For this does 
tiot shew us what God demands from us, or what per- 


fection he requires in us, as the commandment of dbe' 
law does, (which we in this life can never fulfil,) bot, 
what God of his mercy towards us freely gives unto us; 
what benefits he freely bestows, and indeed, has freely 
bestowed through his Son ; of which the doctrine of the 
New Testament or of the Gospel openly testifies. 

We have here then clearly shewn who that divine ■ 
preacher is, who talked with Moses and revealed him- 
self, and foretold what his future proclamation should be 
which should be made by the Gospel in the New Testa- 
ment. And it is also clearly manifest, that the event 
fully agreed with this prediction ; for that w^hich he 
foretold unto Moses is now in reality confirmed by the 
doctrine of the New Testament ; — that it is not by their 
own righteousness, or by any worthiness or merit of tbeit 
own, but by the mercy of God only, promised throu^ 
his Son and made known by him, that men are justified ; 
that is, accepted of God, and made heirs of eternal 

A ND again, with respect to the prayer of 
Moses unto the Lord God, which follows 
this part of the history, wherein he begs of God that he 
himself would lead the people and go among them, and 
not forsake them, but keep them unto himself and pre- 
serve them ; and when the Lord answers that he w^ould 
do what he requested, -and would work signs and 
wonders before the people, &c. ; here, God is now ap- 
peased, and, receiving again the people into favour, 
renews the covenant that he had entered into with 
them, and now writes the tables of the Decalogue; and, 
in a short repetition, sums up the other laws and rites 
that were to be observed by that political kingdom; 
but, concerning the free remission of sins, there is here 
no mention made whatever, as there was before. 

The sum therefore of the contents of this prayer is 
this. — After Moses had received the all-sweet promise 
peculiar to the New Testament, wherein it was said that 
the Lord himself should be the preacher or teacher, and 
the ruler among his people; there being now com- 


iiitted to him the office of teaching and ruling over the 
3$K>ple of Israel until the time of the New Testament, 
:oncerning which the predictive promise speaks; he 
low prays, that the Lord himself would attend his office 
n that church also, and assist him therein. For, saith 
le^ what can I do, or what can I hope to effect that 
ih^U be saving without thee? They are a stiff-necked 
people. And, unless thou be with us, pardoning our 
sins and sparing us through thy mercy and long- 
buffering, and patiently bearing with us until thou thyself 
appear as the preacher of grace, we can hope for no 
salvation. And therefore, we have the greatest need to 
he protected by thy mercy and long-suffering in this our 
office and ruling appointed and delivered to us by thee, 
wherein thy law is to be taught and enforced ; which, 
however, will never be fulfilled by us. 

In a word, Moses here prays for that same thing 
which was promised chap, xxxiii. concerning God's 
putting fcMTth his hand and covering him while he stood 
in the cleft of the rock. For God here answers him, 
* I will do what thou desirest of me. I will make a cove- 
nant before all thy people, and I will do marvels, such 
as have not been done in all the earth among any na- 
tions : and this people among whom thou art shall see 
the work of the Lord, how wonderful a thing that is 
which I will do with thee. But, observe thou and keep 
all those things which I command thee this day,' &c. 
Here, it is quite plain that all these things are spoken 
concerning the covenant of the Old Testament, and con- 
cerning the people of Israel under the rule of Moses ; 
because, express mention is made of the driving out of 
the Amorites, the Canaaniles, and the Hittites, &c. ; 
which certainly took place under the political dispensa- 
tion of the Old Testament. 

And observe, how carefully, in all this conversation 
with Moses, God avoids calling this people " my 
people/' He calls them throughout the people of 
Moses : " thy people," saith he. And again, " this 
people among whom thou art." And yet he adds, * I 
wiU, indeed, as I have promised, defend this people 

vot. II* X 


^ith my hand, standing in the cleft of the rock, and I 
•will moreover do wonders before them, such as nevcat l|^ 
have been done in any nation/ — And certainly^ tbe||P 
facts themselves prove all this. For if thoii read the 
Hvhole scripture of the Old Testament, thou wilt find a |p 
doud of testimonies witnessing with how many and 
great miracles God manifested his presence andwoilln 
among this people, from the time of Moses himi^f|^ 
unto the manifestation of Christ. Though this people 
Were not properly the people of God, but of Moses; L 
that is, not of grace, but of the law ; that is, that whole L 
multitude M-ere not the people of God who had received |[ 
the laM' delivered by Moses, and had entered into a co- 
venant with God thereby ; excepting those, (of whom 
there was always a small company,) who beheld the face 
of Moses when the veil was takdn off; that is, who 
knew the true use of the doctrine of the law, and held 
fast the true consolation by faith in the promised Son of 
God. All the rest of the multitude of men were pleased 
With themselves from a persuasion of their own right- 
eousness, or obstinately and confidently established the 
righteousness of the law. 

Moreover this is also here to be observed — that 
the words of this passage do not obscurely signify, that 
this Lord who speaks with Moses, is the true Messiah, 
Jesus Christ, of whom it was foretold that he should 
come to be a prophet or preacher of the New Tes- 
tament. For here, he plainly and clearly distinguishes 
his Person from the Person of God the Father, saying, 
''That all this people may see the wonderful works of 
God : which I, (saith he,) will do.' You here see, that 
he ascribes and assigns all these works of miracles unto 
God: and yet he sdith, that ^e will do them: that is, 
those same works which the Lord shall do. And this is, 
exactly what Christ saith, John v. 19, " What things 
soever the Father doeth, these also doeth the Son like- 
wise.'* Again, ver. 17, " My Father wbrketh hitherto, 
and I work." And again, ver. 21, " For as the Father 
raisethup'tbe'dfead and quScReDeth tbem, even so: the 
Stjn (jiiicken^th whom he triH;*^ ^ ^ 

« » 


Here then, k is certainly by no means obscure, that 
-the Evangelist John agrees with Moses, and Mos^ 
with John ; iso much so, that the words are nearly the 
aame ; and there is in each ^ distinet mention of Two 
J^ersons, of the eternal Father, and of the Son, as John 
saith: or, as Moses saith,. of the Lord (who proclaims 
opnoePDing the Lord) and of the Lord (who saith that 
he doth the miracles.) The divine work of each is ne- 
vertheless the same, not diiferent ; nor some works of the 
one, aiid some of th^ other. And hence it must of ne- 
iSfeBsity follow that these Lords are not different, but the 
(>cfe same Lord and God. . 

' ' And again, shortly afterward in this same chapter, 
ver. 23, ^the same Lord, among other things, speaks 
Aus unto Moses — " Thrice in the year shall all ydur 
men-children appear before the Lord, the Lord God of 
Israel.*' — Here again the Lord speaks concerning the 
Liord, the Lord God of Israel. For these are not the 
words of Moses, but of that Lord who has been all 
fiilong speaking with Moses, and is now still speaking 
with him and committing to him that Old Testament 
government of the political people of Israel, whom -he 
said he would protect and bear with, through his for- 
giveness and patience, until the appointed time of ;,his 
passing by ; all which I have fully shewn above,; and 
which is manifest from the ^ whole .context, if any one 
will diligently consider it. * : 

And, as to the Rabbins and their disdples the 
Jews, who wrest all these things to other mieanings, and 
proudly reject our interpretations, that happens to th^m 
just according to their characters : for it is but right and 
just, that those: who are the enetnies of Gbd, should hot 
flee nor understand any thing of the words of God. 'And 
what they belsh forth upon the whole of this text, is 
such a vomitand filth, that it is not fit ' for any omer 
readers and disci[^es than'«wine and asses: that^id, it 
must always .be>/ Like dug, Jike sickling P r Nor ;iB it 
any: niarvel : - fpr this ma^t^r ci^f thc^lfe, • MdseM^i^'rthe 
rays of His face: Hs with hc^ns; so Ufazztea* the^ we* of 

.' . . X -2 ^ .■■•■■.■.. ^ 



their minds, that they cannot steadfastly bdiold ha 

We, however, by the grace of God, stead&stly be- li 
holding the face of Moses, perceive him so to speak, | 
that his words, naturally, and according to the native 
phraseology of the Hebrew language, beautifiilly acccnd 
with the scripture of the New Testament. For althou^ 
at that time the rule over that people was committed to 
him, who are so often accused of being perverse and 
stiff-necked ; yet, he at the same time clearly, and in a 
spirit of prophecy, speaks of the Son of God, our Lord 
Jesus Christ : that is, that he is truly Man, and also truly 
and naturally God together with the Father and the Holy 
Ghost ; and who works and does all those same thingii 
which the Lord himself is said to work and do ; but so, 
that there is always preserved a distinction of Perscwas. 

This is abundantly enough for us : and we regard 
not the being accounted fools and senseless creatures by 
thg Jews and Mahometans, nor do we envy them their 
sweet dreams of having a peculiar wisdom, and of wan- 
dering as it were among the islands of the blessed, and 
seeming to themselves to be blessed above all others. 
And for ought I care, let each one believe and think 
just, as he pleases. I, however, seriously confess that I 
believe, and am firmly persuaded, that Moses, with full 
consent, so agrees wifii me and with all who have given 
in their names for Christ, that he ought to be held a 
true Christian and a teacher of Christians. Nor should 
he by any means seem less a friend of Christ, because, 
in his. time, he was covered with the Jewish hood as it 
were, or the cloak of his magisterial office under the 
Old Testament dispensation :' even as, in these our 
latter times, Bernard, and many a holy nmn like him, 
though clothed in the habit, and attending to the rules 
of .monkery, have been found to be, in faith, true and 
steady Christians : that is, they were not so devoted to 
tl% hooded cloak and monastic traditions, as to trust in 
them, and to assume to ^drnwuBelves an opinion of right- 
:60usness before God, and <eS a^ mngular holiness and 


perfection because of them: but they rented in: a te^ 

""ItMice on the grace and benefits of the Son of God, and 

believed that they were saved by them as all other 

saints are: as Bernard frequently testifies concerning 

himself. In the same manner also Moses permits that 

multitude of his, the Jewish people, to glory in their law 

^ and political economy appointed them m)m above ; and 

be himself also, covered as it were with the same gar« 

ment, is, in appearance^ a Jew ; yet, in his heart, faith, 

and confession, he embraces Christ the Son of God, and 

joins himself unto him I 


CINCE then it has thus far been shewn, that 
Moses himself is an especial teacher and 
ruler in the church of God, and gives testimony con- 
cerning Christ, there is no doubt that his followers and 
disciplesj the prophets, will, with full consent, subscribe 
to his testimony ; since it is quite evident, that they in 
no respect differ either in doctrine, faith, or profession, 
from their master. 

But, what room sufficiently convenient and capa- 
cious shall we find for receiving so great a number of 
friends and witnesses, so as to place each as it were in 
his proper seat? The space of this little book is too 
narrow and confined ; for it cannot even receive Moses 
wholly : let us then rather do this. — Let us go to these 
witnesses, [instead of their coming to us,'\ that we may 
hear them and yield up ourselves as convinced by 
them : for they are much better furnished with rich 
meat and drink than we are, and have store enough to 
entertain us sumptuously and abundantly. Let the 
inquiring reader, then, set these witnesses before him, 
and, by a diligent reading, observe where, in their 
writings, either the Lord (JEHOVAH).Jesus Christ is 
properly and plainly introduced, with his Person ex^- 
pressly pointed out, as speaking himself; and where 
another [Lord] is introduced as speaking of him. 

We have hitherto heard out of Moses, with sufficient 
clearness, that it was this same [Lord, Jesus Christ] 
who spoke with Moses on Mount Sinai, Mho went 

/ -» 


before Moses and tbe ^bple as their leader throdj^^dw 
wilderness, and as the head of their whole ggvemmMl* 
•and who manifested his presence by testimonies of ijai^ 
i^acles- And although he who did all these things, (Wi4 
respect to Person,) did them not alone, but the eternal 
i'ather and the Holy Ghost did the same tbingis ako^ 
and those things were their same common wofk ; yctj 
tliis Person of the Son, (the Lord,) willed himself to he 
especially manifested in all these revelations and acts, that 
so, he might be understood to be a Person distinct from 
that of the eternal Father, and yet of the one same 
divine essence and Godhead. 

Hence, he who understands and sees this ; (which 
very few do understand and see ;) that is, who can see in 
the prophetical scripture where any one Person of the 
Godhead is speaking concerning another Person, or to 
another; that is, who can see when not one PersoB 
. only but more are signified; — such an one will soon 
discern which is the Person of the eternal Father in 
those places, and which is the Person of the co-eternal 
Son. And, where there is a distinct mention made of 
these Two Persons, there is also signified the Person of 
the Holy Ghost, that is, who speaks by the scripture, as 
it is said in the Greed. 

For example, when it is said in Psalm ii. 7, " The 
Lord hath said unto me. Thou art my Son, this day 
have I begotten thee ; " and in tliat passage, Exod. xxxiii. 
which I have interpreted a little above, " The Lord pro- 
cliaimed in the name of the Lord;" and also in that 
Gen. xix. 24, " The Lord rained fire and brimstone 
'from the Lord;" it is easy to understand, that by Lord 
here is signified the Son of God the Logos ; — that it 
was he that rained from the Lord, that is, from the 
eternal Father. For it is evident that the Person of 
the Son is from the Father, and not the Father from 
the Som . 

And so Hosea i. 7, " But I will have mercy upon 
the house of Judah, and wilt «ave them by the Lord their 
God; and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, 
nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen,' &c. — 


V AiH^Jn th^ same maaner, Zephaniah iii. 9, the Lord. 
i;^Mitb» " Then I will turn to the people a pure language, 
iSljBJ; tjbey may all call upon the name of the Lord, and 
serve him with <Mie consent." 

Aga^n^ Psalm xlv. 7, " Therefore God thy God 
liath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy 
fc^ows/* And verse 11, " So shall the king greatjy 
desire thy beauty : for he is thy Lord, and worship.thou 

And again, Jeremiah xxiii. 5, 6, " Behold, me days 
come, saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David ^, 
righteous branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, 
and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.-- 
A^d this is the name whereby he shall be called, The 


Upon all these passages, however, we have; spojkeri 
more fully elsewhere, and in their place. 

But when, in the histories and representations of 
scripture, no mention is separately and distinctly made 
of one Person from another, but one Person only is 
introduced under the appellation of God or Lord ; there, 
thou mayest follow that * rule' which is given above^ 
and interpret the name Jehovah concerning the Son of 
God, our Lord Jesus Christ, 

And, for an example let us take that of I$aiah I. 1, 
" Thus saith the Lordj Where is the bill of your 
nsiother's divorcement, whom I have put away?" — 
Here the name Jehovah signifies the Person of the 
Son of God, even though it does not point him out 
distinctly, or by his proper appellation, (as Lyranus and 
others rightly expound this passage.) And the interpre- 
tation of Lyra greatly pleased me formerly when I read 
it; because, by a pious confession and bold mouth, he 
affirms, against all the corruptions of the Jews, that this 
Lord is truly that Jesus Christ, whom we believe and 
confess, from the scriptures, to be the Son of God. 

And, if you diligently consider the whole of this 
chapter of Isaiah according to this interpretation, (for 
the whole context contains the words, not of the 
prophets but of the Lord himself;,) in the whple of this 


chapter, I say, you wilt see, that the Son of 66d <m 1^ 
Lord Jesus Christ does not speak according to his own p 
proper divinity only, but also according to his humao p 
nature also. For he expressly saith, ver. 6, " I gm I" 
my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that p 
plucked off the hair : I hid not my face from shame and jfi 
spitting. For the Lord God is my helper/' &c. But, read It 
the whole of that context thyself, and thou wilt soon |C 
understand, that it is the Lord God himself who maket 
himself a teacher and a preacher of the heavenly doc- 
trine, and who confesses that he suffers and is subjected 
to the cross, and expects help and deliverance from the 

And again with respect to those passages in which 
there is no mention of any certain Person distincdy 
made, the Epistle to the Hebrews cites Mew, and property 
applies them to the Son of God ; as when it cites in the 
first chapter that passage from the 97th Psalm, ver. 7, 
'^ And again, when he bringeth in the first-begotten 
into the world,- he saith. And let all the angels of God 
worship him." In this passage from the Psalm, there is 
no one particular annexed, which might signify that 
these words are to be understood expressly of the Lord 
Jesus Christ; excepting that, at the beginning of the 
Psalm, it is said, *' The Lord reigneth ; let the earth 
rejoice ; let the multitude of the isles be glad thereof," 
&c. — Which words, no Jew, nor any other equally des- 
titute of our faith, will easily allow to have been spoken 
concerning Christ, nor will he sufi'er himself to be 

But the Holy Ghost teaches and testifies this — that 
no other person was ever made a king, or received a 
kingdom or dominion over the earth, (as it is there said,) 
and over the multitude of the isles, and over all those 
who shall resist him, but the Messiah himself the Son 
of God ; as Psalm ii. 6, had plainly declared, " I have 
set my King upon my holy hill of Zion." And also 
2 Sam. vii. * I will ebtablish him over my kingdooi 
for even' 

And that ^this same Messiah is truly and naturally 


Ood, this 97th Psalm also testifies, (and that is what 
the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews designed' to 
shew,) when it says, " And let all the angels of God 
worship him ; " which passage, however, in the Hebrew 
reads thus, " Worship him, all ye gods :" but the term 
gods cannot here signify the eternal God the Creator: 
for there are not said to be, nor are there, many gods, but 
One eternal God. And therefore, these gods are inter- 
preted angels; even as in other places princes, governors, 
judges, or magistrates, are in the scripture called gods; 
which nevertheless are in their nature created of God. 
—To these it is commanded, that, casting away all 
idols and other religious worshippings, they should 
worship this Lord, their King. This God therefore, the 
Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, is to be worshipped 
by all creatures, angels, and men. Hence this Psalm, as 
I have said, is rightly and piously understood concerning 
Christ, though there is not in it any distinction of Per- 
sons directly expressed. 

Moreover in this same Epistle which is written to 
the Hebrews, there is this passage cited from Psalm cii. 
25, 26, " And thou, O Lord, in the beginning hast laid 
the foundation of the earth : and the heavens are the 
work of thine hands. They shall perish, but thou 
remainest," &c. — Here, no distinct mention of any per- 
son is made to the reader, especially to him who is not 
a Christian, which should lead to the understanding of 
these words expressly and distinctly concerning Christ, 
or the Person of the Son of God. And it seems, that, 
although many other passages more direct and remark- 
able might have been cited by the author of this Epistle, 
yet, by adducing these as an example, he wished to set 
them forth thus, with a design to establish a certain 
rule, according to which we might by searching find out 
Christ the Son of God in the prophetical scriptures : 
namely, to shew, that he is called, as indeed he is, the 
Lord God himself the Creator, together with the eternal 
Father and the Holy Spirit ; that every one may safely 
assure himself and know, that he will speak truly and 


ri^tly, whenever he shall say that Christ is the €raitdi 
of all things. .* 


AND moreover, let this particular be carefiilly ^ 
attended to in reading the holy scripture— ^ 
that we diligently observe and consider, when any dw- » 
tinction of Persons is signified in the manifestations of 1^ 
the Godhead, in what words each Person is distinctly i< 
expressed. As for example: (that we may assist those 
who cannot at the moment light upon a better passage 
to exemplify the point in question :) — In the interpretiBg 
of this Psalm, let us take that contained in the above- 
mentioned passage, 2 Samuel vii. and apply to this 
Psalm that promise concerning the Son of David who 
should build the house of the Lord, and be a King and 
Lord in it unto all eternity : from which promise many 
Psalms and prophetical declarations were afterwards 
derived. And there is no doubt, that the prophets 
every where in their declarations concerning Christ, and 
that many other parts of the scriptures, had respect unto 
that promise concerning the "house" and the "king- 
dom " of the Messiah, and are to be referred unto it as 
unto a certain fountain-head.-r-For this same Psalm 
speaks also concerning the building of this house and 
kingdom ; and it moreover anxiously and ardently prays, 
that the Lord, remembering his promise, would have 
mercy upon his people, and would come and build again 
Zion; as it is there written, " Thou shalt arise, and have 
mercy upon Zion ; for the time to favour her, yea, the 
set time is come. For thy servants take pleasure in her 
stones, and favour the dust thereof. So tl^e heathen 
shall fear the name of the Lord, and all the kings of 
the earth thy glory. When the Lord shall build up 
Zion, he shall appear in his glory. This shall be written 
for the generation to come : and the people which shall 
be created shall praise the Lord." — It is certain that 
these things are not spoken concerning that temporal 
Zion or Jerusalem, which was standing in the time of 
David ; nor was it that house or Zion which this pro- 


v(d^ declari^ should be built by the Son of David long 
after his death, or that he should rei^ in that for ever« 
Nor was it oa account of this city or temple that the 
nations should be gathered together to serve the Lord. 
And we have, moreover, abundantW shewn, that the 
builder or architect, and the master of this house^ is the 
Lord himself, Jehovah, the eternal God, and yet, the 
Seed or Son of David. 

Rightly and properly, therefore, does the Epistle to 
the Hebrews apply the words of this Psalm to the 
Person of the Son of God, Jesus Christ; who, although 
he is, with the eternal Father and the Holy Ghost, the 
One same God the Creator of all things; yet, with 
respect to the architecture and building of this house, 
yea, and also the government and eternal dominion in 
it, he is revealed as a Person distinct from the Father : 
and therefore it is, that it is here said, that the builder, 
is the Lord. 

And these again are particular marks that distin- 
guish the Persons — that Christ the Son of God is said 
to be, and is, " the seed of Abraham," in whom it is 
declared that all the nations of the earth shall be blessed. 
Again, thatrhe should be " the desire of all nations," or, 
that all nations should obey him, Gen. xxii. and xlix. 
And again Psalm ii. * I will give thee the nations for 
thine inheritance,' &c. And concerning this very king- 
dom among the nations the Psalm before us, the 97tn, 
clearly speaks also, and, in that particular, expressly sets 
forth the Person of the Son. 

In a word : the Three Persons are One true God, 
One Lord, One Divine Majesty, or One Essence ; but, 
the manifestations are distinctly different. At one time 
.the eternal Father reveals himself, at another the Son of 
God, at another the Person of the Holy Ghost. But 
whatever Person reveals himself in the manifestation, it 
is certain that that Person is the eternal God, and that 
the divinity in the Three Persons is the same.- — We are 
thus rightly to acknowledge the Godhead, lest we should 
wander from it as in an uncertain sea, after the manner 
of the Mahometans and Jews ; or, should follow the 


mad dreams of bereA^s^ that God is tha same both a^j 
essence and person ; thus making no distinction betwcial 
Person and Essence. For God cannot, nor indeed w]|| 
he, be known according to our thoughts, bat he will be 
known as he has revealed himself. 

And more especially, God willed his Son to be 
revealed in the scripture both of the Old and the New 
Testament, and to be acknowledged by us. — All things 
have respect unto this Son. For it is on account d 
this Messiah, or this Seed of the woman, that all scrip- 
ture is delivered unto us. Because, it was by him that 
all things were to be restored which were destroyed by 
the serpent, that sin and death should be abolished, that 
the horrible wrath of God should be appeased, and a 
new righteousness, life, immortality and joy in the eternal 
presence of God, should be brought to light ; and that 
thus, as Paul saith. Col. i. all things might be united 
and brought together under one Head. 

For when, die serpent, the devil, tempted man to 
transgress the command of God, he used this art in 
particular. — He endeavoured to raise in him a contempt 
and hatred of the Son of God, when he said to him, 
* For God doth know, that in the day ye eat of the tree, 
ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.' — And this 
was to injure the glory of the Son of God, to usurp it 
to himself, and to wish to cast him down from his seat 
For it is his prerogative alone, as the Son of God, to be 
equal with God; or, as Paul saith, Col. i. 15, to be 
" the image of the invisible God;" and as it is written, 
Hebrews i. 3, " to be the brightness of his glory and the 
express image of his Person." And before this fall of 
man, the devil himself, when he was among the excellent 
angels, turned himself from God, when he fell in like 
manner against this " image," the Son of God. For, 
not resting content with being in this excellent nature, 
like the elect angels, the image of God, (yet not in the 
same manner as the Son of God, in co-eternal substafice, 
but, a created image,) he dared with horrible pride to 
aim at that glory of the eternal image, which lies within 
the essence of the divinity ; as some writers expound 


that passage, Isaiah xiv. % under the name of the khig 
of mbylon, making it refei* to the fall of the devil, as 
though the prophet alludes to that, when he says, * How 
art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morn- 
ing ! For thou saidst in thy heart, I will ascend into 
heaven. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, 
and I will be like the Most High.' — And therefore it 
was, that there was a distinct manifestation made of the 
Son x)f God, and he assumed human nature : that by 
him, in the human flesh, the human race might be agaia 
restored, which had rushed upon and offended his divine 
nature by its horrible fall. 

Therefore, the sum and scope of the whole prophetic 
scripture point to Christ the Son of God and of the 
Virgin; as may be clearly understood from those things 
which have been hitherto here brought forward. All, 
I say, centres in him, all is on his account. And it was 
for this purpose especially that all these manifestations 
were made, and the prophetic doctrine delivered, — that 
we might acknowledge him as the Lord; and that so, 
his Person may be distinct : and yet, that by him we 
might know the eternal Father and the Holy Ghost ; 
and that we might enjoy the open vision of this One 
eternal God for ever and ever. Whosoever, therefore, 
rightly knoweth this Son of God, to him the whole of 
the prophetic scripture, with all its hidden and secret 
mystery, is opened up, the veil being taken away : and 
the mpre his faith grows in the Son of God, and the 
stronger it becomes, the more clearly this light of the 
scripture breaks forth and the brighter its rays shine 
upon him. 

When thou hast attained unto the holding fast of 
this as a foundation; when thou hast acknowledged 
Christ by faith, and hast confessed that he is truly Cjod 
and man, according to the doctrine of the scripture; — 
then, thou hast need also of diligent care and caution, 
that thou judge rightly concerning the natures and the 
Person of Christ : lest thou shouldst as it were divide 
and sunder the Person; or, confound the distinct natures 
the human and divine, into one. For thou must hold 






together with the distinction of natur^^ the indivisible p 
unity of the Person. It 

Many have in this very point erred from the tro4. 
They have either confounded the divine and famnan 
natures, so as to teach that th^ are one and the same: 
or, on the other hand, of the One they have made two 
persons. In the latter error, was Nestorius ; in the for- 
mer, Eutyches ; and many mad ones have erred in both 
points. But those remains of the Jewish dregs in our- 
day, and, on the other side, the disciples of Mahomet, 
as wonders that have come down from heaven since all 
that were before them, and as being on that acconnt in- 
spired with a spirit much more divine, have drunks unto 
a wisdom far more sublime ; in the pride of which, they 
laugh at us who profess the name of Christ as being 
stupid in the extreme, and prefer their deep penetration 
far before all that we know. — ' If, (say- they,) ^ your 
Messiah be God, how comes it to pass that he died like 
unto a man? whereas, the peculiar property of God is, 
that he cannot die. And, if he be man, how comes it to 
pass that he should, by nature, be the Son of God ? For 
if God be One only, without wife or consort, how can 
he beget a son ? ' 

, Thus, while they seem to themselves to reach the 
heaven with their finger, and to penetrate into the very 
inmost recesses of the divine wisdom ; at the very time 
when they are censuring certain things in our wisdom 
concerning the Messiah, as being absurd in the eyes of 
human reason, and as utterly abhorrent from all human 
judgment; at the very same time, they themselves deserve 
to be laughed at by all, no less than that frog, which, as 
the German proverb goes, having by chance espied a 
farthing, sat upon it, and being as proud of it as if it had 
gotten all the riches of Persia, is said to have exclaimed 
with the utmost arrogance, * Dignity should always ac- 
company money ! ' — We have to return thanks, therefore, 
to these most great, most perfect, most wise, most divine, 
yea all-praise-surpassing teachers, by whom we poor 
'miserable, blockish, leaaen-headed Christians, (I know 
not whether I may say, men, but posts, stones, toad- 


stools, and useless cumberers of the earth,) are to be 
taught this hidden, deep, and divine mystery, — that God 
can neither die, nor be a husband! We congratulate, 
therefore, the present age, and all posterity, upon having 
these most remarkable, most excellent, all-incompar- 
able, most choice, most renowned, all-honour-surpassing 
teachers and masters, by ^hose lessons and demonstra- 
tions, we have arrived at such an exalted height of 
Wisdom, (which we never could have thought of before,) 
as to know, — that the divine nature cannot die, nor 
liave a wife ! 

Ought we then after this to wonder at any thing ! or 
rather, ought we Christians, not to wonder, that, where- 
ever any Jew or Mahometan touches the ground with 
his foot, the whole earth is not immediately seen to leap, 
in an incredible ecstacy of joy, and with an unprecedented 
and unheard of commotion, over the very heaven itself 
tod all that fabric of the upper world ! And, on the 
other hand, that all those celestial bodies, the sun, the 
' moon, and the other luminaries and stars, do not imme- 
diately, to express their praise of such demi-gods, cast 
themselves down at the feet of the Jews and Turks, or 
even tumble headlong down to hell and to the region of 
the infernal spirits ! 

It is an immense and incomprehensible wisdom, 
truly, to know, — that God has not a wife, and is not 
mortal ! These are things that are far above the capa- 
city of the lunatic Christians : nay they are a something 
that the mind and imagination of no one can embrace ! — 
And how necessary, think ye, this secret wisdom must 
be ? that is, what these by far more great, more learned, 
and more wise ones, 'than all the great, learned, and wise 
men in the world, have taught — ^that God cannot die, 
and that God is not a husband ! For what are we poor, 
miserable, blind creatures, more stupid than asses, and 
more dull than toad-stools, who are called Christians ! 
And when should we ever have attained unto that secret 
of the heavenly wisdom, unless poor toad-stools and 
asses as we are, we had met with these most divine above 
all divine teachers r * 


But however, let us have done with those to-be* 
pitied, rather than to-be-lau^ied-at, &natics; and let 
us leave them alone to enjoy their empty dreams of 
wisdom. — Let the godly reader, however, hold hA 
immovably the truth of our faith, which, resting on the 
all-firm testimonies of that wisdom that was delivered 
from above, teaches, that Jesus Christ our Lord is 
truly and naturally God the Son of the eternal Father, 
and truly man the Son of David from the womb of the 
Virgin Mary. And yet, that there are not two sons, or 
two persons, but One and the same Son in the same 
Person, by a true conjunction or union of the two 
natures, the divine and the human ; each of which natures, 
however, is distinguished from the other by its peculiar 

For, as I observed before concerning the article of 
the Three Persons in the Godhead, that we are to 
beware, that we confound not the distinct Persons into 
One; and again, that we divide not the one same 
divinity or essence, as if there were three gods to be 
understood ; but, that there must be held a distinction 
between the Three Persons in the One undivided essence ; 
so here, with respect to the Son of God, thou art on the 
other haild to beware, that thou divide not that One 
Person into two ; and again, that thou confound not the 
distinct natures in the same Person into one, and make, 
as it were, two christs : but there must be held a 
distinction of the two natures in the wonderful unity of 
the Person! 

And this, moreover, is to be known, — that, as both 
natures are joined or united in the one Person of the 
Son of God; so also, the terms in the language or 
form of speech received in the church, or, as they are 
commonly called, general expressions, (pr6Bdicata,) which 
we use when speaking of the natures separately, apply to, 
and as it were, are the same as, those which we use 
when speaking of the whole Person. Which forms of 
expression we usually call an union of identities or pro- 
perties.: that is, when that, which is proper to the one 
nature and is applied to that separately and abstractedly, 


ia yeV ^^ f^ general , way '.o£ eKpression^ -applied to the 
whole person. Thus/ as we ri^tl^ and truly say that the 
Man was; born of the Virgin Mary, and was crucified 
by the Jews: so, these same terms or general exjpre&i 
skms, are rightly applied also to the Son of God: txui 
it is rightly said, that the Son of God was born of tK^ 
Virgin, and was crucified by the Jews : because^ thie 
God and Man are One Person, or. One Christ the Son 
of God arid of the Virgin : for there are not two christs, 
nor two sons, the one of the eternal Father and the 
other of the Virgin, but, they are the One same Son of 
God and of the Virgin. Though it is true, that the term 
Man, in itself, is properly understood of the human na* 
tare ; even . as, the name God, (which is proper to the 
divine nature,) is applied to the divine nature sepa- 

Now then, if thou wilt deny, as Nestorius im- 
piously aijd madly dreamed, that God, or thp Son of 
God, Jesus Christ, was bom of a Virgin, and was cru- 
cified by the Jews ; and wilt contend, that the Man only 
wa3 born of the Virgin and was crucified, &c.— in so 
doing, thou dividest the indivisible unity of the Person 
of Christ into two; of which, the one is made to be 
bom of the Virgin and nailed to the cross, but thfc 
Qtber neither to be JbOrn nor to suffer. In this way,- it 
would be understood, that each nature ife a separate 
person subsisting of itself, and no longer One Son, but 
two sons : which is exacdy the same as denying that 
God, or the Son of God, was made Man; and is 
making such a sundering of the Person of Christ, as if 
the God were a Pqrson to be conadered as truly and 
individually separate from' the Man : and as if, on: the 
other hand, the Man were individually separate from Ithe 
divine Person : to assert which, is manifestly cohtrary 
to the truth and impious. — The scripture: plainly refutes 
this, which speaks thus, John i. 14/ "Arid the Word 
was made flesh, and dwelt among u^.^' And, Luke i. 34, 
" Therefore also, that holy thing which, shall be born oif 
thee shall be called the Son of God." And our common 
Creed, which is called the Apostles' Creed, speaks thus, 



' I believe in Jens Cfarut die only Son of Ood^ irtio 
was conoeiTed of the Hdy Gbost, bom of the YirffA 
MarV) saffered, was crucified/ ftc. It does not uy tliit 
die Son of God was one, and the Man diat was boiti, 
another ; but, that the same who was bom of die 
Virgin, and who is the Son of the Virgin still, is die 

A ND again : If thou fall, on the other hand, 
into the delirium of Eutyches, thou deoitiSt 
that this Man Jesus Christ is the Creator of llie 
heavens and the earth and all things^ or, deniest tliat ke 
is the Son of God, who is to be adored and pmyed 
onto. — Even as I remember that a certain fanatic, a 
very few years ago, made a great noise and tragic to^o, 
dwelling incessantly upon this — how perilously we 
acted, who adored the creature instead of the Creator: 
whereas, such neither attentively read those things that 
are delivered in the prophetic and apostolic writings, nor 
have any understanding of the terms of expression re- 
>ceived by the churchy nor of the meaning of its doc- 
trines : but, whatever doctrines they hatdi Out of their 
own crazy brain, and whatever things they dream, under 
their mental maladies, concerning such important points, 
those they thrust upon the ^orld, not being teachers 
" taught of God," but taught of themsdves. 

But, as I have before said, in this delirious error of 
Eutyches, the unity of the Person is sundered, and two 
persons are in reality made ; the one of the Son of God, 
the other of the Son of the Virgin. But yet, this error is 
of a different form from the other. For Nestorius so 
sunders the Person^ as to divide and separate the human 
natnre from the divine ; thus tearing apart the con^ 
junction or union, and making of each nature an indivi- 
dually separate peirson, to be considered apart by itself; 
when he affirms, that it was only the separately indivi- 
dual man, and not God, that is, not the whcAe Person, 
or the whde Christ, that was crucified.— On the <K)n- 
-trary, Eutyches separates and tears the divine ns^H« 
from the human, (and thus he also sunders the personal 


nrojnnctioa or uiiioni, and imaguussf tvo4i»tiQCt persona,) 
Tvhile he contends tJ^t God (that is, Christ sep^ratf 
from the human natore) and not man, is to be wcnt- 

But, the prophetTc and apoatolic scripture) and pur 
4Creed and confession of faith, teach us thus-— rThc^t we, 
when we worship Christ bom of the Virgin, that is, tl^ 
Man [Christ], do not wcHrship any pure (as their term is) 
^AEd mere man, one different from the Son of God, or ft 
-perscm wlio is distinct and apart from God, or to ^ 
'worshipped out of and besides God; but, that we 
^worship die eternal, true, One God, who, with th^ 
.Father and the Holy Ghost, is One eternal God ; and 
-one, who, by taking into union with himself the hufidiap 
nature from the Virgin, is One Person, or One Clurist; 

Whoso has notihe true understanding of this.aiiticle 
of 0ur faith, or this doctrine concerning the Son of God, 
must of necessity wander as in the open sea, away froQi 
^ke aeoise and meaning of the prophetic and apostolic 
acr^^tures : nor can he ev^ rightly judge of those terms 
and expressions concerning Christ, which are used in 
.'different forms in different places. How often, in the 
prophets, is the Messiah caJUed the " servant'' of God ? 
as in Isaiah xlii. i, ^^ Behold my servant — in whom my 
aoul delishteth,'' &c. And chap. lii. iS, *' Behold my 
servant shall deal prudentiy," &c And what shall we 
•eay, when he is even called ^ a worm?" as when he 
■speaks of himself, Ps, xxii, 6, " Btit I am a worm and 
no man," &c- And, (what may appear to be far more 
absurd and dreadful,) he is even called a sinner, Ps. xli. 
4, ^^ I said, Lord, be merciful unto me, heal my soul, for 
'i have sinned against thee : " that is, I am made a 
dinner and guflty befcM'e thee. And again. Psalm Ixix. 5, 
^- O God, thou knowest my foolishness, and my sins 
are not hid from thee," And directly afterwards, " Tiie 
Teproadhes of them that reproached thee are fallen upon 
me." And again. Psalm xl. 12, ^* Innumerable evils 
Aiave jcmnpassed me about ; mine iniquities have taken 
kidd v^n me, so diat I am not able to look iup^: they 

V 2 


are mdre than the hairs of my head ; therefore iny heut 

But here, the widdom of human reason, the Jews, 
and the Mahometans, seem to themselves to do rightly, 
when they cry out — * How can these things be under- 
stood concerning God, or the divine Person! - Howcan 
'it be, that he who is God should be a servant ! And how 
can it possibly be, that he should be a sinner ! Who 
among men would not be astounded, and feel his ears 
and mind horror-struck, at the mention of things so ab- 
surd and awful ! What race of men more stupid or 
more execrable did the whole world of nature ever pro- 
duce, than those who call themselves Christians ! '—For 
there are no monsters so terrible and deadly as Chris- 
tians, in the judgment of those wise ones, those mighty 
saints. And they imagine, that they alone are men in- 
deed, because they do not, as we do, worship the crea- 
ture, but God himself the Creator. 

The reality of the matter however stands thus. — 
This is no wonderful doctrine sprung, and brought from, 
the deep wisdom of man, as if dug^ as it were, out of 
dArkness-and the abyss of a Trophonian cave; nor from 
the Jewish puddles the Talmuds, from which they drew 
their schemhampheres ; nor from the chambers of the Ma- 
hometan brothel, in which that filthy fellow, who dared 
to call hirbself a prophet of God, exerted himself so 
lustily, that he even gloried, with a brazen brow and ob- 
scene mouth, that he received from his god (that is,. the 
the devil, the pritace of this world,) such a supply of 

masculine strength that would not suffice for one 

night !— O holy teacher ! O pure example of chastity ! 
The whole of whose book, the Alcoran, every where 
tastes and stinks of his filth, worse than any common 
shore ; and plainly declares, upon its very face, that he 
derived his prophetic spirit from no other source than 
from the stinking and abominable retreats of the Bac« 
ehanalians. If a inan then hear such teachers, and 
spetid his time in reading such books as those, what 
wonder is it, that he should know nothing rightly either 


concerning! God; 6r the Mesdiah/^ uihen the teaehen 
themselves know n^her their outi I doctrines nor their 
own lives ! 

We however, who follow the Son of God as our 
teacher, (wh6m the eternal Father himself commanded 
to be heard, by the most certain testimonies, and by a 
voice from beaVen,) wiell knoUr/that this Messiah is the 
imly and the co-eternal Son of Xhe eternal Father, who 
was sent into the world, and who assmned human nature, 
that, by the wrath of God being l|ud upon him, he might 
become an atonement and sacrifice for our sins, and 
might destroy sin itself and death in us : as Isaiah liii. 6, 
plainly saith, " AH we like sheep have gone astray, we 
have turned every one to his own way : and the Lord 
hath laid on him the iniquity of us all." And again, 
ver. 10, " Thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin." 

Since, therefore, this is sure and certain ; we, with 
joyful hearts, glory and preach that the Son of God, the 
one true God togethier with the eternal Father and the 
Holy Ghost, was made a man, a servant, a worm, a re- 
proach among men, and a sinner, or, as • Paul speaks, 
sin, and a curse, for us ! . And we also rightly and with 
a godly and pious confession say, that God died for us; 
that God was crucified for us; that God bore our sins in 
his own body ; and that God redeemed us with his blood. 
For here, God and mim- are one Person, or, the divine 
and human natures are united in one Person ; and 
Christ is truly God and man. Therefore, whatsoever 
die Man does, suffers, and says, the same does the eternal 
God truly do, suffer, and say. And again, whatsoever 
the God does and says, the same does the Man do and 
say also : that is, the Son of the eternal God, and of man 
or the virgin, is one undivided Person, though the natures 
are distinct 

These things I say, are to us firm and sure, how 
much soever they may be offended at theni, who will 
not: hear the word of God ; and how furiously soever 
either Satan himself, or that filthy tool of his, that patron 
of pimps and brothels, Mahomet, or our Schemhampherist 
Jews, may rail and maUciously blaspheme : who shall 


all, ere loiig, aflnre tbt pohUhitieiit df tinm likipnii^, 
their obscenity, and their blaspheming mouths, in the 
lowest hell. 

"DUT however, iQt us now draw to a Cmido* 
sion this treatise on the testimonies of the 
prophetic scriptures, relative to thi$ article of doctrine, 
concerning the Persons in the God-^head, and the Son of 
God» And I hope I have by these my admohitifHis at 
least wrought this effect upon those who read the text of 
the scripture in its own language, and who wish to nnder- 
^tand the Hebrew rightly, and profitably — ^that they will 
be deterred from following the corruptions of the Rabbins ; 
imd will again wrest, as it were, the true sense of die 
^riptnres from their hands, (especially in those p]BJbdA 
which agree with all the testimonies concerning tl]^ Sou 
of God,) assert them by force, and restore them to their 
original purity ) and that they will not at all bear with 
their vilely vamped-up and forced interpretations^ uhich 
they have thus audaciously formed out td thentiselves 
from a system of ,grammar which is, in many instances, 
entirely of their own fabricating. — For they often greatly 
differ from each other, and have nothing certain to hold 
by : apd^ wherever they can, they endeavour in words 
and sentences to seek out an ambiguity or equivocatioD 
of some kind or other, which may enable them to Wrest 
the meaning to their own deKriums, even when the sense 
t)f the w hole context beautifully aecords Willi the doctrine 
toontained in the apostolic w ritings. For it is a fixed c^^ 
tainty with us, that this our Lord J*estis Christ aione, i« 
Lord of all : to whom all the scripture so points, as to 
make it manifest, that it is concertiit^ hiiti inost espe- 
cially that it bears testimony : that is, that it was on ac- 
count of him alone that it was written and delivened. 

And I would observe, that I did hot think it kieces- 
Bary to bring forward more authorities out xyf the INfew 
Testament or the writings of the apostles, because they 
are, as it were, an interptetatrom of the prophets, and 
\vere delivered fair that very p6rp6se, atid Sset forth that 
interpretation in the clearest words. And it is for Ais 


^^rjf rjIWQP that tj[^ J^ws reject tbos^ writiogif. Tboyg)|| 
the certainty of the doctrine contained m theCQ, has now 
i;>een cqnfinped by the most incontrovertible evidence^ 
for above fifteen hundred years. And the gospel oi 
^ohn, especially, is so full of testimonies, that you ca^ 
scarcely select three words from it, wherein this Jesas^ 
God and Man in one Person, is not proclaimed* 

This John himself, together with Paul and the Other 
apostles and writers of the gospels, and with many others 
ako of those who heard them and received their doctrine 
from them and delivered the same to posterity : these, 
fdl, I say, were certainly as much Jews or Israelites;^ and 
the seed of Abraham, and born of his blood, and much 
more truly so by manifest testimonies, than these last 
dregs of the circumcised, who glory that they are Jewp 
and Israelites, but of whose origin no certain testimonies 
can be produced. — If then, we consider that we ought to 
believe the testimonies and authorities of the Jews or 
Israelites, how much rather should we believe those who 
are evidenced to have be^n true Israelites, and who now, 
for above fifteen hundred years, have sounded forth the 
voice of the gospel throughout the world, and by it have 
governed all the churches that have been constituted ; 
who, by the faith and confession of it, have overcome - 
Satan, the world, sin, and death, and, through an espe- 
cial gift of the Holy Ghost, have interpreted and illus- 
trated the prophetic scriptures ; and who themselves, and 
whose followers, have wrought many wonderful works in 
the church ? We shall much more rightly, I say, believe 
^uch Israelites, than those obscure, new^-born, bastard 
pnes ; who, at least, have most aw fiilly degenerated from 
their ancestors, as experience evidently proves ; and who 
throughout the whole space of fifteen hundred yeai^s, 
have been proved by no sign or testimony of any mii^acle 
which they have wrought. Nor have Aey thrown aijiy 
Ught upon the prophetic scripture by their interpreta- 
,tiQi^, but have every where destroyed it by manifest (for- 
.ruptiiHis.. A^d, in a word, they have done nothing tJ^t 
;d^rves pr^se, either in the kingdofo or church of God ,* 

but have, C0tN!eaIed in the secret coverts of their syiia* 
gopj^e^j and through clandestine wickedness, envy, and 
tthfty as the sons of darkness, thai is, of Satan, furiously 
Vaged against, and destroyed, all sincere and real Jews 
land ■ Israelites, that is, the apostles and prophets, with 
tying' arid- murderous spirits, with the most atrocious 
anjd virtitent cuttings, execrations, blasphemies, lies, 
nftirders and plunderings, and, as far as in them lay, 
with fire and sword ; and they daily increase this their 
fury, and as it were, hand our blood to each other to 
drink, till they shall have drunk the whole of it up.— 
Hence they are manifestly found, proved, and evidenced 
to be, not Israel, or the seed of Abraham, but a de- 
generate and bastard race; yea, the most virulent, the 
most furious, and plainly diabolical, enemies to the real 
Israelites and Sons of Abraham: and moreover, destruc- 
tive robbers, plunderers, and sacrilegious corrupters of 
the prophetic' scripture^. Wherefore, the holy scripture 
Is to be vindicated and wrested from their sacrilegious, 
'plundering and destroying hands, wherever we can be 
'assisted by the simply grammatical construction of the 
text, and where the interpretation can be accommodated 
with propriety to the sense of the New Testament. 
Which form of interpreting the prophetic scripture, the 
'letters of the Apostles beautifully teach us, and that, in 

many striking examples. 

' •■■ ■ >■■■'. ■••■■' . . . i- • 

T NOW, therefore, return to conclude my Expo- 
"' • . sition of the *'Last words of David," ^ith 

which I at first commenced; that thus the end, as a 
' iSproHary ,^ may be connected with the beginning. For I 
^hiave now digressed to a sufficient extent; and others will 
' I hope?, after my example, pursue the subject more exten- 
' siveiy and better than I have done ; and will diligently, 
-ahd" profitably exhibit Christ our Lord, out of the 
"scrJptutfes of tte Old Testament! And there is no doubt, 

thia^ hfe will easily and' spontaneously exhibit himself, 
• and ndturally shbw himself *f0rth,'fespeeially in the Psalms 

atid^ii I^aidh.^ Only attismpt the undertaking, according 

to the ruk for inteipretitig that I hkve laid down/ and 
thoii wilt : say I am ^ right, and wilt rejoice and give 
thanks nnto God. 

' I observed, th^n, at the beginning of this exposition 
of the " Last words of David,'^ that they may, by a 
godly and Christian translation and interpi^tation, be 
rendered thus : 

David the Son of Jesse saidj the man who was con- 
firmed concerning the Messiah of the Cfod of Jacobs 
'ftveet in the Psalms of Israel, said. The Spirit of the 
Lord spake by me, and his Word was on my tongue. The 
God of Israel said to me, the rock of Israel spake to me, 
he that is a just ruler among men, ruling in the fear 
of God. 

There are here, as I observed before, Three Persons 
speaking, "The spirit of the Lord,"." The God of 
Israel," and " The Rock of Israel;" and yet, it is the 
same .God speaking. But there is added a description 
of that Person who is called, "The rock of Israel," 
** The riiler among men," and the ruler "in the fear of 
the Lord." This ruler is, without doubt, the Messiah; 
as it is interpreted in the Chaldee or Syriad version. 
And, in the Hebrew text, theiie words, " Rock of Istael" 
and "just Ruler," or, just " Ruler among men," and a 
" Ruler in the fear of God," are joined together.-^ And it 
is certain that the true God himself is called, and is, the 
Rock of Israel ; which, in the Hdbrew^ is Zur, and is 
used in many other places, and especially in the 'Psalms, 
-and applied to God, as when it is often said, " the Lord 
my strength," &c- '■ And here also,, the Messiah is called 
by this name; that is, the man who is the ruler, w 
ruliqg in the feiar of the Lord. For this word in the 
Hebrew is Mos-el: which is not a, name that is pro- 
perly, ascribed to the divinity, to the Lord or Jehovah, 
but, signifies a lord . or master; as we call those men 
lords who are in authority, and who are^ intrusted with 
any government. And wherever you read this term ats 
applied to Gcid, you may safely and rightly understand 
"it as* tefarmg tb Jesus Christ ^ the Son' ra God. As 


VKhen Gideon saith, Ju(^es viii. SS, ^^ I wUl opt rok 
Qv^r you, neither shall my son rule over you: the Loid 
shall rule over you/' And also Psalm xxiu 28, ^* For 
Ihe kingdom is the Lord's, and he is the governor 
among die nations/' And, *^ The God of Jacob ruletb 
throughout all the earth." And so also Micah v. 2, it is 
said in the clearest ivords, concerning Christ who should 
be bom in Bethlehem, ^^ out of thee shall he come forth 
unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; " as thou^ the 
words were taken from this very passage before us. And, 
Psalm viii. it is said concerning Christ, ^' Thou madest 
him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; 
thou hast put all things under his feet : " where the same 
thing is clearly said which is said here, — that he (the 
Messiah, the man, or son of man, to whom all thmgs 
are put in subjection,) is the Rock, (that is, God,) a just 
Ruler (that is, Man^ and among men,) oveir all the 
works created of God: which certainly is nothing else 
.than to be equal with God, or truly God, and yet, to be 
also Man. 

And when David saith a "just ruler," or, ** ruling in 
the fear of God," he signifies that he does not speak 
.concerning any political or human righteousness; but, 
that he is speaking of another and eternal righteousness, 
which the Messiah the Son of God brings into the world, 
and by which he delivers us from sin and death, and 
makes us righteous before God. For he clearly speaks, 
(as the words that follow testify,) concerning an eternal 
, treaty or covenant, which God made, with David mi 
his house. For so Isaiah interprets the promise made 
unto David, chap* Iv., ^^ And I will make an everlasting 
covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David. " 
And so Psalm Ixxxix. 2, ^ Mercy shall be built \\p for 
-ever in heaven,' (or, eternal mercy) and again, ver. 1§) 
.** My mercy wUl I keep with him for evermore, and my 
'Covenant shall stand fast with him." 

. Human righteousness in political government is fat 
too weak to effect all this. For even aiiter it has dis- 
chai^ed >all its duties most perfectly {w,hicb lioweirer is 
very xarely Ihe case) in the midst of this fainflifiii oonfii- 


fiion of die worid, yet it can hardly atoomplish evea 
this»— the maintainmg of proper disciplitie in external 
tMxnety, the preserving of tranquillity, the restraining df 
the unruly, die preventing of injuries, slau^ters, injus- 
tice, plunderings, thefts, lusts, &c* And afteif ail, this 
righteousness does not recommend us to God, nor make 
QS righteous, diat is, acceptable, in his sight ; though it 
is by such righteousness that our morals are decendy 
r^ulated. For although this discipline is necessary, yet, 
we are not by it rendered without sin, nor do we satis^ 
the law of God, Yet God adorns this diligence witn 
many great rewards in this corporcd life ; with wealdi, 
^ory, victories, power, prosperity, &c. : which, although 
they are gifts of God, and necessary for this life, yet, 
before him they are insignificant, that is, frail and 
quickly perishing things, which he often bestows more 
abundandy upon his enemies, than upon his heirs that 
fear hinl ; for which latter there is laid up another far 
more great and eternal reward that is wholly unknowa 
to the world. 

Therefore, that futile and wholly vain interpretation 
of the Rabbins, and of those who follow them, is wholly 
to be rejected. I mean of those who imagine, that 
David says these things concerning himself — that his 
government or ruling would be just, and his administra- 
tton in die fear of God, because he was anointed of God 
to be king and ruler. But it is a far other just ruler 
rnhng in the fear of God, that is here promised. For 
David in all his government never made any one sinde 
man just, nor fearing God ; nay, not even himself. Nor 
did ever Moses himself do it, who was the institutor of 
:die law and the political economy, as Paul affirms 
Horn. iii. But, all those that were ever righteous, and 
that ever feared God, were made righteous and brought 
tNi fear God by this Lord or Ruler, Jesus Christ, the 
Mes&iah, or Rock of Israd ; as the prophet Zechariah 
mith concerning this King, ^^ Behold thy King comedi 
unto diee, he is just and having salvation ; lowly, and 
riding upon an ass," &c. chap. ix. 9* And Paul, 1 Cor. 
i. !S0, saith that he is made unto us ^^ wiadraQ, iig|it- 


eousnesS) sanctification, add redemptioh : that, accord- 
ing as it is imtten, He that glcmeth: let him glory in the 
Lord : " (not in his own righteousness and wisdom, ftc) 
For this is the government of this King, and it wasior 
this that he was constituted ruler ; — that he might work 
these divine works in men ; that is, might make them 
righteous and holy, and obedient unto God ; and that he 
might at length restore that state of innocency from 
which we fell by and through the fall of our first parents, 
who were driven to it by tne devil. 

It is concerning this righteousness, and this feax of 
God, that that doctrine is delivered to us which is held 
forth in the church of God, and which ought to be 
thoroughly known by all godly people — that it is for the 
sake of this Lord, Jesus Christ, through mere mercy, 
by faith, and not for our own virtues and worthiness, 
that we are made righteous ; that is, acceptable unto 
God, and heirs of eternal life. — It now follows in .the 
words of David, 

And he shall be as the light of the morning when the 
sun ariseth, even as a morning without clouds ; when the 
tender grass springeth out of the earth by clear shining 
after rain. 

Here, he compares the rule or kingdom of the Mes- 
siah, who shdl re-establish and restore righteousness 
and the fear of God, to the gladdening and lovely time 
of spring ; wherein, the world, after the dull and gloomy 
scene of a long winter, begins to open forth its beauties 
again, and to cheer every kind of living creature by its 
new appearance. For while, during the winter, the sun 
is far removed from us, the earth is as it were shut out 
and confined by cheerless frost, ice, and snow.;. the . 
trees wear a miserable aspect, being stripped of. tbeir 
foliage and verdure, and every thing, that jgrbws out of 
the earth lies torpid; there is no trace of any; thing 
flowery or verdant any where to be seen ; no firuits shew 
themselves ; and the whole world is, as it were, dead. — 
But as soon as the spring begins to appear, the sun now 
coming nearer to us, opens the earth, which then smiles 


with a newc and lovely aspect, and' the whole wotld 
seems, ast it were, to arise from the dead. For all ever 
G!dti^der,' that the spring is the most delightful time of 
the year : as the poet sings, 

Now every tree its leafy pride resumes, 

And the year's loveliest, seasbn smiles around. ^ 

: And there are many who have been of opinion, and 
have said, that it was in this season of the year that the 
wcrld wa? first created : and that agrees also with the 
scriptures, .which make the vernal month, that is, our 
March or April, to be the first month of the year. 
- In like maimer also, the kingdom of grace peculiar 
to this Ruler brings to us the all-gladdening and plenteous 
time ^ of spiritual delight ; wherein, this Messiah freely 
gives > unto us righteousness and the fear of God ; 
whereby we, as green, flourishing, and fragrant plants, 
grow up in him and bring forth fruit. For he is our sun 
of righteousness, which now comes near unto us that he 
might shed upon us his light and life ; as it is said in 
Malachi, ^^ But unto you that fear my name, shall the 
sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings." 

And that he might do all these things by signs, it 
was his will, to abolish death and to begin this his king- 
dom of a new and eternal righteousness by his resurrec- 
tion, in the time of spring, when all nature returns to 
Kfe: whereas before, he was bom into the world in the 
middle of winter : which was to signify, that he under- 
took for our sakes the dark and dreadful burden of sin, 
misery, and death, to which the human race were sub- 
jected: and he bore the tempestuous season of this 
winter for upwards of thirty-thiee years. 

For as, in this prophetic description, by the time of 
^ring is signified the saving and life-giving time of the 
grace of God, which has dawned upon us through the 
Messiah the Son of God : so, on the contrary, by the 
time of winter the opposite is signified : that is, the time 
of the wrath of God under sin, into which the whole 
human race have been plunged by nature since the time 
of i their first parents, by tmir fall. And God, under 


11ms order of the times and aeaMms, hu Mi k lim 
shadowed and. set forth sknilititdea, whereby, to pioMBt 
unto U8 these difterent states of sm and grade ; that vs 
might, by the different changes of the eeascms, be can- 
tinually reminded of these things until the last day, 
(when there sh^dl be another and a new heaven and li: 
earth, and another order of things,) and that we mi^t U 
thus be brou^t to think upon these great matters^ luid |? 
team to make a practical use of them each day of car 
•lives.— And may God grant, that oar eyes and ean 
jnay be attentive to the admonitions which the aeascm 
thus afford us. 

According therefore to this spiritual representation 
of things contained in the changes of the seasons, Adam, 
the first of the human race, may rightly be said to have 
;iirst lived in the allrdelightful time of spring; (aeeing 
.that, he was created in the very time of spring, es being 
;the time .in which the worid dso was fii^t made;) but, 
by sin, he cast himself into the dreadful time of winter, 
until God, by this all-gracious sun, his dear Son^ dispe&ed 
the awful winter, and restored this new spring, and agak 
established an eteilial church, which he still goes on to 
gather together, that it may hereafter live in we eternal 
-enjoyment of God. And now this wonderful change, 
•or, as the Psalm speaks, these years of die right hand 
of the Most High, have begun, he who lives in Ais new 
and eternal spring, shall never die: and, he who dies in 
that dreadful winter, shall never live : that is, as Christ 
.aaith, ^' He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved: 
-but he that believeth not, shall be damned/' For, cm 
the latter, that eternal sun, concerning which David here 
'Speaks, is gone down and has set for ever: biit, on die 
former, he arises and shines in his eternal light. 

Nor is this the only thing that is intended by this 
^mention of the spring and the winter : but it more es- 
pecially refers to that great secret of the prophetic doc- 
trine, — that the kingdom or dominion of the Messiah^ 
•would not be like the political economy of Moses. For 
that polity and government of Moses, Ls the ministration 
^ the law; by which, sin is not only not taken away, 


but is realty incrisased ; pr^ as Paul saith^ becomes ^^ ex^ 
iMediog sinfal." Because, the law shows how great and 
terrible sin is; and men by it are accused and con- 
demned ; and being by it cast into horrid fears, diey not 
only begin to hate the judgment of God, and the law 
Hadf, by the sentence of which they feel themselves so 
condemned and killed, but also flee away from God; as 
Paul wonderfully and copiously sets forth this office of 
the law, and the effects of it 

This is indeed to stand at the £30t of Mount Sinaj^ 
^ile it horribly shakes and trembles with thunderings 
and li^tnings, being made to rock from its foundation ; 
•and while there is such a terror produced all around, 
Aai it seems as if heaven and earth were rushing toge- 
ibet. And in truth the light and rays of tixe sun were 
darkened with far more heavy and thick clouds than if 
k had been in the middle of the freezing winter, though 
It was then the time of spring to this visible woiid when 
the li^t of the sun occasionally beams forth ; but, at 
ihat time, he was so far removed that his rays iiad no 
effect whatever. — So the nations and the ungodly, who 
a:re wkhout the law, and lie buried in the winter under 
their sins, live in greater security^ and, as they imagine 
to themselves, far more happily than the people of 
Odd ; because they, even in the time of their spring, en- 
thnre the terrible tempests of law terrors, whi<:h are as 
thunderings and lightnings. For when that all-fair sun, 
Christ the Son of God, does not shine into their minds 
with his splendour, they have none of the joys of the 
spring to delist or refresh them ; but Moses fills all 
things with terror and death by the h^avy tempest of his 
law. Thus, the storms and tempests which variously 
infest this our air and atmosphere, are to us as perpetual 
prophets and teachers, shewing us, that it is the same 
with the minds and consciences of men^ and that the 
godly are often thus overwhelmed with the terrors of the 
law ; who, nevertheless, as Paul saitfa, are not under the 
law, but under grace. 

But however, as David saith, after the times of 


Moses and the Prophets that joyful time of the Mes- 
siah succeeds, when the Zur, or Rock himself of 
Israel reigns, that he might by bis free bounty plenti- 
fully 4)eBtow upon us righteousness and eternal lue. This, 
I say, is that delightful and joyful season, when the whole 
face of things is changed, as in the spring, to a new and 
all-gladdening aspect ; when, before the clear shining/ 1 
senial shower has fallen ; that is, when the sweet aijd 
healthful voice of the Gospel is heard, and afterwaids 
the sun himself, Christ, arises in our hearts, and they are 
raised up and enabled to receive the consolation/ the 
clouds and storms of Moses, together with the Uion- 
derings and lightnings of his law, being whc^ly . (Ssr , 
pelled. — Hereupon, all things truly look green, floiuifll^ 
and blossom. There is a new light, and a day full of 
new joy, gladness, and life ; like unto which, there is no. 
time in the whole of this world's year. Now, all that 
tempest and winter of clouds, thundeiings, sin, death. 

and all:kinds of terrors, are overcome, dispertedy 
utterly disappear; and there arises an all-clear rand' id)- 
.gladdening day of a new and eternal .Passover, 'or of 
•victorious rejoicing in our tisen, living, and eternally 
•reigning Lord. 

This is what David means, when he says, that the 
government of the Messiah, his Son, is like unto that 
spring day, when, after a morning of. copious and 
genial rain, the sun rises with a sweet serenity, and 
shines forth and clothes all things with verdure and 
beauty. And among many other testimonies, Lactantius 
thus describes the time of the resurrection of Christ, 

Behold ! the beauties of the new-bom world. 
Bright from the bosom of the spring, declare,- 
That all creation. with its God revives ! 
f For, as Christ rises from the dreary graeve, • 
' ^ Each tree in foliage smiles.; each waiting bud 
Bursts into bloom, to hail its risen Lord 
Triumphant o'er tihe dismal realms of death! / 


For my house is not so before God : because he hath 
tade with me an everlasting covenant ordered in all 
iiMgs and sure. 

It has been before bbserved, that the meanmg of 
lese words is the same as that which is found in 
; Sam. vii. 18, " Who am I, O Lord, and what is my 
ouse ? '* As thou^ he had said, Surely my house is 
ot such, nor so great, that it should in the eyes of God 
e worthy of so infinite an honour and blessing, as that 
le Messiah should be bom from it, the Rock oJF Israd, 
le Son of God, the just God, the just ruler among 
len ! — ^Thus, in these words, he casts himself with ail 
mnility and self-abasement at the feet of God^ as if 
stonished at so wonderful a gift of God, — that God 
lould will to effect such mighty things from his flesh 
ad his Uood 

And, with respect to the everlasting covenant, and 
le house of David, and how this promise was fulfilled 
I ftts house, upon these things I have spoken with suf- 
dent fulness in another work, which I wrote concerning 
le Jews and their shameless lies : and perhaps some 
ther occasion, besides the present, may offer for saying 
lore upon that subject 

But those Hebrew terms aruch a and semura, which 
refound in this place, are not made use of to no purpose : 
le former dF which signifies * ordered,' or, * rightly or- 
i^red in all things : ' the latter signifies, ^ kept sure and 
ife,' or, ^ become sure and established by fact and 
bservation.' These words, I say, are added purposely 
oth for doctrine and consolation* For. if one take a 
iirsory view only of the history of the events relative to 
le people of God, or the political Israel, and consider 
lem just as they present themselves at first sight, as it 
ere, it will seem, as to first appearance, that what is 
ere so grandly declared, was by no means performed to 
lat people. Nay, reason and human wisdom wiH 
idge just the contrary ; — that God utterly forgot his 
>venant, and did nothing that he had promised ; seeL 
lat, there are so many scenes of confusion, trouble, ani 

VOL. II. z 


civil in diis very hoHse of David itself^ to . say tirittimg 
about the whole of his posterity. And yst mat hoofl^ 
until the coming of the Messiah, was not only Jiptml^ 
vbible to external observation, but beautifully continued 
in all its established order and ordinance, and mdained 
so proof against all the opposition of devils wndwim, 
that it could not be overturned by any oile^ nor emn ot- 
tered; bot.fdl were compelled, even against theuririBi; 
!to leave thatpoUiicdl economy, or the ao^ptre ofJttdsh, 
as It was first instituted, and accocding to die '*iiOid "df 
the divine promise, until the mani&statioh af^C!fari&. ' 

And, if you look at the visible face df the Idn^dolli 
.or dhurdi of the Messiioh, as to its appearatice in Ae 
Voild, since the time of his nranifisstadon, thdm^'fril 
seem to be still greater confoston and scattaritig'; 'wmfjk 
triU appear feat there nenar ^ Im ordftr, moie dfr- » 
traction and misery, or a more deplorable state *ap 
things in any common govisrmkient, than m this^ldng- > 
.d6m of the Messiah the Son of God. For, on the eae 
hand, tyrants in power furiously scatter and lay k'wsste 
fay fire, sword,'and'cmelty of eveiy kind. Ami, ba^ 
other hand, fanatics and authors of fiadse doctrines and 
sects shamefiiUy divide and sunder it. And mo reovfer , 
there appear in the lives and conduct of many who: pro- 
fess the name of Christ, an opi^ >and hardened pre- 
sumption and impurity. So diat, as I before observed^ 
in no government does there appear tt more iiikiou8 
jstate of things, or less order, than in diis government 
■ For all those external enemies that I have mentioned, 
and those internal members, or rather, the devil* inched), 
strives with all his mi^it, that this dcmiinicm of Christ 
mi^ithe uttearly destroyed and brought tx> nouriit, ortfe 
kept in a state of the utnaost misery and turbuksnee. 

In a w6rd, as I said, Christ appears to be sudiia 
the world, as if he felt ho concern whatever -for his 
Idngdom and government; as thou^ he had no wi^ 
that it should be manifestly seen any where; and taM 
it* were any thing but a' kingdom all^wisely constttntad 
and happily administraited,'^ a3^ucha and i^uvKAf 
iasitisiiere sakl. And yet, it is true that Mt isitoeha 


. liiii|^oip as is here described : amd'it must of necesal^ 
«B9wer to bc^ these terms in all thiujgs and through afi 
itangs. And although it does pot appear to be so, ac-^ 
cwdi&g to human judgment and human observation, yet, 

J ik^is so in the eyes .of him who dedares concemiiig this 
kkigdpm, Song. viii. 12, ^^My vineyard which is nune 
U 'before me." And also, Matt xxviii, 20, ^^ And la 1 
I^am with you alway even unto the end of the world;'' 
j4ndy again John xvi. 33, ^^Be of good cheer, I hayei 
Mwco^ie Ae worii"^— For,. when those who fear God 
emtemplate the church through all this series of time^ 
diey .9ee,.and themselves experience, that there ever 
pa% and still exists and remains among the hupian 
mm, a small company collected together by the power 
Urbich is from above, who profess and worship the name 
of Christ in true &ith and godliness, who gp on to spread 
ifaroad the true doctrine of the gospel by their teaching 
aand profession, who hold the true use of the sacraments 
and of the * Iceys ' of the church, who experience the 
Holy Spirit working effectually in them by his illumina- 
tjy^ns and gifts, and who stand fast in this kingdom of 
the Son of God, invincible against the gates of hell. — It 
jnow follows — 

For all my salvation and aU my desire are notiiing. 

If, saith he, I may be allowed to glory at all in my- 
self^'rr-I am a king- appointed of God, and have, a dignity 
bestowed upon me above all other kings. I have often 
coiukicted wars, in which I have fought bravely . and 
gained signal victories ; and, by the help of God, have 
exf)erienced many wonderful deliverances. And more-r 
over, in my administration of government, I have, 
done many things that have been beneficial, and 
that, with singular success^ (This is what he means 
by "my salvation.") I have diligently governed the 
state, and have exerted my utmost endieavours that 
all things iQay be done ri^tly and in order, and that 
each one may. have his ri^t : a^d I have also suffered 
many things. But all tms gl(^, not of my govern^ 
ment xmly, hut of that bdonging to all other kings and 

z 2 

princes leather, when compared with the kingdcMn 
this Lord, the Messiah, the Rock of Israel, ttiy Son,! 
that shaH be born of my seed, is nothing as it were hiH 
a dry tree or branch, from which no bud or shoot can' 
ever spring forth. — For no king of all the human race 
ever was, or ever will be, the conqueror and destroyer of 
those evils, sin, death, the devil, h6ll, and the world. 
Nor did any one ever effect this by his govemment-r-th* 
giving to his citizens the blessings of righteousness, thte 
fear or reverence of God, and eternal life and felicity ! The 
government of us all, is poor, miserable, dry and vain. 
But, this my Son, the Messiah, the Rock of Israel,— hfe 
it is, I say, who alone triumphs a conqueror over death, 
sin, hell, the world, and all the powers of adversaries. 
He it is, whose government brings with it, and biestowSi 
this on all his^ — the making them righteous before God, 
and giving unto them eternal life and blessedness. And 
this is, indeed, a truly flourishing, prosperous, and fruit- 
ful kingdom, which never withers nor decays. 

But the sons of Belial are all of them as thorns des- 
tined to be thrust away^ which can?iot be gathered with 
hands. But the man that shall pluck them out must be 
fenced with iron and spears; so that they shall be utterly 
burned with fire in their own place. 

Here David is now prophesying concerning his own 
people the Jews, the greatest and most powerful part of 
whom would not receive this Lord and King, the Mes- 
siah. These he calk, Hebraically, *' the sons of Belial f' 
which signifies, wicked and unprofitable men, who are 
of no other use than to do evil and hurt : such as Paul 
caHs, " abominable and disobedient, and to every good 
work reprobate : " and, who in every government? and 
political institution are called vagabonds, and pests of 
the human race. 

Bat David is here speaking of the kingdom of Christ: 
in which, sudi is thcappearance of things, that those 

' who are the enea^es pf this Lord and the most noxious 
pests to \m government, are such, that the. world would 

judge than to be tihie best of characters, the mtost holy, 


K^ltfid the most ben^cial to the human mce. And more? 
j*bvery they, are found among that very company who ar^ 
* .(railed the people of God, and more especially arrogate 
r Jto themselves the name and title of the churchy and are 
I judged to be the most important part of the people of 
? .God, being exalted in power and authority, and in a 
■ ,self-persuasion of their great wisdom and virtues. And 
just such do the sect of the Jews and Mahometans, aa4 
the Papists among us, and also the different divisions 
;and sects of fanatics, seem to themselves to be; imagining 
tthat they only are the people of God, and beneficial to 
tflie world, and that they render unto God a most solemn 
ivprship, and unto the world a most signal service, when 
they persecute witli all their power, and take utterly put 
:0f the land of the living, the truly godly who einbrace 
.the name find doctrine of Christ. Therefore, they hear 
nothing with more indignation than their being called 
sons of Belial, vagabonds, and reprobate: for they 
would have themselves considered and proclaimed, per- 
sons the most useful and beneficial to the human race. 

And in this same way also does Jeremiah speak of 
the false prophets, chap, xxiii. 32, " with their profitimg 
they shall not profit my people at all: " that is, they are 
most destructive in that, in which they boast themselves 
of being most profitable. In a word, the truly godly 
who embrace Christ, are looked upon as the sons of 
Belial and servants of the devil, while these are con- 
sidered to be alone the sons of God ; whatever they do 
is judged to be right and just, and they have the appror 
.bation, the applause, and die interest of the whole 
world. And so it will go on, until God sitting to judge 
them, shall cast them out of the company of his elect, 
and consume and destroy them with the fire of his 
wrath and judgment: as was proved by a most. terrible 
example in those last dregs of the Jewish nation : on 
whom, as Paul saith, the wrath of God came unto the 

David adds, moreover, a striking similitude; com- 
paring them to die kinds of thorns which grow up 
together with the wheat and corn in the fields; (for he 


^till carries oil die cOttlip^tison of the ^addening and 
fruitful time of spring.) And this k the saine kind of 
we^ds or thorns thlit Christ itaeans when he calls them, 
M/ith reference to ^ this passage, " tares " (JSzanid) : ' ft* 
althoudi Ambrosias interprets this word as sighifyit^ a 
kind G? degenerate at baistard wheats yet^ I think MBie- 
tfaing wOi^e than that is here intended by Christ; thesis, 
that he means some kind of weed or thorli thaX is 
wpiarated from the wheat in the harvest nrhen ibe i^eanres 
are collected, and afterwards burnt, as Chribt sayi^; 
ti^herein, he e}tpresses himself exactly accotditig to th 
%ords oT David, who i^ayd, that these thorns iSiall le 
' plucked out ' from the rest, and afterwards ' ttt^y 
blimed with fire.' 

I understand ZtztiniOy therefore, to signify the saiite 
^ Koz does in this passage; hamdy, ihsk mote tt>d^, 
sharp, and prickly kind of thorns or UiistleS, which gtot 
Among the wheat itself, and which, m the time of faarVe^ 
are cut up separately with hooks, and afterwards torn up 
by the roots with rakes and harrows; for they tarinot 
be gathered by the naked hand, nor are they of any 
other use than to light the fires on the hearth ; but that 
zizania which they call bastard wheat, is of use as 
fodder for cattle. 

Such thorns and thistles as these are that generation 
of Jews who persecute the Messicdi who has been 
manifested by the most signal and divine testimonies; 
and that witn such fury and malite, that they could not 
be turned from their determination by any goodness of 
God, nor by any Wonderful woiis; nttt* brought to 
embrace the Son of God ph)mised and given unto them, 
until at laist the Roman armies desh'oyed thetn with 
iarms, fire, sword, and slaughter. Yet eveh now, they 
fceasfe not to bum with tage whereVer they assemble 
together in their conventicle, tiiough they ate no* 
miserable exiles under the flaming Wrath of Gckli 

Thus, then, you see was predicted by David, the 
litter destruction of that people, because they rgected 
this their Lord and King. And this is according to the 
words of Luke also, miext he s&ith, xili. d5, " Bdiirid 


your house is left unto you desolate." And Daniel ix., 
and Zechariah xiv., prophecy of the same destruction 
with equal clearness* 

Thus, then, have I sufficiently dwelt upon my expo- 
sition of THE LAST WORDS OF DaVID, aCCOldiug tO 

the sense that I put upon this passage of the scripture, 
and for which I have given my reasons at the beginning.-^— 
May God grant, that many may be raised up, who shall 
devote themselves to the doctrine which is from above, 
and to the Holy Scriptured; and who shall, from the 
very fountains themselves, restore unto us a more pure, 
ana the genuine and mature meaning of the prophetical 
writings, and, as it were by a happy recovery, wrest 
them from those present malignant possessors, the 
Rabbins and their corruptions; — and may they effect it 
under a greater and more abundant influence of the 
Spirit than I have done. And this they will do, if they 
do not devote themselves, as sworn disciples, to folio win) 
the Words of the Rabbins and their miserably forces 
grammatical cavillings and interpretations. And if we 
seek him thus, shall we be able to find and know, this 
our Lord and Saviour the Son of God, rightly, truly, 
and clearly. — ^To whom, with God the eternal Father 
and the Holy Ghost, be all glory and honour, world 
without end, Amen ! 


Errata in the " Last words 0/ David" 

n lAT 1- !•» • ^ r For all my salvation and all my desire 
Page 197, hne 17. tnsert, | ^ nothing. 

— - 264^ — 36, — /or mutilated r#a6? imitated. 








Martin "iLntbtt 



Although I have tau^t^and writtea informer wcarks, 
very many things cdnceming theCHHisTiAK Faith^ — 
what il is, and what are its power and efficacy ; aind 
although I have published to the world my Coi^ession 
of Faith, in which I have openly testified, what, in what, 
and how, I believe, and in what articles of Faith I orest; 
yet,r as the devil continoally goes on to seek oat and 
plan new and wonderful devices and s(^)bistical inven- 
ticms against me, I thought I would also collect together 
in one little bundle, as it were, these three Creeds (as 
they are generally called,) or Confessions of Faith, and 
setid them forth into the world : as they are those which 
the whole Church has ever hitherto taught^ read, and 
sung, with universal Consent. 

Wherefore, I would here again openly testify, that 
I exactly agree in faith with the true Christian Church, 
which has all along with universal consent taught and 
held these Three Creeds. And, on the other hand, that 
I with my whole soul dissent from, and abhor, that false 
hypocritical church, which is the most bitter enemy to 
the true Church of Christ, and which, neglecting and 
obscuring thei^e all beautiftd Creeds or Confessions, has 
Introduce a multifarious idolatry into the Church. In 
the same Way it was also, that the Israelites ^of oldy 
neglecting the true worship delivered and instituted from 
above, and leaving the temple of God, invented a 
multiplex idolatry in the vallies, on the mountains, and 
under the trees; and yet, still arrogated to themselves 
the title of the true people of God; and under that 
pretext, bitterly persecuted and cruelly murdered the 
holy prophets Vho openly convicted them of their errors, 
and, at last, the Lord Christ Jesus himself 


The First Creed is that of the Apostles; which 
excels all the others in beauty and conciseness: because, it 
embraces in the oiost brief and compendious manner all 
the articles of the Christian Faith, and can therefore be 
the more easily learnt and understood by children and 
the more simple ones. 

The Second Creed is that of Athanasius; 
.^hich is somewhat longer, and designed to confute the 
Arian heretics. It more fiilly asserts and illustrates the 
article concerning the divinity of Christ Jesus : whom it 
proves to be, the only and true Son of God, and our 
Lord : whom we worship and call upon with the same 
faith as that whereby we worship and call upcm the 
Father himself: as we confess in the first Creed, 'I 
believe in God the Father Almighty, and, in Jesus 
Christ his only Son our Lord,' &c. For if he were not 
the true God equally with the Father, it would not 
become us to ascribe unto him the same honour of faid^ 
worship, and prayer, as that which we ascribe unto the 
Father. This is the article, therefore, which Athanasius 
contends for, and enforces, in his Creed; and it is, as it 
Avere, a pillar of tl^ie first Creed, that of the Apostles ! 

The Third Creed is ascribed to Ambrose and 
Augustine ; and is said to be that which was sung after 
the Baptism of Augustine. But, whether that be so or 
not, I consider it of no consequence at all. It is a very 
beautiful Creed or Confession, (whoever was its author,) 
composed in the manner of a hymn : in which, there is 
^ot only a beautiful Confession of the Faith, but God is 
therein, wonderfully proclaimed and celebrated. 





Is that generally and well-known confession of flie 
ipostles : in which is laid down the foundation of the 
Christian Faith. It is thus, — 

1 BELIEVE in God the Father Almighty Maker 
f heaven and earth 

And, in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord; 
rho was conceived of the Holy Ghost ; horn of the 
^irgin Mary; suffered under Pontius Pilate; was 
rucijiedy deadj and buried; He descended into hell; 
he third day he rose again from the dea4; He 
scended into heaven and sitteth on the right hand of 
rod the Father Almighty ; from thence he shall come 
} Judge the quick and the dead. ' 

I BEhiEVE in the Holy Ghost ; the Holy Catholic 
hurch ; the communion of Saints ; the forgiveness 
f sins ; the resurrection of the body ; and the life 
)enlasting. Amen. 



Is called the Creed of Athanasius; because it was 
•awn up by him against the Arian heretics. It is 

lUS, — 

Whosoever will be saved; before all things it is 
icessary that he hold the Catholic Faith. 

VFhich Faith, except every one do keepw/wle and 
%defUedy without doubt he s/iall p^ish evj^lasting^p 




And tJie Catholic Faith is this: thai we worship 
one God in Trinity^ and Trinity in Unity. 

Neither confounding the persons^ nor dividing 
tlie substance. 

For there is one Person of the Father^ another of 
the Son^ and another of the Holy Ghost. 

But the Godhead of the Father ^ of the Son^ and 
of the Holy Ghosty is all one: the glory equals tk 
Majesty co-etemai. 

Suoh as the Father isy such is the Sony and SMtk 
is the Holy Ghost. 

The Father uncreate^ the Son uncreate, and the 
Holy Ghost uncreate. 

Tlie FaXher incomprehensihUj the Son incomprt- 
'hensihle^ and the Holy Ghost incomprehensible" 

The Father eternal^ the Son eternal, and tie 
Holy Ghost eternal. 

And yet they are not three eternals; but one eternal' I 

As also there are not three incomprehensibleSf nor | 
three uncreated; but one uncreated^ and one incom- 

So likewise the Father is Almighty, the Son 
Almighty^ and the Holy Ghost Almighty. 

And yet, they are not three Almighties, but one 

So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the 
Holy Ghost is God. 

And yet, they are not three Gods, but one God. 

So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son is Lord^ 
and the Holy Ghost Lord. 

And yett not three Lords, but one Lord. 

For like as we are compelled by the Christian 
verity, to acknowledge every person ^ by himself to he 
God and .Lord; 

So are we forbidden by the Catholic rdigion^ to 
say, there be three Gods, or three Lords. 

^The Father is made of none: neither cresuted, nor 

'jthe So^ is of the Fath^ done: not mmte^ nor 
4:reeitedi'lmi begotten. 



The Holy OhoMt is ojf the FatJi^ and of the Son: 
^thermadSy'norcreatedfTioriegoUeny but proceeding. 

So there is one Father^ not three Fath^s; one Son^ 
^4hreeSans ; one Hofy Ghosts not three Holy Ghosts. 

And in this Trinity none is itfore or after '&ther: 
me is greater 9 or less than another. 

Sut the whole three Persons are co-eternal toge- 
ether: and co-equal. 

So that in all things^ as is ciforesaid^ the Unity in 
\inity, and the Trinity in Umty^ is to be worshipped. 

He therefore that will be saved; must thus think 
fihe Trinity. 

Furthermore, it is necessary to everJattisi^ 
dvatiouy that he also believe rightly ^ the incarnation 
four Lard Jesus tJhrist. 

For the right Faith isy that we believe andcofifesSy 
iiat our Lord Jesus Christy the Son of God^ is God 
nd Man. 

God^ of the substance of the Father, begotten 
9 fore the worlds: and Man^ of the substance of his 
dfother, bom in the world. 

Perfect God, afid perfect man: of a reasonable 
nd avud human fiesh subsisting. 

Equal to the Fathei\ as touching his Godhead: 
nd inferior to the Father j as touching his Manhood. 

Who although lie be God and Man; yet he is not 
JTO, but one Christ. 

One; not by conversion of tlie Godhead into Jlesh^ 
ut by taking qft/ie Manhood into God. 

One altogether; not by confusion of substance, 
ut by unity of Person. 

For as the reasonable sord and flesh is one mun : 
7 God and Man is one Christ. 

Who steered for our salvation^ descended into 
d?, vMe again the third day from the dead; 

He ascended into heaven^ he sitteth on the right 
rtpirf of the Father God Almighty ^ from' whence he 
tidl come to judge the quick and the dead. 

At whose coming all men shall rise again with their 
odies: and shall give account for their otan works. 


And fhey that hope done good^ shaUffO into life 
everlasting; aud they that have done evit, into ever^ 
lasting Jire. 

T%is is the CatJiolic Faith: which except a matt 
believe faithfully f he cannot be saved. 



Which is generally ascribed to Ambrose and Au- 
gustine, is that well-known hj^mn — " Te Deum." — 

We praise thee^ O God: we acknowledge thee to 
be the Lord. 

All the earth doth worship thee; the .Father 

To thee all angels cry aloud^ the heavens^ and all 
the powers therein. 

To thee Cherubin andSeraphin^ continually do crj/f 

Holyif holy, holy, Lord God of Sabaoth; 

Heaven and earth are full of the Majesty of tbjf 


Vie glorious company of the Apostles, praise thee. 

The goodly fellowship df'the Prophets praise tliee. 

The noble army of Martyrs praise thee. 

The holy Church throughout all the world doth 
acknowledge thee. 

The Father of an infinite Majesty. 

Thine honourable, true, and only Son. 

Also the Holy Ghost the comforter. 

Thou art the King of Glory, O Christ. 

Thou art the everlasting Son of the Father. 

When thou tookest upon thee to deliver man^ thott 
didst not abhor the Virgins womb. 

When thou hadst overcome the sharpness of death, 
thou didst open the kingdom of heaven to all believers. 

Thou sit test at the right liand of God, in the 
glory of the Father. 

We belUv^ that thou sAali come to.paaurjudgf. 
■ We' th^efore pray thee help tky servants whQm 

'4>u hast redeemed with thy most precious bloo4* . ^r ^ 
Make them to be numbered with thy Saif%ls i^ 

lory everlasting. .,, 

O Lordj save thy people^ and bless thUvt heritagi^ 
Govern them and lift tliem tip for ever. . . y . ;, 
Day hy day we magnify thee. ' *i 

dnd we worship thy natne^ ever world without ^na. 
Vouchscfe^ O Lqrd^ to keep us this dqy u^twut 

n. ^ •'■ ! :■ 

O Lordy have mercy upon us, have mercy upon ^§. 
O JLordy let thy mercy lighten upon u^; as ow 

nist is in thee. ^ 

O JLordj in thee have I trusted^ let me nev^ he 


T HAVE remarked this in proofs of feet, -aod 
have observed it in all the histories of Christ 
onity, — that those who have believed and taught truly 
ad incorruptly the principal articles of faith concerning 
Bsus Christ, have afterwards stood in the true Christian 
Euth safely and firmly. And that, although they majxiaye 
ad their certain errors and sins, they have yet been sa^^^a 
I the end. For, he that believes this article, that Jfksui 
Jhrist is truly God and truly man, that he died for.ui; 
nd rose a^in, and holds fast that faith j wiU acqu^l^aci^ 
1, and heartily assent to, all the other article3.7:^.§9 
rue is that which Paul saith, that Christ i^ the grei^te^ 
nd principal good, the foundation or basis, and tnip ^^tf^ 
3tal ; under whom, and to whom, -are dni^vtt aai g^r 
liered all things. And as he saith also in aivHoer p)f^b] 
In him are hidden all the treasures of wisdom px^ 
Bowledge." And. Christ himself saith, "He tfaa^ 
bidelh ii| me, and I in him,Vthe ^ame bringeth; (9rtl) 
inch fruit" And again, " He that is not with ,ipe \i 
g^st me; and he th^t gatheret^ pot with.;me, sijr^} 
mth." '•■ Fov, saith Paul, it is so. 4ecwed th^fct in Chrif $ 
•esm should dwell all the fiflness^of the Godhead bg^ily, 
MT substantially. y : \,-^ ^ - • ^n\\\ 

VOL. II. 12 A 



He^oe, Ite diiat does hOt ''find iEUi^Uppretetid 'dbi in 
Chffift Jmis, will hever filtd andttppreb^nd XxoA a^ 
where out of Christ, even tbotigh he ^h<>rild jtt tttuft tq[y 
Itbovfe the heavens, or de^t^d to "the low^l hell,4ir, in. 
a word go out of the world after him. For, stuth Gdidi 
It is here, here, in the hum^h tiataipe of Clhrisit, bofn of 
the Virgin Mary, that I will^d^elL if thoti Milt believe 
this, thou shalt be blessed : 'but if "ttbt^ go wh^re thon 
Wih dnd do Whdt thou wilt : ^et, thy unbelief shaft nei- 
tettlt alter 'lior invalidatfe nay dfecrfefe. Atad toOst certainlv, 
Christy together with all his believers, will directly wlth- 
stend thfee, ds they have hitherto eVer wAstood all the 
pTtfwer of the dififVil and of the w^ld. 

And again, I have ever observed itiis^^thgtt ffl 
®fr6t^, heresies, idolatries, offences, ikhd abugi^, aftjS all 
ungodliness in the church, have principally ftri^h "fttM. 
the contempt, or neglect, or utter loss, of this article or • 
JWft orftie Christian -faith fcbiftjeftlitfg Jfesiis ChiSst. And ' 
If tltly cftie will cbnsidier th6 rhatter clofeely, he will find, 
fltet all errors dirfectly tttiHtate against this saving aWHcfe 
itftfcerriine Christ JiasUs. Even ^as Simeon prophesied ._ 
bf hJiii, * uiat he ^w^ set for the rise atid fall of many fn 
^i^l, 'afhd ats ^ "^ign that shduld be spoken against^ 
iftrnd Isaifeih, lottg ^bfefore, predicted, * That he should fee 
astotie of stilmlmiljg, and a rock of offence.' — For What- 
ever stuthbles (5r 'is offended, must stumble and be 
bifehded at this'Otie Stone : he it is, that is the stum- , 
bling-stone ih the trq.y of iall slich,^tttid that is "rejected " 
6f Uie ^* builders;'' as Chriiit himself shows in that ^ 
llSth I^dalth. And therefore, John also saith in hio ! 
ttst le, thrit thiere is no flioTe certain mark AMhereby td 
ttftil^^h lying ^d antichrist Spirits, than the denyii^ , 
df Christ- Fw aU'heretics hafvfe Aftttdpt^ ^to ^n '*e 
Victory ^and. so trttmiph over this (Jhriit ; but th^ ha^e 
gotten nothing but shame and cOn^usicfn foir their ps&BlR. 

9ct^tE tiT THiciSjE have attacked the Dimnity M 
Christ, 'tott that, ndt'in otab-^way only. For Sfttne,1iaW 
8tripj>ed Him of his Divinity altpgethfer, aild have^-' 
t^hd^d that he "was nothing knore than aitian. <G>tii^, |] 
have contended that he is the same per^n 'witii thie ^ 

PaiEher, tmd have ftsserted that It wasHhe FaKhef tiimfti^F 
tllM^ufiered for fhe human Tace. Othfers,.^gtf^, litt^ 
inventively made him a creator lisir more -e^eeeBftiit *ihtfi 
aH lilui ^tm^els, and wouki have him cafiefi i^ch a<rod 
flis tettde ml the dther creatures, and ^, not triliy Mi 
vMiirally the ^mal God together wi<h the ^Father. ' 

Acttte men have stretched their intientions up«n this 
point in wonderful ways, *and 4iave jeoparded aSH 'thfeft- 
powers and fectfltics, thftt»theyibight-hot'%^ cbrti^ 
to Relieve, thrit Christ is truly «nd nafetalty^otf ; 'Mia 
have tried ftieir utmost to find out anfd comprflwftid 'by 
their own reason the whole scripture, and mttt^jtepfe- 
cially this article, and to bend »them down ^ ffhttt own 
opinions. This artide tuotrever has, as a rodk, Hs/tbdfl 
immotable, while they dteve fallen 4ieffdlong 'to tte- 
stsraction. Though the ittevil continued to scatter ^ 
poison in the hearts of the ungodly and 'unb^evrng 
even runtd the times of Mahomet, who tore aw^ the 
Eftst, ^a great part of the world, from Christ. 

Others, agaiw,' have attacked hife -HUfmnity'; 
itt<3 th^ ^Iso have sported with thirfr-invetititAife ih4 
w^iHlerfol way. ^The delirium €tf ttte Manidfifecfs wafe 
this :-^-^they considered Chri^t^to 'be ^ tertam ihatttrw 
only which passed Arough' the Virgin Mmy,*l!ke a kind 
of spectre, whidi 'has neither a ireatl bifirdy 'nor'Ateal Sbitt. 
--^Others, denied that he had a^sotll, ibnd M^liMd^-fltAt 
his Divinity govertted his bbdy in the-ftleaflof^sntlL^^ 
Others, dreamed that he was not tnUy and iiatiirtJR 
the Son of the Virgin Mary.— And ttie Jfews tJiitik tJift 
they display a singular ^wisdom, m 'daring to *a;Ssert -ftttfk 
he was -begotten of Jbse^h. Attd fAome 'of 'thttn have 
spbken so pmfetttejly, irreverently, and filthily of 1^ 
eohceptibn, that What th^ hdive sAid is too bad to-bfe 

TRie Jews^have, asthey ima^e, brought^ftte matter 
«6 'a needle-point, vi^hett ^theyargue, thaf therfe cammt 
be^TWrW distinct Persons in ^tfee 'God-head. For ^ay 
khej^ they cannot he bfother8'Or4rfnsmen: and-Aerdfol*; 
diey ea*inot,^upon^«ny groimds dfwason, bet^onrftiert^ 
\6 be^?hwe eiqifti! Tfew^ rtt^te-Aha^w^tofluK 




fully wise are such ! who wish to Judge of the inscnlf 
table and eternal nature and essence of God by thefl) 
Wortid faculties of men, or rather of beasts. 

In a word, the rage of the devil has never ceased % 
any time, whensoever and wheresoever that article ojt 
of the creed concerning (/hrist, that he was truly Go4 
apd Man, and died for us and rose i^ain, has sounded 
forth in the church. For he is that blessed Seed of thf 
woman , which bruises the serpent's head, and in vfhon^ 
heel, in turn, the serpent dashes his poisoned teeiit 
And therefore, this enmity will remain unto the final 

And again, what have we new-formed and exalt^ 
saints under the Pope thought of Christ Jesus ? W||i 
have indeed confessed, verbally, that he was truly Qlid 
and Man, and that he was our Saviour and Delivem^ 
and died for us and rose again, &c. But we ha^^ 
actually, not only continually denied those things, im 
have fought against them with all our power and mali(;|| 
and have not ceased to do so unto this day. — Some^ 
have taught that he died only for original sin : and tt|iK 
we are to make atonement for our actual sins .ourselvMk 
Others again, have affirmed, that if any fall after bapr 
Usm, Christ no longer profits than any thing. Ab4 
hence jtiaye proceeded prayers to saints^ pilgrimages^ 
purgatory, masses, monasteries, and numberless other 
enormities of the same kind, whereby we have ep* 
4eavoured to appease Christ and gain him over, m 
though he were not our l^ediator and Intercessor befoiV 
Ood, but an inexorable and an^ judge. 

And, at this day, those very persons who moje 
pecially wish themselves to be accounted Christi 
who bofist of the name and title of the church,^ and 
destroy the godly with fire and sword, and sprinkle 
satiate themselves with the blood of the innocent,—] 
lliose very persons, 1 say, think that alone to be 
true and only right doctrine, when they teacfa^ that 
obtain grace and eternal salvation by their own worb 
imd that the only honour thf^ is du^e unto Christ ;' 

: Jke begun tixi^ work of j)ur ;3alTatibn; but iUst 

~ iv 


ure those mi^^ nerves, who ^nish and perfect our sal*! 
Diitipn thus b^an, by our own works. For they will) 
ULVe it, that Christ did die for us that he might begin our 
niiyation, that is, that by him we mi^t obtaili the re- 
■liasion of [original] sins, but that we can merit eternal- 
Ijfe and salvation by our own works. 

. Thus do£$ the devil wonderfully make sport of 
Christ, attacking him by his army thus divided into- 
Buree parts : the one of which plunders him of his Divi- 
nity, the second of his Humanity, and the third of his 

Each of these three tries to destroy Christ and take 

^lim out of the way altogether. For what will it profit 

|bee to confess that he is truly God, unless thou believe' 

|ihat he is truly Man also ? Because, thou hast not thus! 

a whole and true Christ, but a certain spectre of the- 

devil. And, what will it profit thee to confess that he is: 

|t|raly Man, unless thou beheve that he is truly God 

also? And finally, what will it profit thee to confess 

'ifaat he is truly God and Man, unless thou, believe that- 

Jie has done, and will do, all things for thee ? Even as 

jillso it profited nothing unto those who believed that he 

died for the human race, &c. and yet, either did not be-^ 

.Heve that be was God, as the Arians, or did not believe 

that he was Man, as the Manichees. 

I But all these articles must of necessity be believed j 

^ namely, that he is God, and Man ; and that he was 

.made such a Man for us as is described in the First 

^Creed : namely, that he was conceived of the Holy Ghost, 

bom of the Virgin Mary, suffered, was crucified, died, 

. was buried, and rose again, &c. For the Christian faith 

jnost be complete and perfect in all things. And al- 

ilDugh it may be weak and languishing, and attacked 

[|nd tried in various ways, yet it must ever be true and 

whole. A weak faith brings no one any hurt, but a 

&ke faith will bring eternal death and damnation ! 


i . R^''^ ^^^» some of those greatest pests and 

. most detestable among men, will rise up^ and^^ 

^dlik, the bitterest hatred against^ and mockery of, the 


hi^ tifariajirai chiiich\ w^l< cast, im ber tdfAc aii AmL 
ditaenwms-y sects^ eivors^. lierems^ and. offibnaas; vhicli lie 
eniat in; thsi Ghu8ch3;.^t^a9 tlioiighi tiie ddctdafti ^f AjBiik 
Geepei itoel£ shmlidi be coademdedi becsHisBi tfle^e tllin^|il 
W»\ afi^ and becaisBe ocmcorob and peace msn^ beoorae m 
Christian church. — Ttheyt are wonderftdl^ wise; om^ 
ttmljr^ who. want to teaidi! the IIxaLy Crfaost hkneelf. how 
Ii0 cru^ toi gowmsk and manage' his. ohus«h«. 

If the WB6 deidl) did not wisb^ or did) not .dare^M 
iiite thet heel oi Chnst, suob w coBoord aodr peace mi^ 
easily be estabhshed in, the church. But, as Ad' em 
ounms) on war againat Chiast, aod is: ever fecmeDtiDg 
bitldtfs im his ohnrch^ making sects, mid ei^ciang sariiri 
tions^ theyf certainly do> the ohurch agDeatLinjinyV^^ 
layfUpon her the blame of all these: tumults aold chstnte^ 
ticiis ; which,, shei is so far firdmi fermenting herselfv thals 
dbe> is compelled unwillinfgly to> endune tkeim — Thoe 
dasoiDt bat^ exdst tumults and distractions > in the efaurci^ 
whale shoe tehses to Usfteh tbi the enemy of. her deliv^eier 
Jenisfdhrist ? But what cam she do ? The serpent witt 
nol: oease ftoiA biting the heel, of Christ, nor ever peranki 
Ida eolemy toi he< in peace : and, on the cither hand, 
Christ cannot, bear thff bitings.of the serpent. 

Bernfeuni,^ expounding that part of the prayer of He* 
zekiah, " Behold for peace I had great bitterness^* 
Isninb x(SX(vfii 17v says, ^ The charcb is niever in a 
wBfKse. stafe^ tiiaA when it is in quietness and peace/ 
JaiditLib a memcorable saying and fidli of tmih. For 
malTteci aicei bt a bad staie whmChrisddns ammot at war 
^Hidk the serpent, the dex^Eilr for it is a sure proof that the 
dbvA iai douigi, im quietness and; peace, just what hn 
pleases^ But wfaism he ia in. 9 sage, and' hiurling all thtogB: 
UigLalid lowi iutoi con&isixDn, ii is a^ certain sign that h^ 
ii^.totlBriA^ upon hisi throne^ and at tdne point of beii% 
vanquisked^ and tlMuS Christ is: storming las paiace* 

HoMG, he ibaK beholds the Chuistian chuvcb m 
this view, or who wishes to find it a church that is alto- 
getheB free from idi^e cM6i$, ivonL heresies and aeicts, and. 
qnitB ]f)|3acejftil smd qaidiv-^''-*be will: neroc see it. Or, be 
will fbd,vins(Mdi oi' th^ Uof^i chninhi dt Christ, a. fidb^ 

obuitrb of I&& devL«-^h]J8t himself: ngrs^ ^^ it mvM 
needs be that offenoes come : but wo unto diat-mm hf 
mhom thq ofifence comedy" Ma^t xTiii. T. Ai^( Patik 
*8ditby ^ For there must be also betpesiea amoag jm^ 
that they which hx^ appvojred: may be made manifbst 
4iaaong you/' 1 Cor; xi. 1-9* 

And indeed, i£ the* church is to be* ab«>ys» qwi'e> 
liien we must take out o^ the way the Lord's^ Vtnym^ 
4teelf : in whidi we pmy^, ' Hi^Qwed be thy ikuom? 
.yitiy kingdom come : thy will be done : lead ue itdt 
y&ito 'temptation/ &c. But when there shall' be no mate 
m blasphemous doctrine> existing und^^ cover* of the 
Hune of God, then, we may cease* to pray* ^ HaBbW(feKt 
•be thy name : diy kingdom come^' 

But these hypocrites will, not hear'diesalhii]^ aw# 
are more and more offended at them ; and they tsy m^ 
ondeavour to make the state of the* church such as the^ 
tbemselves dream o^ an4 wi^h; namely pea^efiil aiM 
(|ujet. On the other hand, God pays no* regard i^tmb- 
ei^ to thqir being ofiended^ but lets^ thefl» go^ €m> t» ll^^ 
4)ffended as far as they please : while he, neverAelt^m, 
atill goes on as* he began^ and establishes and rutea hisi 
church according- to ms own wMl : uaCUi aD ter^th theses 
li^pocrites retain n^hev the sabstanee, nop even ^a» 
{xnn of the church : just as it happ^^ed to» die Jewtf 
with their temple at* Jerusalem. 

Such, therefore, must of necessity pray the- Lok^ 

Prayer in this manner, *Thy name is hallowed: thy 

wiii is done,' &c. That is, ^ We ave now» ^afnts and 

^rfect: we have, no fiulher need of the remission of 

ninSj nor of any help against temptation.' Fod they witt^ 

have their church to be free from all offences, sects, and 

Jtumults, and they will have no serpent in their paradiW) 

BIfggif aoy d^vU among^ their sons, of G.od^ Jojix i ftr^But 

let us away with such and leave them alone to, ^^ ¥(aJUk 

u^^ theii^ 0W9 hesurts Uist," as it is; j^^o^ hp^xi. 

12, and let us return to our Creeds, m^- dt^tft* QWV** 

flj^^Kei^ ta deiQl^ring. t;t|?ir contents. 

. , W^. tjhw^iftixg^ hQw^v^ 9jre i^ot, smch BMfJipi^^) VtA 
stupfd creatures as the Jews consider us to be, ^t^hOilal^ 


iMij to be ' noChi^ * inoce than ^ teC . of silly Hdudos or. 
geesoii as: neither understanding nor considcnriog howabvj 
mxi. a thing it is to believe that God b man, and tte 
there ace in the unity o£ the Godhead Three distim* 
Persons. But. we, by the favour of God, well knmr^ |1 
that this doctrine is placed &r above the reach of aik 
biunan capacity, nor have we any need of the sublime 
ijeasonings of the Jews to prove that unto us, -r— Wc 
kilQwiogly and willingly believe, 9nd confess, and ab« 
experience, that unless the Holy Ghost put a new ligii. 
iuto. our. hearts above that of reason, this article cabiioi 
h^ comprehended, believed, or held fast. And ther&« 
^re there remains, of necessity, in the minds of tfasi 
Jews, a proud over-curious reason that .lifts itself ofr 
IMgb and laughs at this article, and thus sets itself up ai 
*: judge of the divine nature, which, nevertheless, iU 
Q^vier saw, nor ever can see, nor does it understand tasf 
^mg of it, so as to form a judgment, to enter into a medi-» 
tatipu, or to ,speak concerning it. — For God dwells in a 
^i^t. where no one can approach unto him, and front' 
^heiice he must of necessity come unto us ; yet stilly 
hidden and concealed, as it were, in a secret ; as John- 
i. 1.8, " No man hath seen God at any time : the only 
l[)§gotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, be 
hoBi declared him." And God said by Moses long 
before, " There shall no man see me and live," Exod. 
x;xxiii. 20. 

T ET us then bring forward and collect ^ome 
of the passages of the scripture, whereby to 
doniirm this Article, and especially that part of it where 
Athanasius distinguishes the Three Persons in the God- 
head thus-r- 

The Fattier is made of 'none: nieither created^ nor 

• ' 7%c Son is of the FatJier alone : not mcuie, nor 
ci'mted; but begotten. 

The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son.* 
neither -meidey nor created^ nor begotten^ but pro- 


^i« ^ The scri^Caw describes the Son as jk^tten of tiie 
fttther, ^^ llie Lord hath said unto me, Thou art X3^y^ 
Iton^ this day have I* begotten theej" Ps. i. 7. — And 
SSirist thus describes the Holy Ghost, John x^v. 26, 
"* M^hen the Comforter is come whom I will send unto 
!Mt from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which 
libceedeth from the Father: he' shall testify of me." 
^' ^ This scripture testifies, that the Holy Ghost pro-> 
leeds from the Father, and is sent by the Son. And, 
le that proceeds is said also to be sent. — And as the 
imi is begotten of the Father, and yet comes not forth 
Nrf of the Godhead, but remains in the one and same 
iprinity with the Father, and is, with him. One God ; 
M also, does the Holy Ghost proceed as sent by the 
Bather and the Son ; nor does he come forth out of the 
Godhead, but remains in the One and same divinity 
tiith the Father and the Son, and is, with them both, 
^ne God. 

'> Therefore this nativity is far different from the nati- 
fi^ of man, and this proceeding is far different from the 
proceeding of man. For man born of man not only be- 
comes a person individually separate from the Person of 
the Father, but another and individually separate sub- 
stance ; nor does either the Son remain in the substance 
flf the Father, or the Father in the substance of his 
Son. But this Son is begotten into another Person, 
and yet remains in the Essence of the Father, and the 
Father also in the Essence of the Son. Hence, they are 
distinct Persons ; yet so, that they both remain in the 
one same indistinguishable inseparable Essence. 

In the same manner also when mBn proceeds and is 
iint from man, not conly are the persons separated, but 
the substance is separated also, and the one is divided 
^asunder from the other. But,^ this Holy Ghost pro- 
ceeds from the Father and the Son, (even as he is alsa 
sent from the Father and the Son,) and is separated 
indeed unto another Person; yet, he remains in the 
£g6eiioe of the Father and of die Son, and the Father 
«li4 theSon remain in the Essence of the Holy Ghost ; 

that is, aU) dxe» Thiers. Peimmas Mmto JiDll^ifeQnii nune U 

Godhead. - / xlT * /. . |» 

Aiffjx HEKCE dtyinea hw% tenwd thni n^tilPtjr^f f 
UbarSoQ an.tnr^^iMiSii^*natiwty':£ iKAcmo^ig iQf^jmb(i 
die Godhead^ but only pixKoedii^ ftonx^ ^ Catikii 
and still remaining in. tibei Godheadk-^-^nd; ao ^hoi tkty 
have termed the pnoceeding of the Uol}! Qfamt^. an»iih 
abiding proceeding: not proceeding forthi 0f/t- ottiie 
Godhead, but only from the Father an4 I^Son^ wi 
still remaining in the GodheaxL 

But how this is, apprehended by faith: : fffL 
it is inscrutable ev^i unto the ang^ themselvQS^ iv^ 
are ever \)eholding it with unceasing joy. A|^ 4 
those who attempt to fathom and eomprebend thii 
mystery by human reason, only precipitate tbemaebses 
into perdition. 

It is enough for us to be able to jipfM^teod^ fHf 
faith, a distinction of Persons: that is, — ^tbat ^ 
Father is begotten of none, — that the- Sba m kegQttra 
of tte Fathm:, — audi that the Holys Gbo^t. proceedt 
from the Father and the Soa. For by thifr i^oceedi^ 
is meant, a sending as an ambassador is; se^ eyexi^ 
by .the nativity of the Son, is meant, a being^bon^ a9^a 
son is bom of a father.. 

This same distinetioa do the Son and ^e JSkIfy 
Ghost retain also in their names. i wherein^, tbeyi rexsfi 
themselves from out of the Godhead untoi usi croatoresk 
For the Som is bom^ corposoliy of his moth^^ asdb is 
Auis said to be a Son born.' yet, he: is thetsaipe Son «l 
God in both natifvities; also^ tba Holy Cehort 
proceeds:, forth corporally ia the sbapeb q£ at dove, in 
fiery tongues,^ and in. a mighty lushmg. wind^. and k 
thus said to. proceed, or to he: sent:* yet,, he i^i Ae same 
Holy Ghost in each pcoceedingy amk nob tbft Fi^ci^ 
nor the Son^ 

Wherefore^ it was sweetly becofliiog, tbat. ih^t m^ 
diate« Person, who. waa begoiten: hefoiB. fioom aU etCBiJ^ 
and who was a Son, and not ihei Faidiec^ nor the £»5 
Ghost, should alBe be hem corpoca%jk ilmdi so alio^ il 



^$|ve00lh|t bacoorib^^ thM thef Mb^ GAnoat, who f^ 
otadecb heMmn fion all eternity, asid i«4lir was' ndt W 
gotten^ HOP Ibe Sen, should' proved coiporally. 

And thus, the Fatlkev vemaifts ispVigmmify that ail 1^ 
>Xbree, Per8oti9 ow^* dwell in tile divitie Majisstf. Yet 
M^thot the- Sonvbas^ fails Djiviiiity>fi;om tke EMher by hTs 
eternal in^abidii^ nativity: And the Holy Ghosts Yteed 
IvbK Bivinity irom^ the Fattier and the S^h, by hi^ 
.«l0QDai and^ in^abidingj proceeding. 

Andi thusi alsO) the Sotn ^ his corpoml nativiti;^ re^ 
mal^ his eternal nal&fvity. And' the Holy Ghost, by fa^ 
corporal pnoceedti^ reveab his eternal^ proceeding. And 
•achy has a certain exte;mal similitude or image of bis 
ntenial; fissejice. 

) ^ Thus is the, distJhcfiion o^ the^ Plevsons delivered tb 
us in the Gospell But iflany one will exert his thoughts 
jipon any t^t»g beyond ihis, he may do ft for what I 
care ; but sure I am, Hhat he will find out) nothing certain 
hayond this. Therefore let us hold tftiese things as simply 
aei possible, and be in^ the meantime content} with them, 
until w-e arrive in. that plisKje* where we shall no longer 
hare tk^ hear and' believe these tlimge^ but shall alt"- 
alearly behead and know diem^ 

A ND the Epistle to the Hebrews gives us at 

beautiful and striking similitude of the dis* 

tinction of the Persons of the Father and the $on, 

ivium it says, chap. i. S, *' Who being the brightness of 

km glory and the expresi^ image of his person (or sub- 

^anoe.") And though it does not fully satisfy the 

godly, iir tibat it dk^yes not: shew at the same time, that 

©we Person of the Gbdhciad is. tbe^ Pferson of the Son, 

ami a Person begotten ;. yet, in other respects, it most 

beautifoliy shews, that this Seconcf Person is of the 

One ssime divine Essence^ and not a^ distinct and separ 

mte creatum. 

• ' Arid this silniiitudis of the- distinction' isj without 
^nt^t) borrowed from the sun and his brfghtness : for 
iwaarly allt the saintly have kt i^ same way compared the 
Father to the sun^ the Son to his brightness, and the 

- U6 

Holy Ghost to hid heat: that by tibbijoifcertiBl^ pUn} 
and visible similitude or iraage^ ixnelcpen^iced. and 
simple Christiajis may be the more easily iiiBtraetiedand 
^roqght to comprehend this Article. 

The text, then, in the Epistle to the Hebrews,. sa]f^ 
" Who being the brightness of his glory .** — Now ^ 
scripture saith, that the crieated light rose from no when 
else but out of darkness, that is, from out of nothing. 
Thus it is written, Gen. i, that when darkness was upon 
the face of the deep, the light was mad^ out of darkness, 
(or out of nothing,) by the Word of God, And Paul, 
2 Cor. iv. 6, saith, ^^ God who commanded the light to 
shine out of darkness," &c. Light, therefcMre, is a certain^ 
brightness or shining out of darkness^ (if I may so 
speak,) for the darkness sent forth the light by the Woid 
of God : but the darkness itself was nothing. 

But the text saith that Christ is a '^ brightness," not 
shining out of darkness, nor which darkness sent fortlv 
nor shining out of nothing, but shining and beamuig 
forth out. of the very splendour of the Father; that is^ 
put of the internal and natural Essence of his Divinily. 
—And thus, the origin of this brightness or light is the 
divine essence itself. Therefore, it is impossible that it 
should be a creature. For the scripture does not speak 
of any creature as being the brightness of the divine 
Essence or splendour. 

JVloreover, the word " brightness " proves that he 
is truly God, begotten of the Father. For by brightness 
here is meant the divine Majesty and glory itselL And 
to be the " brightness " or light of this divine Msijesty 
and glory, is to be of equal power and glory wjith d^ 
divine, Mggesty and glory itself. For if Christ were not 
the brightness of that divine Majesty and glory whdHy, 
but in part only, he could not be " the brightness of lus 
glory." Because, the glory and Majesty of God are one 
undivided Majesty, which Christ must have wholly, or 
not at 9II. If, therefore, he is the brightness of the di- 
vine glory or divine Essence, he must of necessity be 
the brightness of the whole of that divine Essqn^re, and 


95 gr^t as the splendour or divinity (^ the Father itself 
jSy and altogether of an equal power with him* 

And again, if he arose neither out of nothing, nor 
out of darkness, (as all the other creatures did,) but out 
of the natural and eternal essence of the Father himself, 
it of necessity follows, that he is truly and naturally the 
One God with the Father, and not separately existing 
9At of the Godhead or the divine Essence, as all other 
isreatures are. 

- Hence it is by these words most effectually taught, 
that Christ is the One true God together with the 
'Father, and of an equal power, without difference. 
This particular only excepted, — that he is of the Father, 
and not the Father of him : even as, the brightness of 
fthe divine glory is of the divine glory and essence, and 
iDOt the divine glory and Essence of the brightness. 

And so also, when the text saith, " And the ex* 

^ jnress image of his substance, (or person)," it, most 

j^fl^tually proves, that Christ must be truly and natu- 

fidly God : and yet, that there are not many gods, but 

only One God. 

We in our day commonly call that an image, which 
js a representation in all things like unto the thing re* 
presented. But, all images are deficient in thi^ one 
thing, — they neither have, nor are of, the same essej&ce 
or nature of the thing which they represent, but are of a 
dififerent nature or substance. Thus, when any painter, or 
writer,, or statuary, represents on his canvass, or on his 
wood or stone, in the most expressively exact * manner, 
•any prince or king, so that the eyes of all who behold it 
are instantly taken with it, and they are constrained to 
exclaim, Behold, this is such or such a king, prince, or 
•man : — such may indeed be an image or likeness, but it 
is not the nature or essence of that king,. or prince, or 
man, but is simply an image or representation only, 
l&aviQg itself a different substance. For its own nature 
or substance is stone, or wood, or canvass, or paper ; 
•^nd he that beholds or handles it, does not behold or 
handle the substance or nature of the person repre- 
And there 19 no pne but will say, ' This is a 

wood, orttDne, or cairvass, or papcir 4ic|>ited^ittatiM; W 
not a living, natund, and humnn 'Subdtarice/ 'Betitratf^ 
its nature is wood, stone, <!anvai^, &c:aad Imas 'not in 
hself, as I have said, the natane 'Off -the king, or prince, tt 
man. And therefore it oannot be said to 'be, niorisl^' 
the image of the substance df the man. ^o "rtiat it 
would be more properly called, and would He, fkk 
image of the man, or rather, an image made in tte 
likeness of the man : but it cannot be the image oMiis'srtl^ 
stance or nature : nor is it of his "nature, nor prd^ieding 
from his nature. Therefore, it remains, and 'is ccwi* 
pelled to remain, an image made in the likeness <K 
man, but of a different substance or nature. 

But here Christ is so the "express image'' or like^ 
ness of the Father, that he is the image of Ms divink 
Essence ; and not made of a different nature, but fe ^ 
very divine -image, which comes of Ood and has the divi- 
nity in itself. And though man ahd the angels we!?e majSt 
or created in the image of God, yet, they were not im€^ 
of his substance or nature, nor were they made, nor did 
they come, of that divine nature. But Christ was of Aat 
« divine nattfre of God from stll eternity, the express 
image «df his substance ; not artificial, or made, Gk 
created, but having in himself all the divine natiTre, afld 
being of -himself all the divine nature, n6t made w 
created by another; even as, the divine-nature iteelf,;is 
not made or created by another. Tor if he -had ^nc^ All 
the divinity of tte Father in imnself, awd were ndt 
jierfect God, -he neither w^ruld be, -tier coUld 'be called, 
" the express image of his substance (or person):'*' foi- 
the Father would still have a Something in which the 
"Son weuldiHiot be like or equal wnto-him. ^flmdethus, he 
would be altogether unlike ihe >Fktfier, anfl »any thii^ 
but ''^•the -express image (tf his 'substance.** For the 
4ivine Essence is, above 'dll things, »a 'One unfpartoblfe 
invisible Essence : so that, wheife it is it m«st dfiftec**- 
sity be wholly, or it cannot be at all. 

These two terms therefore declare, thatlflhte^l^atJwr 
and the Son are Two distinct Persons, but Onfe insipfc*^ 
¥able Essence. For the term " 'imag€i ^' ^hews thtftlhft 

to H:9iol tbei 'Father, but die "^ image " of the farther, 
fd itfnother Perstm. Ami the tenn ^^imbstanee" 
lews, that, with respect to his natore, he fe not distinct 
am the Father, but of the One same Divinity and 
lisenee withihe Father. 

' And i^in, he is so the itnage of his substance, as 
lat, he was' not made, not began to be so at any timib, 
it ^existed so from all eternity ; even as, the divine 
Itsence itself was nbt made, nor had any beginning, 
lit existed from all eternity. — For if Christ, with 
sspect to his divine Essence, had begun to ^xist at 
iy'time, he would not he the "image*' of the divine 
tWtetancfe.'' Becaiise, in that caise, me divine £;ssenc^ 
mild have existed long before him, a^ being from all 
lismity, and would be a somefthing far different, to 
Aich he would be altogether :unlike, and of which he 
wmld by no m^ems be the image. For the divine 
Essence is eternal; but that, whose existence has a bfe* 
Jnitiiig, is temporal. And, that which is temporal, anc! 
bat'which is eternal, are infinitely (iifferent from each 
idi^r: and the one can by no means be the image '4>f 
He jother: so hr is it 'from possibility, that the one 
ktmld ibe the image of the substance of the other. 

Therefore, the conclusion or sum, and the true 
(leaning of this passage in the Epistle to die Hebrews 
J fliis,-^that Christ Jesus is the true, natural, and eter- 
al*Ood ; not made, nor icreated, ^ut existing from all 
!emity another and distinct Person frt^n tl^ Father; 
>t another God from ^the Filther, but e^al msto him, 
idijof the One same eternal divme Essence.-*— This is 
te ^ith : this is what 'faitib ^teaches : and on this it js 
[atxfatdi stands: Iimean tliat Christian faith whose 
ittifdation is the Holy Scripture ! 

But, he ^&at will iiot believe the scripture, but will 
tt0iiir'his'*4)fW!^ reason, let him follow it on to what ex- 
titi and as long as, he pleases. But, if he will^^isten 
1 4B8lmoinition, he will leave that ass together with' the 
HVflUte in ^ttie bottom of the valley, as Abraham did, 
M; it ^^ascend not np into tiiis mountain; ^for, a!s 
iMed^ttith, whatsoev^ shall touch this mountain ahail 

be iHiftly piit to death ;-^thou knusf ' dtW 
perish! This Adam experienced first; aiid the same- 
all experience after him. 

nPHIS Article the prophets under the ( 
Testament believed also, arid clearly ubd 
stood : and though, on account of the obstinacy, m 
lief, €tnd malice of that people, they did not deliver it 
clearly and explicitly as it is revealed in the New Tai 
ment, yet they set it forth in. a manner ' suffidei 

For, first of all, Moses thus begins his book, " 
the beginning God created the heaven and the eail! 
Gen. i. 1. And it is evident, that the Word eloihSs 
the plural number, and that, not one, but many are t 
nified. So that, grammatically, it should be rendca 
thus, " In the beginning Gods created the heaveni a 
the earth.' — And yet, again, as he does not say, * 
the beginning Gods created (treaverunt)^ ais if 'til 
T^rere many, but, " God created (crtavity ias if it w< 
one only, in the singular number, he clearly shews, ^ 
there is but One God the Creator.^ — Yet again, as 
says Gods (eloim), he shews that there are in thatC 
divine Essence a plural number : and thereby, he gua 
our faith, that we should not believe in any other G 
out of the Godhead, but, in this One eternal C 
only ; and yet, that we should learn, that there ftn 
this One Godhead more than onie Person. 

Hence, throughout the whole scripture, God 
called Eloim; that is, Gods. And hence, this sa 
term is applied to those creatures also who act as go 
as \ii Exod. xxv. and Psalm Ixxxii. 1, "God stand 
in the congregation of the mighty, he judgeth abK 
the gods." And again, " I said ye are gods."/ . . 

And again, Gen. i. 26, " And God said let ti^M 
man in our image, after our likeness." Here C 
terms himself " us." He does not say> * I willidni 
as if he were one. Though he speaks in the latter i 
in general every where else, as he does a little afi 
w»rds, chap. ii. 18, wh^e he says, " I "will make n 

§m bdp meet for faiai;** he does not here sayi *yWe 
prill make him a help meet for him." And so anip 
flifter this, ver. xx. ^^ The Lord Godcaiised a de^p sleep 
io faU upon Adam/' &c« 

gi. Tims the Scripture continually speaks of God ss 
SOfne, who creates, inakes, and does all things akme; 
(pud yet, it speaks also of him as more than one, who 
l^ys when speaking of himself '^we'' and ^^our," &c. 
||And this is, that it might shew to .those who beljeve, 
bat there is . but One God ; and yet, that in that One 
r Godhead there are more Persons than one. 
y And then, chap, iii, 22, after the fall of Adam, it is 
^liid, ^^ And the Lord God said (diait, as if he wiere one 
rOttly,) Bdidd the man is become as one of t^," (as if he 
^ffere moie than one.) 

^V And as to what the Jews maliciously object here, — 
;^dmt God was talking with die angels wh^ he: said, 
f* Let us make man in our image," that is absurd, and 
not at all to the purpose : for the scripture no where 
^countenances the idea that the angels created us and are 
:9ar gods, or that we were made in their image, or that 
.we should worship and adore them as gods, or be 
.caUed their creatures. There is One God only, and 
:Giie Creator. 

And still more absurd is their labouring and sweating 
. at this ^oss, — that God spoke to the earth when he said, 
! '^ Let us make man," because we were made of the 
dust of the earth* Thou errest, O blind Jew ! The earth 
4id not make us, as thy gloss would expressly declare ; 
i nor are we the image of the earth ; for the earth itself 
'. 18 subjected to the service of man* 

Bat, the most absurd of all, is, that when they find 
' tbemsdyes manifestly convicted by such texts as these, 
diey pretend' that God is speaking of himself, and ad- 
, 4rdB8es himself in the plurd number by way of honour ; 
I in the same manner as kings and princes at. this day 
ittptak of themselves in the plural number. But all this 
ifi a new invention of human reason, and ne^er used by 
;«Miy king in the holy scriptures^ nor even l^ any heathen 
. kaogs. And even Goa also speaks of hiiQself in :th# 

VOL* II. * S B 


singular numbdt* in the icripturfes^ and iibt ^alwa^ ia 

thid plural. ' ' . ; .ii, 

'' Aiid thou^ such idle dreams arid seape^gaps^ jati^ 

vail ever so much among men ; — must I thorefote te 

fbtced also to believe the Jews, when th^ rashly affirm 

that the scriptures should be so understood ? and espe^ 

cially^when I have those clear scriptures befor^ xdy-oma 

^j^ in such plain and expressive! Words, that'tiiey bold 

Af ' €ibnsciehc6 so captive, that I ' cbuld Aot believie aii 

flfigel fk>m hea'^feni that^ should ' a^firiii any thing ttotlib 

contrary ! — What ! shall- I l6ttve the plain text of 

^ripttrre,'a.hd rest £md build- itiy'heasrt and 'cbnsdence 

VitoonthosiB vain and - futile interprkations of the Jews? 

Wnen Mofies hiittaelf says of thettt, that they wefe a4* 

ways, from the beginning, a disobedient, stiff-Becked, 

Bnd i^idous p^le, and doulii tievieir' bear^ ta hmr. any 

t^ p¥^phet th4t taught^ tlietnitlil^Y^eftr/ these sfioM 

^bUld teach me t^ twist euid ihtet^ret the^ dcriptaire'^iDid 

^hefprOphetstUJcdrding to their 'd(if^^ - .. -^ : : 

- • But AiSAiN, MbseS' w^ftftS^C^istf. xviil. l, ^^JiiiAAt 

^Ijord apjpeeu:^ unto Abrahawin the plauis of Mamre": 

and he sat in the tent-door; in the heat of the day. 

And'he lift up his eyes and looked, and lo,\three:inen 

stood by him : and when he saw them, he ran to in^et 

;th^in^ from the tent-door, and bowed himself towajrd the 

•ginotind. And -Said, My Loird, if how I have* found 

^Vciilr in t% sight, pass not away, I pray Uheoy ftoai 

'ifliiy servant. '>Let a little waiter, I pray yon, bb fetched, 

' ai» Wash' yom feet,* arid rest yodtselves under the tied," 

''i&:€f.»--^Here, God talks with Abraham,' and Abraham 

with God in both wayi^' both ks one and asifiiQtef for 

' h^ fffyk both '* thee" arid " you/' And yet :ihe* tekt ex- 

' ;ly says, that thi& appearing Or vision was *^ tfee Lonf* 

^)f, wboi dppeated to AbtahacA lafi he ^^^at inodle 

: l^nt^or inthe heat of the dfty^ Fof those; two ^«^cb, 

yifv'li6J^kh:kp. xki -I, came.^to -StKlofti, are difi^rent'iroiD 

iiki^' Three it^ho^ talk ^'ftiid ^ekt < with ^Abrahluai' ais Qae 

' Gt)d ; ad ii^iiianifedt fitmi^tbig^ whcde of j ibat chfipter.Hi- 

^'H^r^^^ifi, the delirious f^bik;a,f|d ibavillihgs^ of;^ 

i'Je^s avail tiothing. Fpr the text i^ plainly nlbarjvfiiich 

t ■ 

ys^-that it was the ** Lord'? who = ajpoeared^uttto^lfflB" 
jTImtcc Persons; and that he-T^'ordhiDbetf t!^-^the§e 
ire&as Obei Therefore^ Abraham fiafljlieife^ a clifettf^ 
lowledge of the Holy Trinity ; as Christ also declares 
iha^iii. 56", ' Abraham saw my day.' /^ 

. :: Agaid; Moses writes thus, Deut vi. 4, " Hear, O 
raei;:the Loid our 6r<wfe ijI One Lord/*--ThiS alsois^ 
1 all-clear text ; shewing, that that One ♦ L6td ^Whldl' 
ip[ie,^as the Jews thernsdke^ well know is never '^tffr 
It iiujtoithe One trtie God;) is *' o«r'6rd&,'- or Etoiitf ; 
idrthat there IS here (^ly Obe God in* Essetitei'lnit 
3t Three Persons. ^ - 

! ; And Jo^tta ^also said. uhtO' the pe6f)le, chap; xxivi 
?, *' Ye G^miotMservie- the Lord, ifer lie is %bhf GodsP 
ferfe> we not only have ^^^ 6rod:j;"(EiiOiM,) but; '^'holy " 
io :< signi^ngy that tfaiere are more thdti Oii^ i^tod y^ 
^JU^ydiatthe li^rd id Oiie'God. - ' 

. And farther, Diavid in his prayer to God, 2 Sditii 
uSl3,.she^«^ft: the same thing, ^^ And what one'natibii 
»tthe earth- is like thy people, ^veii like Isr&el, -wl^d^ 
qd went to redeem^ for a jyeople to %itri3elf;^&c.-^ 
iimm again .'he dafis God ^'Oods,"";'^Xi^'^'^i'''^^^^ 
9frunt,} as if he w^re speaking 6f mofe thai^-cfeie. 
odyet, he inlmediately 'adds,*f^ feAet^^cyt a ped^e 
ito ^* himself ^'' as if it were one only 'that went. And 
rain,, which thou-redeemedst to " thee '^ frorf'-E^jlfrt' 
': Once. more it is written, Gen. xix. €4,' ** Ttieh the 
ord rained upon Sodom and upon Goihbrrah briiS- 
one. andrfire 'from' the Lord oiit of heaviSn.'"- Ahd 
^oharidh iri. X ** Arid the 'Lord said unto Satan; the 
ord riebul^e- thee, Satali.^— Here the Lord is'TOiriing 
om tbie) Ldrdy ' and the' L6rd is speakiiig of tMlJird; 
idi.thus h^'is li^pres^ted as One only, and jfet, 4* 
[brelJmn One* 

^JriAiid -hence it' is] 'thai David- eflso. s4lth- in the 
iMdnis,if The Lor* said lihto- itiy Lbrdj 'Sft ^bii'dtPiiiy 
^ht teoa.'V.Alnd^gttin, Ps. ii?6, <^ Th6« art> J^ Sji^^ 
iiav)day:hawf: I -'^gotten theei" he doe^ not^^i^, 
r/FHiu Hmf haver I cre^tM thee/^ • 
o iAoAiAsitWi 9L^ iltiittbQrlefdi^''OthiM*pass^^^ 

2 B 2 


364 ' 

ttftture b Isaiah and the i^^ of the prophets ; wbm 
the kinisdom of Christ is described as b^ins equal to I' 

tfien, if the Jews are so virulent as to p 
attempt to pervert and elude these and y 
like passages of the scripture, and are not at all moved 
by them, their virulence amounts to nothing : for thdr 
contradictions are nothing more than a self-wrou^t 
persuasion in their own minds without any scripture 
testimonies, and only invented for the purpose of 
eluding those testimonies. But however, here stands 
the all-plain text and the all-plain scripture, which w31 
not so easily suffer themselves to be perverted. 

And, if they contend from the testimonies of the 
scripture that there is but One God, we contend, also 
with equal firmness that the testimonies of the scriptme 
are no less clear that there are in this God more than 
one. And our assertions are as much incontrovertible as 
theirs; seeing that no one letter in the scriptures is written 
with temerity or in vain. But as to their wanting io 
take upon themselves the interpretation of the scriptam 
which are on our side, — ^that we will by no means per- 
mit, nor is it lawful for them so to do. It is the scrip- 
ture of God, and the Word of God, which no -^mair 
whatever must or can interpret just as he pleases. 
. : When they object that the scriptures teach^ that 
there is but One God, this we also simply confess, and 
:da not attempt to interpret any thing to the contrary. 
But when we affirm that the same scriptures teach, (as 
we have proved fh>m the passages aheady adduced,) 
that there are more than One Person in the Godhead, 
that they will not simply confess, but want to set about |i 
interpreting the scriptures for themselves. But what 
*^ evU spirit" commanded them to tack on their. inter- 
pretations, when this part ii| also the scripture^ of God, 
as well as that part whece it is tau^t that there is bat 
One God. They want to take the interpretation of 0tf 
part of the scripture into their owji hands, and will not 
; allow us to interpret their part, of the scriptures in oar 


way. But, rather, let no interpretations be Utcl^ed pn ^; 
eitfaer part of the scriptures: but let all, as we dp^ 
simply confess, that there is but One God; and yet^ 
that there are in that One Godhead more than one 
Person; for both these things the scriptures teach. — 
Bat let what has been thus said upon the subject 
suffice for the present occasion. 


We will now add to the end of these Three Creeds 
die Nicene Creed : which also, like that of Athanasius, 
is composed against, Arius, and is sung in the service of 
each Sabbath-day. It is thus, 

I BELIEVE in God the Father Almighty; Maker 
i^ heaven and earthy and of all things visible and in- 
' nsible. 

And in One Lord Jesus Christy the only begotten 
Son of God: begotten of his Father before all 
ioorlds : God of God : light of light : very God of 
Pery God: begotten not made: being of one substance 
with the Father: by whom all things were made; 
who for us men and for our salvation came down 
from heaven : and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost 
of the Virffin Mary : and wa>s made Man : and was 
erucijied also under ^ Pontius Pilate: Me suffered 
4Mnd was buried: and the third day he rose again ac^ 
cording to the Scriptures : and ascended into heaven^ 
and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father : 
and he shall come again with glory to judge both the 
quick and the dead: whose kingdom shall have no 

And I believe in the Holy Ghost ^ the Lord and 
giver of life : who proceedeth from the Father and 
the Son : who with the Father and the Son together 
It worshipped and glorified: who spake By the 

And I bdieve in one catholic and apostolic 
church : I acknowledge one baptism for the remimon 


tm m Hfe 6f tk& world t'octmei Ameitl ' ^: 

•I sh^l here bring nothing forward out of the New, 
Testainetit : for therein are found alUclear and iall- 
qeiteuti testidiohies concerning the Holy Trinity :, wWch 
in the Old Testament is not iso plainly and conspi- 
cuously set forth, though it is there demonstrated also 
with a sufficient force of evidence. 






. There are in the Apostles' Creed Three Heads ; 
evQn as, the Three Persons of the Holy Trinity are 
therein . enumerated. The First Head refers to the 
Father, the Second to the Son, and the Third to the 
Holy Ghost. And, the article concerning the Holy 
Trinity is the most important of all the articles of th« 
Christian faith; upon which all the other articles 
depend. * 

iyioreover, we are first of all, and before all things, 
tp,be i'eminded, that there are two ways of believing. 
The one, when I believe that .God is, and know that 
those things are true which are spoken of him. In the 
same npanner as I know that those things are true 
which are said of thib Turk, of the devil, or of hell. But 
this kind of faith should be called a certain indefinite 
knowledge, or opinipn, rather than faith. 

The other way of believing is when I believe in 
God : that is, when I not only believe that those 
things which are said of him are true, but when I place 
all my trust and hope in him, and so stay my mind 
upqn him as. to have no doubt of his gracious good-will 
toward me ; and when I moreover believe, that he will 



orform all tbioae thiogskin loe whieh ^e g)x>rious}y» slod 
ndvproclahned oi him. This is a faj*- different rj^uu) -Qi 
ebeviDg from the former. Xhi$ is< the fp^div^hiebf 
kme, in every peril , of life, and. in. <J^yeiy -hour; vof 
saitb, still firmly: p^iisuadeB: thetjaiiWj that all tbQS^' 
aings are true which the sacred scriptures say f)f God*: 
liis is the faith that makes a man a Christen : .1^,- 
whatever such an one asks of God he .has. It is imppsr^ 
ible that this faith should be in the heart of any impure 
lan or hypocrite. And this is the faith th^.t is cpni- 
landed in the First Precept, when it is said, " I am; 
le Lord thy God, Thou shalt have none c*her gods 
ut me." 

Therefore the particle in here is not an unmeaning 
ord or sound. It is this that we are e&pecifeilly lOilook 
K For it is one thing to say I believe God the 
ather, or, I believe concerning God the Fatbet-, tad 
lite another thing to say I believe in God the^Father^ 
I Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost. We should 
lerefore by no means lightly regard ;this particle in. ..:'-' 
- And, as this, faith or trust of heart cai^ be set in no 
le but in God, and yet, as this same faith and tniji^t of 
3art are set in Jesus Christ and in the Holy Ghost 
so, it is a conclusive . proof, that Jesus Christ and the 
[oly Ghost, are of the one same Divinity as God the 
ather. For as the same faith is set equally in all 
hree Persons, they are therefore all of equal Divinity. 




/ believe in God the Father Almighty^ maker,, of 
'jjLven and earth. — That is, ■ .. . 

I renounce all eyit spirits, idolatries, magic artd, jeUmL 
erj thing :that arises out of. unbelief. -r*tl setimy h&pt 

and fruftt in no man; nor even in myseil;! n^ po«i«^* 
my learning, my wisdom, my righteousness, my fortmie^: 
nor any thing that belongs to me. — I trust in no creiii*. 
tore either in heaven or in earth. — I commit myself 
nnto, and I believe in, the One invisible God only, the 
maker of heaven and earth, and the Lord of all crea- 
tures. And I do not fear the arts and deceptions of all the 
evil spirits together : for my God is greater than them all, 
and Ihey are all under Ihs command. And though all 
men should forsake and even persecute me ; neverthe- 
less, I have all m^ hope and confidence set. in God. 

Nor shall my poverty, nor my ignorance, nor any 
want of righteousness, nor even the contempt of all, 
hinder me from believing. Nor shall my sins turn aside 
my faith. For my faith is far above all these things. It 
rises above sins, worthiness, and unworthiness, and all 
such things, and nakedly hangs on God alone : as the 
first precept demands of me tnat it should do. 

Nor will I ask any signs of God, nor at all tempt 
him by so doing. I trust steadily in him, however long 
it may be before he fulfils all my desires. Nor will I 
set him any limits, measure, or time. I leave all to his 
divine will and pleasure as being full of mercy : being 
firmly pei^uaded that he will fill me with all blessings. 


Since therefore he is Almighty, what is there that I 
can long want, when all things are in his hand and 

Maker of heaven and earth. 

As he is the Creator and Lord of heaven, earth, 
and all things, who can hurt me or take any thing from 
me? Nay, when I am in his favour whom all things 
obey, all creatures cannot but promote and work my 
good. — And moreover, ajs he is God, he knows how, and 
is able, to deal with me in that way which shall be best 
and the most to my profit. And, as he is Father, his 
-will is that my good should always be considered by 
him : nor is there any work that he so willingly under- 


tfdk^ «l to M^ m^. — ^^And ftilfier; as I cKnibt tiei^ift 
dU^ cdboenrfDg mil th^se tfanigs^ and as I rest all m'< 
hcip^ and trust in him, I am persuaded, that I am hf 
B&ik and his servant, and that' the inheritance sIn(U 
come unto me. And in a word, ais I bdieve so is' it 
done unto me. 



And in Jesus Christ his only San our Lord. — 
That is, 

I not only believe that Jesus Christ is the true and 
only Son of God, who, as he wias begotten from all 
eternity, is of the same eternal and. divine nature and 
substance with God the Father. But I believe this 
also, — ^that the Father liath given all things into hi^ 
power ; and that, with respect to his Humanity also, he 
is Lord of all those things which he created together with 
the Father in his Divinity. 

I believe, that there is no way of access whatever 
unto the Fadier, nor any believing in him, neither by 
learning, ncwr by works, nor by human reason, nor by 
any creature either in heaven or in earth ; but that 
Jesus Christ only is the " way " by which we come 
unto the Father ; and that, that way is found by be- 
lieving in the name of Christ, and in' the kingdom which 
he holds. 

Who was conceived of the Holy GhosL 

I firmly believe, that he, for my sake, was con- 
ceived by the Holy Ghost, without any seed of man ; 
that he might purirj^ my impure, sinful, and damnable 
conception, and that of all who believe in him ; and that 
he might, through the mercy of himself and ^e Father, 
beget *us again entirely anew. 

Born of the Virgin Mary. 
I believe also that, for my sake, he was bom of the 


0ji»e4, tbaV by tbat, means,-, he sl^MilijlipM^jci^ifRj 4m 
dppBnedaad.sinfuLJjHilit/and'^ b«Jii^«iiB 

ijiiQ,' andtiuit be should bless;it,.t)mt.itrfmght; be.-AQ 
hinderance to our salvation. ■ 1 , , • < 1 

Suffered under Pofitius Pilate. 

I believe that he underwent his 'sufferings and the 
cross for my sins, and the sins of aU who believe ; and 
that by his sufferings he has made all our afflictions 
pleasing unto God ; and that now, they not only do not 
hinder our salvation, but bring us under his saving and 
all-full promises. 

Was crucified^ dead, and buried. 

,1 believe that he. died and was. buried, tbat he 
might make an end of, and bury, my sins and the sins 
of all those who believe ; and that he might take away i 
this death of our body, and make it, from being an ^, 
profitable and the greatest blessing. . : 

He descended into hell. 

I believe that he descended into hell, that he mig)it 
overcome and subdue under himself Satan, together 
with all his powers and devices, that he might have no 
more power to hurt me nor any other that believes ; 
and that he might deliver, me from the torments of 
Tiell; which are no longer hurtful, but, by being felt, 
bring the godly within the reach of the greatest pro- 
mises. , 

The third day he rose again from the dead. 

I believe that he rose again the third day from the 
.dead for the salvation of me and .of all that .believe, 
that we, being quickened by his spirit-^and grace, 
might enter into a new life, and might not live in sio, 
but serve him alone in holiness of life, and fulfil his 

-, \ 


• ••••• » • ■. • . 

'^ He aschided into h(^ven. '■/'''' 

I believe that h^ ascended into heaven ^afKLrre^oiv^ 
r. the ; Father ^glory and power oyer al} aAgelsi tajA 

And sitteth an the right hand of God the Father 
Imighty, . . , 

; . I believe that; he sits al^ at ther;r|ght h§nd of God ; 
\§fiis, that he is inade King) a^nd> Lord :(^¥^^^ all'the 
orks of.God.lhat are in. heaven,' on .earth, ^aind in;^^;^ 
^ that he can therefore be; .at band (o-suCi^ppr'me-ami 
i others who believe, against all our adversaries and 
lemies. - . . 

From thence he shall come to Judge the guick afid 

I believe that he shall come from th^ne^ in the. last 
ay to pronounce sentence both on the living who re- 
lain, and on the dead who died before. And I believe 
Iso, that all men, all angels, and all devils also, shall 
and before his tribunal and behold him face to face, 
^nd that all these things shall be done, that ;he might 
\T, ever deliver me and all who believe from death and 
v^pi.all other calamities of every kind : and that he may 
dte eternal vengeance on his adversaries, from whose 
granny we shall then be free for ever. 



/ believe in the Holy Ghost. 

.That is, I not only believe that the Holy .Ghost is 
Fod together with tlie Father and the Son;, but I be- 
evie this also, — that there is no way unto the Father 
m)ugh the. life, sufferings, and death of Christ, but by 
le leading and governing of the. Holy Ghost. , It is by 
\m that God the Father and the Son quicken^ call, 
iove, and drkw me and all who believe. It is he * ^ho 

through Christ and in 'Christ gives us itfe, and aanctifiei 
us that we may come unto the Father. It is this S.pint 
by whom the Father works all his works in' us thr6a|^ 
and in Christ, and by whom he administers unto us life;' 

The Holy Catholic Church. 

I believe that there is but one holy church of 
Christians throughout the whole world : that is, a com- 
pany or united multitude of saints, or ririiteous and be- 
lieving men : and that the same is garnered tc^ether, 
sanctified, and governed, by the same Holy Ghost ; and 
enlarged and increased aaily by means of the word 
and sacraments. 

I believe that no one can be saved who is not of tKs 
company of believing men; who does not think the 
same as they do, and who does not profess the same 
[ospel, sacraments, hbpe, and charity. And that no 
few, Gentile, heretic, or sinner, will be saved, unless be 
be brought into this church by grace, be reconciled 
unto it, and think, do, and teach, the same as it does. 

The communion of Saints. 

I believe that in this company of saints all things 
are common, and that no one has any thing that is his 
OYm : and that, therefore, all the godly prayers, all the 
good works of others are for my profit, and defend and 
establish me at all times, whether I be living in safety, 
or whether I be at the point of death : and that thus, the 
one bears the burthen of the other, as Paul admonishes 
them to do. 

The forgiveness of sins. 

I believe that the remission of sins is no where to be 
found but among that company of saints. I believe also, 
that no works, how great and splendid soever they may 
be, can profit any thing towards the remission of sins, 
if thou be found out of this company. Even as, on the 
contrary, if thou be of this company, there are no sins 
or crimes, however great, but will find remission. And 
that remission of sins is eternal. For when Christ deli- 


led the k^s to his church, he saidi^ •' Verily I say 
ito yoUy Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth, shall be 
»and in heaven," Matt, xviii. 18. And he said unto 
eter separately, who was therein a type of the one holy 
hur^h, ^^ Whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall 
i bound in heaven," Matt xvi. 19. 

The resurrection of the body. 

I believe that there will be a resurrecticm of the 
Bttd : in which this same Holy Ghost will raise up all 
Bsh : that is, all men according to the body and flesh, 
cith godly and ungodly : and so, that the same flesh 
hich died, was buried, putrified, and consumed in 
Eurious ways, shall return to life and live again. 

And the life everlasting. 

I believe that, after that resurrection, there will be 
n eternal life of the righteous, and an eternal death of 
ne wicked. — And, I hold no doubt, that all those things 
rhich I have recounted will take place through ^the 
•"ather, Son, and Holy Ghost. And therefore there is 
dded, Amen : that is, these things are certain, and will 
arely thus come to pass. 


V. \ 

m 9 

« ■ . 1 / 1 


• . i • 

* ■ 

Mattin iBLUtbev^^ 










tH£R£ was no need that my Expositions and .Sep|m>nl 
ihould be every-where spread abroad jfchroughout t^ 
Krhole worldy as there were so many books in our 
aands, that were so useful and proper to be set bpfpre 
the people. But I know not by what permission o^ Goj 
it is that it has fallen to my lot, that my words should 
be every way caught hold of and handed abput; by 
some through fiienaship, and by others through enmity,; 
Wherefore a certain coincidence of circumstances in*- 
duced me to publish abroad also this my little Com* 
MENTARY on the Lord's Prayer; which before was 
|Hit into the hands of a few friends only, who were: good 
men. And this I now do, that I might the more, fully 
make known my sentiments, and^ if possible, .s^)r,vb 
those also who are my rivals : for it w^as always, pay 
maxim to profit all, and injure no one» ^,. \r.. 

A t#^ 

0- '<* 

When the disciples of Christ asked him that he 
would teach them how to pray ; he said, Matt. vL 7-^9, 
"When ye pray, use not vain repetitions as the heathen 
do: for they think that they shall be heard for their 
much speaking. Be not ye therefore like unto them : 
for your heavenly Father knoweth w hat things ye have 
Deed of before ye ask him. After this manner thereJEbfe 
pray ye, 

Our Father which art in heaven^ hallowed be, tfijf 

From these words of Christ, we lejEum both t|^ 
wards and the manner: that is, how w^ P^^t tp,pray 
and what we ou^t to pray for. -, .■■. . , .0.; 

VOL. If. 2 c 



And FIRST, concerning the manner in which we 
ought to pray. This manner is, — that we pray in few 
words, but with a true and deep sense or feeling sen- 
sation. The fewer the words th/e inpre real the prayer. 
And, the more the words, the less real the prayer* To 
pray with a few words and with a deep sensation, is to 
pray as a Christian. But, to pnty in many words and 
with little sensation, is to pray as n heathen; Therefore^ 
Christ saith, " WTien ye pray, wse not vain repetitloitt 
fe the heathen do.** And, John iv. 23, he saith, " Thi 
true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and 
ftt truth, for Ae Father seeketh such to worship him."— 
And the prayer ** in spirit," or spiritual prayer, te here 
ibetitioned' in contradistinction to that which is bodily I 
6nly : and the prayer " in truth " to that which is oi^ 
in feigned words. For feigned, or bodily prayer is fliaf 
ekteteal murmuring or rehearsing which is perifonhed'by 
the mouth only wimout any feeling sensation : it- is S6ai 
Witwardly by. man, and is performed by the bodih 
nf^puth, but is not prayer " in truth," But spiritod 
prayer is prayer " in truth," and is that inward desire, 
^x)iin, and expectation which proceed from the heart 
ifce former, makes a vain and ^cure spirit ; the latter, 
makes a man a saint and a fearing son of God. — Bot 
we may here observe the different kinds of external 

^ Th^Jirstj ii^.that which i^ of mere obedience t like 
l^bat of'^. priests and mQijikS; wheu they sing and 
p^y, and pe^c^rm [their enjoined penance. aad devoted 
jfMindif of prayers. 

T|ie . second^ is that which is without ob^ienc^ 
My, even, against the will, and which is heartily ni^T 
^Bf^at^jand is. performed either for the sake of mouey^ 
honour, or applause. Such prayer had far better Jbie 
left alone altogether than to be thus bawled forth merely 
lor the sake of getting a little pecuniary gain, worldly 
property, or temporal honodr, with which things; Grda 
t<Bwdrd& hts bond-servants, not his s6ns. 

Hie <»»rrf, is that which is attendedwith alteiitfi* 
lensatioQ. Then, the external form of words C^Mel 

tftith, tmd tlie extehitd act uh imernal eisei^Cfsi^. fi^-it^ 
thc! internal " truth " expressed- oatwardiy;^ liiid' i^hui^ 
fbrth'ih the external form. But it cainkyt'be tKcft ^bH ■ 
praying thus spiritually and inwardly itttMild uj^ nlftiiy'' 
lirprds : for while the mind is attbhdfiig to Df4iat is 
spoken; and employing its thoughts in an attehtioiTUf 
words arid things, it finds the neci^ssity, either of diaW!*^ 
garding the words and attending to the* feelings, or, on 
Bie contrary, of disregarding the fselings and attending 
to the words. And therefore^ the§e verbal prayers are to 
be understood and considered no farther than as \>^iQg 
contain incitements and exhortations' to stir hs txpio 2l 
(baling sense of, and to draw out the afflfectlGn' of t!^* 
Itid '. after, those things which the Wbrds" contaih.-^^ 
enceit is, that rftb^t of the Psalm* haVe this IriscHp^' 
«ori or Title,^' Of Victory,' * Hfellelujih/ &c: TrtudH,': 
althoogh they be expressecl in fef#' words, yet they airfe^ 
designed to stir up and quicken the mind =tb' the/ medi*' 
tating oh, and desiring of, something g(>6d. — ^^Ahd.soiki'e' 
of tike Psalms also arie divided into different parts bjjf^' 
the mark^-\totd ^ Sek ! ' which signifies ^ rest,' ancF.'is* 
rfeither read nor sung, but is intended 'tSble "as ^a wbrd'oT 
admonition, whereby the people, wheref a!Hy*thirig patH-^' 
cularly worthy of notice occurs, are'desittid to'st6p oif* 
refet for a time, and omit the rieh^atfeal \*Me ttiiy'^p^iHii! 
formeditatibii. ' .-».': 

But SECONDLY, we' have here the tr(>rfli^;in" whJt^ 
Ve'oaght to pray. The word^ stb theSfe, f^ 'Giir^Faihet^ 
^hich art in h'eaVien,^' &c. — As this Prayer hsfiits an§tt 
from Christ, it ought undoubtedly to be 'ccfiMstfdeted 'tro' 
greatest, most exceUent,, and best of all prayers; for if 
Uiat mqst perfect and faithful Master had known any 
ptliyer'tfiat wks fcfet<er,he certainly would have taught it 
AAV Not that Ware to understand by this; that otheif* 
yftf^^ Which aj* not after this forth of Wcdfds are'baif/ 
S^Ca4^/ very'inAny saints put up praypfei befcJiie^ '-flil^ 
M^^ of ^Chrfsfwhb hkd neVer heard of these woWs^at* 
iai;' ;Biflf ktf JChd^;i)jrayei^ are to. bfe' suspected whicli^db? 
fi6t -cdiflaSi ^ eftArtdfe'^the inward spii*; dJeSm^i^ 
fmi^Stt trf'this-pA^tefJ TM^,^ «t thV P^ffiy^fe^ 



ptoyers; which, though they do not so exactly expreu 
thepeottliarity of this prayer, yet they embrace all ibi 
substance. But they err who consider any other prayen 
equal to this Prayer, or prefer them to it 

This Prayer then is divided into two parts. The 
FIRST is the Preface^ or the Beginning, or a certain 
Preparation. The second contains Seven Petitions. 


Our Father which art in heaven^ 

This certainly is a most excellent beginning or pre- 
paration, whereby we are led to know, how he to 
whom we are about to pray should be named, ho- 
noured, and addressed ; and how every person should 
approach him, that he may be gracious and inclined to 
l5»r. — Of all the names of God, therefore, there is no 
oiie, the using of which renders us more acceptable 
unto him, than that of Father : and it is a most lovely, 
sweet, and deeply comprehensive name, and full of 
inental affection. It would not be so sweet and con- 
soling to say * Lord,' or * God,' or ^ Judge ;' because, the 
Dame of Father (in natural things) is ingrafted in us, 
and is naturally sweet. And for this reason the same 
name is pleasing unto God, and greatly moves him to 
hear us. And also, it brings us into a knowledge of 
9urselves as the sons of God ; by which also we grieatly 
move the heart of God ; for po voice is sweeter* unto a 
fibber than that of a child. — This is farther discovered 
in what follows. 

Which art in heaven. 

By which words, we plainly shew our miserable 
straits of mind, and our exiled state, and are powerfully 
moved to pray, e^ well as God to hear. For he who 
l)egins to pray ' Our Father which art in heaven,' and 
does it from the inmost recesses of his heart, therein 
^nfesses, that he has a Father, and that it is he who is 
in. bBSLven ; and he conft^sses also, that he himself is an 
e^e^ ^^ left tx> tiayel here upon earths And hereupon, 


there must of neces^y follow an Inward affection of 
heart, stich as that son has who is living far from his owb 
country among strangers, and in exile and calamity: 
For it is as if he should say, ' O Father, thou indeed 
art in heaven, but I thy miserable son am £eu* away 
from thee upon earth ; that is, in exile, perils, calami- 
ties, and straits, and amid devils, enemies, and various 
difficulties. He, therefore, that thus prays, has his heart 
directed and lifted up toward God, and is in a state to 
pray and to obtain grace of God. 

But, so high and deep are the contents of the name 
Father, that the nature of man can by no means bring 
it forth and use it, unless the Spirit of Christ be ia the 
heart., For if we weigh and examine the matter deeplVf 
there is no one arrived to such a perfection as to be able 
to say, in truth, that he has neither father nor any thing 
else upon earth, but is an utter stranger, and has no 
other parent but God : for such is the maHgnity of sinftil 
nature, that it will seek out any thing upon earth for 
itself, so long as it believes it has not a God to flee to ijl 

The use of this name, therefore, evidenpes great 
confidence in God : which confidence in him, we 
ought above all things to hold fast: because, beside 
this one parent, there is no one that can aid us iti 
coming to heaven : as it is written, " No man hath as- 
cended into heaven, but he that came down from 
heaven : even the Son of man who is in heaven : " on 
whose shoulders and wings only it is, that we can 
ascend to heaven. — Otherwise, all work-mongers may 
say this Lord's Prayer; who, nevertheless, know not 
what the words of it signify. But what I consider to be 
prayer, is that which proceeds from the heart rather 
than fi:'om the mouth. 

And there is another kind of persons in the church, 
who turn over a certain number of pages, or murmur 
over with a great deal of noise a set of religiously-worn 
beads; but in all this their heart is wandering far enou^ 
from that which they titter with their lips. This cer- 
tainly caiinM be called grayer : for God saith to such a 

^^pf^QM^pJ the prophet I»aiakv '' Thw il^e;i^ 
f^oiu^ me yiitiiL their lips, but their Ik^Uft tV j^^.^fflM 

n^. .-...; -»,^ 

Aipd iQ9reover, there are thoae ptiestfi ^d mo^kf tt. 
bp foundy who hurry and bawl over certain js^aj^ers i^ 
stated hours, \vjithout any feeling ot eng«\g99Mp$ of 
hcATt whatever; an<ji afterwards, dare impu€ie^ltly ^ 
say, ^ Ah ! now I may enjoy myself, for I hay§ fi^ 
forme^ all unt;o the Lord.' And they iqu^gine th^ jbfafrjr 
in this way satisfy God. But I tell .thae in janswesfi-n 
rrr^ou mayest perhaps have satisfied ibe precepts of 
the church, but God will say unto thee, ^' This pf^pi? 
bpno^jireth me with their lips, but their heart is far froip 
me.'^rr-Hence it is, that thos^ who piray xhp least, imy 
b^ ^ijind to pray the most ; and, on th^ contrary^ thofif 
^hp prj^y ^ most, may be found to pray the lea^t. : \ 
. , Biit some one flaay say, — ' Is it not, written Luk« 
x^ii. I, ^\ That men ou^t always to ppay and not to 
fSunt ? ' ".— r i . answer : Mark those w'ords diliaentlf, 
JL^l^i^st doe$ ppt say that pages are to be t^rped &ver^ 
that religiously- worn beads are to be told, and maoj 
words used, &c. ; bpt tha|: \ men ought always to pray, 
and pot to faint.' And what it is to pray we have 
alrjBady ^e\yn. — But there \yere form^ly pertain here- 
^cs called Proseuchit(ey or. petitioners, whp set abou| 
p^ttin^ ^se words of Christ into practice literally, 
i|pd wished tp pr^y day and night ;. wherein, they did 

Sptbing else bpt expose their folly ; iko|: seeing^ th^ 
iey were fprced to omjt th^ir praying when they atci, 
^mik, or dept Hence, these words of Chi^sti M-er^ 
9pp&9n conpen^ing spiritual prayer, which may be exerr 
.cjsed at all time^, even when tl^e body is ^g^ged inW 
qqur : though i^o one can wholly fulfil thi$ command of 
Christ. For who can unceasingly keep his heart lift^ 
up lifpto God. therefore, these \Yords of Christ are set 
tiefpre us as a qpi^rk, to which y^e ought to aim.' and 
when w^ find that ^hey c^janot be fttlfiUed by us, let us 
confer ourselves to be weak and siaful qreat;Mres: and, 
being thus hq^ble^^ let us b§g grs^ce of Qod to supply 
p^ jrej^^nesj^ a^d helplesa^esja.- i, ■.,■ -, .. . / 


i . All trm ttmAets of the Holy Scriptura define Ak 
Mtaire and. meturing of prayer, to be nothing moiA or 
less^ than a lifting up the mind or heart unto God. if 
tiierefore the nature of prayelr be thiift lifting up of itthw^ 
it follows^ that everything else that does not lift lip^ 
mind and heart, is not prayer. Hence, all those cnantji 
ings, rounds of forms, and noises of organs, where the 
lifting up the heart to God is wanting, are no more 
worthy to be called prayer, than scare-crow^ and effigies 
that are placed in gardens to frighten away the birds, 
deserve to be called men. There is, indeed, the name 
and the shape, but there is neither truth nor reality. 

And yet, I do not myself altogether rejiect vbcal 
prayer, or a form of prayer, nor ought any oiie to 
reject it ; but rather, to receive it with gratitude tis a 
great gift of God. But what is to be rgected, is the 
words themselves not discharging their office, and ttot 
being attended with their fruits, that {§, the raisins the 
affection of the mind : but the hqpe is placcfd in a de- 
ceiving confidence in this only^ — that the whole has 
been murmured or muttered over, without uiy fruits or 
advantage j nay, leaving the heart in a worse stdte than 
it was before. 

And yet again, let each one take- care, when he con-» 
eeives a spark of mentsd affection, or ^igagement of 
heart, (be it either with ^ or without words,) that he feil 
not into the poison of the old serpent, that is, destroying 
pride ; a'nd say to himself, ^ Ah, now I pray with my 
heart and mouth too, and I experience such an enga^ 
ment of heart, as I think is difficult for any other to M-» 
tain unto, that he should pray as I do nolv ! ' Thesd 
thoughts the devil breathes into thee ; and in this wfly^ 
'thou wilt come off worse at last than if thou hadst not 
prayed at all. Nay, such a suggestion is not far from a 
reviling and cursing of God. Therefore, see that thou 
praise not thyself, but God, in all the good wHifch thou 
feelest, or unto which thou attainest. 

And finally, we should observe how carel^Uy Chrfil 
ordered this Prayer : because, he did not will thai an;j 
s^jduld pray for^ himself biilyj^ but for all men. Ttt lie 


$a mot teacb us to tay^ 'My Flither;' Imt, r fJOm 
lilathen* For prayer is a spirituu and oommon blcfl8iti|^ 
of which no one ou^t to be deprived; and so^ notefCtt 
an enetny. For as God is the Father of us all ; his wfll 
isrthat we should be as brethren, live together in lave 
and friendship, and pray for each other as for onrselvet. 



iTiere are found in this Prayer Seven Petitions. 

1, Hallowed be thy name. 

S. Thy kingdom come, 
, 3. • Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven. 

4. Give lis this day our daily bread. 
. , > 5. And forgive us our debts^ as we forgive our 

J ; 6. And lead us not into temptation. 
-J.. 7. But deliver us from evil. Amen. 

These Seven Petitions may also . be called as many 
good doctrines and admonitions : for, as the bishop and 
martyr Cyprian said, they are seven marks of our exile 
and want ; by which, a man being brought to the know- 
ledge of himself, may see hbw perilous and miserable a 
Kfe he lives here upon earth ; wliich life, is nothing bat 
a continued scene of offending the holy name of God, 
rebellion against his will, and banishment from bis 
kingdom ; a region of hunger and the want of the 

. bread of life, and a sinful conversation and wandering 
filled with perils and all evil ; as Christ himself particu- 
larizes in this Prayer, and as we shall see in what 


First Petition. 

Hallowed be thy name. 

O great and inconceivably deep petition, when it 
proceeds from the true affection of the heart ! It is 
short indeed as to the words, but there is no one of the 
other Petitions equal in greatness to this, wherein we 
pray, — * Hallowed be thy name V 

For observe, in the first place, that the name o^ 

Crod bliofy ill tttdtf, and cannot be made more holy by 
M : wfi that it is the same name that sanctifies aU 
li^gs, and all us also : and yet, (as the good Gyprian 
Mys,) the same name ought to be sanctified by us : that 
thus God might be made all in all, and man himself re- 
duced to noming. And it is to this point, and to this 
end, that all the other Six Petitions are directed, — that 
the name of God may be sanctified. When that is 
done, then all things are done rightly ; as we shall hear 
from what follows. 

But however, that we may see in what way the 
name of God is sanctified in us, we will first see how it 
is profaned and dishonoured in us.: and then, we shall 
have matters before us more plainly, and shall be able 
to speak more fully to the point. 

The name of God is dishonoured by us in two 
ways. First, when we abuse it unto sin. Secondly, 
when we steal it and take it away by robbery. Just in 
the same way as any holy vessel of the church, may be 
•profaned in two ways. The one, when it is employed by 
"Bbuse, not unto the worship of God, but unto carnal de- 
sires. The other, when it is taken away by theft and 

And again, the name of God is in an especial 
manner profaned by abuse in us, when we use or assume 
it^ not unto any thing serviceable, beneficial, profitable^ 
or tending to establish the uprightness of our hearts, 
but unto the fulfilment of their lusts and desires ; as it 
often and variously happens in the cases of blessings 
pronounced, oaths taken, curses denounced, deceits prac- 
tised, &c. as is shewn in the prohibitions of the Third 
Commandment, * Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain.' But to sum up the whole in a 
few words, — when we do not act as becomes the sons df 

The i^ature of the sons of God. 

First : He is said to be a right and true son, who, 
being bom of true and honest parents, imitates and 
teopies the same in all things : such an one truly de- 


serves to mherit and possess the tiaim.^iB]id'>ifrf|Mr|y}^ 
his pefents. So, we Christians are xegbntMlimBiAtmiiM^ 
the sons of God. If, therefore, we follow on* afterr^ll 
native perfections of our f'atlier, his name msd bles^igi 
will be given unto us for an everlasting inheritanoli 
Moreover, this our Father is merciful and kind; m 
Christ saith, " Be ye merciful, even as your Father 
which is in heaven is merciful." And again, '^ Learnt 
me, for I am meek and lowly in heart." For God. ji 
just, pure, true, firm, simple, upright, wise, &c.. And all 
these are the appellations of God. They are included in 
these words " thy name." For the names of all virtues 
are the name of God. 

Since, therefore, we are baptized, consecrated, and 
sanctified, in this name, and as this namfe is now made our 
name, it follows that all the sons of God are, and ought 
to be called, kind, merciful, chaste, jtist, true, simpk^ 
benevolent, peaceable, and sweetly affectionate in heait 
towards all men, even towards those who are their 
enemies. For the name of God in which they are bap^ 
tized exercises all these virtues in them. Nay, suck 
ought to pray unceasingly, that the name of G6d may 
be thus in them, work in them, and be sanctified in them 
He, thefore, who is passionate, morose, envious, bitter, 
malevolent, cruel, lustful, arailer, a liar, a rash sweareiv 
a defrauder, a backbiter, — such an one dishonours,, dis- 
graces, and profanes die divine name in which he is 
blessed, baptized, called, nunlbered among Christians, 
and joined unto the people of God : or rather, under 
the name of God, he honours the name of the devil, who 
is himself a liar, impure, a backbiter, ^envious, &c. * For 
they will follow him (says the wise man) who are . on his 
side.' Behold, such are like the priest who should give 
a sow drink out of the sacred cup, or fill, the same wilh 
dung and filth. For just in the same way do these men 
treat their souls and bodies, in which the name of God 
dwells by which they are sanctified. For they entertain 
devils therein. All which things, shew their conten^ptof 
the divine name by which they are sanctified. 

Behold then! you here see what it is. to saaelify 


God's moM^ iodrlo be a sahiU It ^ jnothiog iit6i!e'or*fess 
tlisn a^fiiH TOBunoiation cf all those things: 1^ whidbr 
ntumdatioii /ajbiisfs is turned into holy use : eyen as jf 
(Jbudaas^dedicated^iiBd set apart, for the use of divinf^ 
wdrshi|> coily^ So also we ought to (be sanctified in the 
whole tof our lives, that these may be found in us no use 
rf any thing but. oflf the naaae of God: that is, of kind- 
ims^ righteousness, truth, &c*— Therefore, the name of 
God is either sanctified or profaned, not by the tongue' 
only, but by all the powers of the soul and body. 

Secondly: The name *of. God is profaned by theft 
and robbery. And although this way of profaning the 
name of G^ by those ^\k) are of a lofty inmd and ima^^ 
^Miation, is comprehended under the former head, yet,ti 
i9of a: deeper and more subtle natove than can be well 
uxadi^stood by the simple. For this way is peculiar to 
the fHToud, who, being in their own judgment the best of 
men, and saints, do not consider that die name of God is 
sa disgraced by them. as by the fore-mentioned charac- 
t6i8 : for th^ take to themselves the name of righteous-^ 
ness, holiness, truth, &c. And thus they rob God of hia 
name, audaciously, and without any fear, by theft and 

. • ' • i 

Which are the most pernicious and worst 
sort of men among christians. 


: First: Those who have always in their mouths, and. 
boastingly arrogate to themselves, these things — * O how^ 
good is the intention which I always have fixed in the 
inward recesses of my heart ! Such and such an one 
does. not do as I do ! I am ready at all times to divide 
my heart in pieces and give it unto them ! * But beware,- 
beware thou, of such wolves as these who walk thus id 
sheep's clothing. They are only the thorns of roses; 
They bear no figs, but are thistles only. And therefore 
€hrist saith, "by their fruits ye shall know them." By 
what fruits? By their thorns and briers, which scratch,- 
tear, and offend only, without shewing forth any good 
W4»pd or work. ^ <' ; ^ 



Secondly: When such hear aU these thiogs^tfirluchivi 
ere speaking, — that the gloiy of his naine and hoboiif job 
to be ascribed unto God only : then again, they biegin to 
take a self-conceited view of themselves, and by lookiiic 
at their external appearance, deceive themselves stii 
more deeply : and say, that they do seek the honour of 
God only in all that they do ; and they even dare to 
affirm by an oath, that they do . not seek their owa 
honour in what they do ; — so subtle, hidden, and deep, is 
their malice. 

But here, examine them more closely still, and yoa 
will find, that as often as dieir opinion and judgment 
are effectually frustrated, they break out into murmor^ 
ings and wonderings, and are wrath with every one. n 
And then it goes ill with all who come in their way. 
Nor do such know how to lay aside and forget their in- 
dignation. And they will afSrm, that the honour of 
God is hindered, and the good which they sought and 
had in view, prevented. Nor will they be able to re- 
strain the accursed pest of their rashness of judgm^t, 
and their abuse. — Thus, by closely examining their in- 
tentions, we perceive, that they are enraged, not because 
the good they pretended, and the honour of God, are 
hindered, but because their judgment and the intention 
which they planned did not succeed : as if the judgment 
which they formed could not be wrong, and as if the in- 
tention was so good that God himself could not find 
•fault with it. For if they had not imagined to them- 
selves something of this kind, they would not have been 
chafed at their purposes being hindered. 

Thirdly^ if at any time it is proclaimed and de- 
clared, that the honour of God and tlie glory of his name 
9re therefore to be ascribed unto God, because he created 
all things, and all things are his : then, these same wise 
ones want no preachers at all for their part ! Nay, not 
even the Holy Ghost himself, nor any other teacner to 
instruct them ! They want not to be brought down to 
a school-tuition ! Pshaw ! (say they) who knows npt all 
this ! For they imagine that they understand all those 
* things perfectly welL But when ^y time comes that 


llidr honour is plucked, and they arr brought to degre- 
dation and contempt ; or when they lose any thing df 
tbeir private property, or any other adversity comes 
upon them ; then, behold, all their art and wisdom im- 
mediately fail them, and the thorn-beds bring forth all 
dieir fniits; that is, prickles and briers. Then the 
ass's ears begin to appear through the lion's skin. Then 
they say, * O thou who art in heaven, look down from 
above and see how great an injury is done me.' For 
they fall into that state of madness, that they even dare 
to sa^ that there is great injury done them before God. 
— Where now then is all that great wisdom of yours, 
whereby ye said that all things were of God, and from 
God ? For if they be God's only, why, O miserable 
wretch of man ! shall he not take away, give, and dis* 
pose of those things as he pleases, without being called 
to any account for so doing ? If what thou hast of 

food be God's, stay thyself, and permit him to do whdt 
le will, and as he will, with his own. For when he 
takes away that which is his own, no injury is done to 
thee ! — Thus, that saint. Job, after the loss of all his 
substance and children, says, " The Lord gave, and the 
Lord hath taken away, blessed be the name of the Lord." 
Behold here a righteous man ! No one could take any 
thing from him, because he had nothing that was 
his own. 

But thus you may always find, that the honour of 
God, and the glory of his name, is by no means purely 
sought, especially by the proud ; who will be, and have, 
something of that which belongs to God only. 

But you will say, — ^ If these things be true, it follows, 
that there is no one in the world who truly sanctifies 
ths name of God, and that all are unjust who contend 
with any noise whatever of civil judicature, either for 
their private property, or honour, or on any other ac- 
count' — I answer in ikiejirst place: It was for this very 
reason that I said before, that this First Petition greatly 
exceeded cdl the regt, and was by far the greatest in im- 
portance, and coniprehended them all. For, if there 
were any one who fiiUy sanctified the name of Ggd, 


such an one would have no heed whatever of ptt' 
the Lord's Prayer, being possessed of Sticli puHty,'. 
never to arrogate to himself any thing of thie' crcMittfttt 
or honour of God. And such an- on^ would be pWw 
fectly pure, and the name of God would in Him be ftilHf 
atid perfectly sanctified. — This, however, belongs not W 
the present, but unto the future and hieavetiiy life: A0 
therefore, we have need to pray, and fervently to deslits; 
as long as we live, that God would sanctify nih riamb itt 
us : because, there is no one who is not' cohvicted'rf 
being a profaner of the name- of God, some more anrf 
some less, though those proud ones of saints disdain fb' 
believe this. 

And hence, as I said, this petition contains not onfy 
a prayer, but a salutary doctrine, and a certain' repfe^ 
sentation of this our calamitous and damnable life upon 
earth: which representation, thrusts man back, and down 
into the knowledge of himself. For when we beg of 
God that his name might be sanctified in us, it id ad 
evidendy consequent argument,- that his name is hot yet 
sanctified in us : for if it were sanctified we should ImVtf 
no need to beg of him that it might be sanctified. And, 
from this also it still more extensively follows, that we 
insult, dishonour, treat with irreverence, execrate, and 
profane the name of God as long as we live; and tKern- 
fore, we testify by pur prayer, and by our own mooths/ 
that we are dishonourers of God. 

In short, I know not that there is in the whole scrip- 
ture any doctrine that so forcibly and folly holds up our 
life to contempt and vanity as this petition does. Who;* 
therefore, would not wish to die as soon as possibly, 
&nd profess himself an enemy to this lffe,,(if, that'is^' 
hfe be from his heart a friend of God,) when he soittaiilf 
sees, that his Irfe is, from the nature of things; m tfet 
state, that the name and glory of God ate thereby 
continually dishonoured ? Indeed, he that unller^tiiod 
iiothing else well,' but this Lbrd'is prayef, wrould'lS? 
possessed of doctrine enough against all sins antl^YiotS? 
jEUid especially against pride. ForwHo can renmifl 'fifil^ 
up or proud j who, from the Lotd^s prayer, truly 'fihdHfl 


liBifi^lf ^amh great. and: ta^ble sinsP-^that bedishoncMirft 

< ^.fiiiUQae itf God^^and act& daily against the Third Com^ 

toaiidmeQl; of God by taking his name in vain? 

i" I answer in the second p\B,ce: The noise of the civil 

jndicature U not the best of things : it were better if 

tfiere were no such thing at aU : yet, to avoid greater 

WsIb, diese civil courts and laws are permitted for the 

«ake. of the imperfect, who cannot lay aside every thing 

#lse and devote themselves wholly unto God. Never- 

ibeless, there is in this petition a mark set before us, 

Wto which we are to strive : that is, that we may day 

Jsny, day, through exercising ourselves therein, be in* 

li^cted in sanctifying the name of God, and in giving 

lim^k unto him; his honour, and our goods and all things 

that are taken, from us ; that we may thus sanctify his 

smme wholly. 

This Prayer^ then, is thus formed and delivered unto 

us, that we may exercise ourselves therein, and without 

JAtermi^ion,. desire with all the affection of our minds, 

^^t' the narne of God may be sanctified. If, therefore, 

Ql&y; Christian be deprived of his property, his honoar^ 

iM^'friwds, his safety, his wisdom, or any thing of the 

jtame kind, he is not to think it ^^ strange:" for it miist 

W the end come to that; and all that is man's must be 

l»rought to nothing ; and man himself must be cut off 

from all things, before ever he can become a saint, or 

^lanctify. the name of God ! For as long as he has any 

4ung to hold by, so long will he have a name of his own ! 

Nothing, therefore, must remain to man, that God 

^one, and his name, and all that is his, might remain. 

Tthisn will it appear to be true, when the righteous ate 

iAvthe, scripture called "fatherless," and "destitute:" 

thftt is, such as . those, who, being deprived of their 

.pmr^ntS) have no . comfort whatever from any quartear. 

, ., But/ YOU will say again — ^As there is no one 

lamcMig all: men, who sufficiently sanctifies the name of 

>Gpd^ we:are all under.hell-deserving sins, and consigned 

•OKet U^dainnation'-^— I answer: All sins are alike hdl- 

:d63enfiag .aad si^bject to damnation, if Gbdshpttld 

cjente ^jiaiyL intoij^dpneht with us. ' For^ be^veiin 


endure no sin whatever, how light soever it may seem. 
Yet, there are two kinds of men. Some^ acknowle(^ 
and grieve that diey are not able to sanctify the name of 
God : And therefore, they pray firom their hearts duU 
they may be enabled : and they fully confess this thdr 
wretched state. And such characters it is, whom Grod 
hears in all things : and because they judge and condenm 
themselves, he justifies and acquits them, however in- 
sufficientiy they sanctify his name. — Others, are those 
incorrigible and awfully vain spirits, who consider these 
their sins as light and insignificant, and commit them ta 
the winds, or do not j)erceive them at all, nor ever poor 
out any prayers. Such in the end find, how great Aat 
sin is which they considered to be light: and they are 
damned that in which they supposed they shoald find 
the most of their salvation. And therefore it is, that 
Christ says unto the hypocrites, that they shall, for their 
long prayers " receive the greater damnation." 

Behold, thus does the Lord's Prayer teach thee, 
0rst of all, to know the greatness of thy state of exile 
and damnation^ and that thou art a dishonour to God; 
for thou art here brought to tremble by thine own pray- 
ers, if thou attend to what thou prayest. For it must 
be true, that the name of God is not yet sanctified by 
thee. It must be true, that the name of God is dis- 
honoured by him who does not sanctify it. And finally, 
it must be true, that dishonouring the name of God is 
an awful sin, and deserving everlasting fire, 'if God pro- 
nounce his sentence upon it. — Where then wilt tiiou 
here flee to? Thine own prayer condemns thee, with- 
stands thee, accuses thee, and convicts thee ! Here 
thou liest! Who shall bring thee help! Yet behold, 
when thou art truly brought to this casting down of 
mind, and humbled under a sense of thy exiled state; 
then, there arises out of this, in the second place, a 
comforting doctrine, which may lift thee up: — wiwji 
is, that th^ Prayer teaches thee these things, to the end 
that |hou mayest not despair, but desire the grate and 
help of Gt>d. And thou ou^test here most snr^ and 
firmly to believe, that God has permitted thee ftns to 



pray, thatt he, might hear thee, H^us thi$ Rfay^rgivc^ 
unto thee a sign, that God will not impute . tlivwns iiiUp 
thee, nor enter strictly into judgment wttn thee, t-^ 
Moreover, God accounts those ^ood men only, who 
truly know and feel that they bring no honour to the 
pame of God, and who continually pray that his name 
may be honoured. But, it is imposisible .that thofe 
should be saved, who, trusting to their own Iqiowledge, 
do not believe that the name of God is dishonoured by 
them* They are as yet incorrigible, awfully secure, 
proud) and destitute of the fear of God. Nor are they 
AS yet among the number of those to. whom Christ 
speaks, when he says, " Come unto me^ all ye that la* 
bour and are heavy laden, and I will refresh 3'ou," For 
they understand not the Lord's Prayer, and therefore 
know not what they say when they pray it over. 

To CONCLUDE : Trie sense, meaning and sum of 
this Petition are this, — * O dearest Father, grant that 
thy name may be sanctified in us.' That is^ ' Alas I 
^confess that I have dishonoured thy name, and stiU 
continue to dishonour it unto this day, by my pride, ai^d 
by seeking my own honour and name.' Therefore, 
through thy grace help me, that, throwing away my\ 
own name, I may be reduced to nothing ; and that thou 
only mayest overpower me by thy name, honour, and 

I hope also that you fully understand, that these 
words, " thy name," signify honour and glory : be^ 
cause, in the scriptures, a good name signifies honour 
and glory, and a bad name, disgrace and infamy. 

By this Petition, therefore, is meant nothing els(^, 
.than that the honour of God should be sought before 
all things, above all things, and in all things, and that 
.the whole of our life should be directed continually and 
only unto the honour of God, and not unto our ad- 
vantage and salvation, nor uato any other good either 
temporal or eternal ; but only unto the honour and 
glory of God as its ultimate object. Therefore, this Peti- 
tion holds the first place, because, seeking the honour of 
God is the first, greatest, and highest worship we can 

VOL. in 2d 


pay hfm^ beyond wliich he exacts and requires nothing of 
iis. Not is there any thing else that we can reCarn him: 
because^ he Confers upon us all other good thin^, but his 
• honour land glory he keeps to himself alone. Therefore, 
all our understanding, our conversation, our singing, our 
life, our works, and jail that we do or suffer, are so 
many proofs that all things are God's alone, in confir- 
mation of that scriptjire, 'Psalm cxi. 3, *^ Honour and 
^oty are his work^ and his righteousness endureth for 
ever." Which woids understatid tfiou thus— that God 
dwells and lives in the hearts of some men, and that 
all the works of these do nothing else than give praise 
and glory unto God, whom they acknowledge as the 
author of all the good things they enjoy. 

Hence, such a man is not hurt or distressed' al 
being dishonoured and despised, for he knows tliat this 
is righteous and just. And if he be not despised and 
dishonoured, he considers it to be against him ; nor can 
he with ease endure the praise and honour thus put upon 
him. And therefore, he is therein righteous, ascribing to 
God what is his, and to himself what is his own : that is, 
honour and all things unto God, but shaiiie and nothiim 
unto himself. Iliis is the righteousness which endureth 
for ever ; and is that which pleases, not the men of this 
temporal life, like the lamps of the foolish virgins and 
the imaginary holiness of hypocrites, but which pleases 
the etfemal God, and which will abide in his presence 
for ever and ever ! 

Hence you see that this Petition strikes at the. root 
of that detestable pride which is the head, life, and the 
ivhole substance, of all sins. For as no virtue can exist 
or be in a proper state where pride is ; so, on the other 
hand, no sin has any life, nor can do any hurt, where 
pride is not Wherefore, as no one is free from pride 
and seeking after his own name and honour ; so, there 
is no one to whom this petition is not most necessaiy 
and useful. 




1 I . . . • 

Thy kbigdmi conie. ;. , 

This Second Petition, Kke all the rest, does twx> 
lihings, — it humbles and it lifts up. It htiuoBibleS' ulT^ ih 
that it forces us to confess widi our oTm moutll!^- tine 
.dTea4ful calamity of our eiciled state. B'ot^it lifts iss^up, 
«: that it instructs us how to conduct oui^lves in this 
iour humiliation. And thus, every, word :irfvCxod has Hiiis 
peculiarly effective nature,— rit terrifies aad consoles, 
"wounds and heals; breaks down and . bauMs lipy rootd up 
and plants, humbles and exalts. / ' ^ '■ 

It FIRST humbles us, that \ve may fully know, 
that the kingdom of God is not yet co^ie unto- us« 
Which reality, when^ruly meditated on and ifSX. in ^ idle 
inmost soul, and breathed out in prayer from the real 
feelings of the heart, is terrible, atid may well fill tiie^ in- 
most recesses of every honest heart with , distress and ua- 
speajcable Anguish. For it thence follows^ that ive-aife 
driven into an exiled state, .and €ure ^tiU living among 
fearful >enemies, and deprived (tf the best o£^ ooi&ntiie^. 
WMch two evils are horrible and miserable, f • > 

Hhejirst evil is, that God th^F^thet* is fobbed of his 
kingdom in us : and he whp is^ and will be the Lord of 
. all things, does not, through the impediment lof our Mn, 
enjoy as he ought to do this pail: of kJs power and 
gloiy : which hinderaiQce of sin4oe8 not in a small dli- 
greb dishonour him^ making him to be^ as it wdl^e^' a>t6pd 
without his power and authority, and ^ks if wi^ rlfeld 
in oontempt , the right of id^ unixsersajtly proclaimkl 
jpow^r and domini<m over us.-^-Su^ a state must df 
necessity be a subject of grief to ^ who love and 
'favour God. And it must/»moreover^ be a cause for 
terror when we reflect that we are they, who^ by "i3ttr 
di^s|]&ing and hindering thrspttgh ^in, oppose the king- 
dom of^od. WhercaS' God eouidy if he pleased, strilte 
us with the most tei^rible judgments, and'^condemn us as 
enemies and plunderers of his. kingdom. ' ^ > 

The second evil respects ours^V(E9i ; seeing tbttt^ wne 

2 02 


lie as strangers and exiles in captivity among the most 
numerous and dreadful enemies. For if it be considered 
a horrible and lamentable state, for the son of any 
earthly prince, or for a whole nation, to be brought into 
t:aptivity under the Turks, to be loaded with insults and 
tortures, and at last to be put to a most ignominious 
death : how much more loudly should we complain at 
.being in exile in the midst of malicious spirits, and 
having just cause to expect every moment various perils 
both of body and soul, and in the end eternal death : in 
which state, each one's life, if he could see all things 
as they really are, may justly bea greater cause of terror 
than a thousand deaths. 

But SECONDLY, after this deep reflection shall have 
humbled us, and shall have truly shown us our cala- 
mity, then follows the consolation: which lies, in our' 
kind master Christ having taught us tp pray^ that we 
might be delivered out of this exiled state, and that we 
might net despair. For those who know and feel that 
they have thrown hinderance in the way of the kingdom 
of God, and who in sorrow and distress pray, diat that 
kingdom might at length come unto them, — to such, 
because they thiis grieve and pray, God will not impute 
this their sin, which, otherwise, he might justly punish. 
But as to those awfully presumptuous and unbridled 
spirits, who are touched with no concern about the 
.kingdom of God nor where it is, and do not pray for 
its coming with any feeling sensation of heart, — such, 
God will most certainly judge with , aft severity along 
with the tyrants and destroyers of his k;ingdom. — Since 
therefore every one has need to put up in prayer this pe- 
tition, it follows, that no one is free from the crime of 
doing injury to the kingdom of God. To the farther un- 
derstanding of which, we must be informed, that tber$ is 
a twofold kingdom. 

The FIRST is the kingdom of the devilj whom the 
Lord calls in the Gospel " the prince of this, world." .This 
js the kingdom of sin and disobedience : which king- 
dom ought to be esteemed by those who, follow after 
*: godliness^ the greatest atate of exile and. the worst of 


prisons r for so it has been figuratively represented itt 
the case of the children of Israel ; who, in days of old, 
in Egypt, were compelled with great labours and 
miseries to build up that country, when they at the same 
time gained no profit whatever from their toil, but their 
ruin and destruction were sought after the more; In the 
same manner, he who is under the power of the devil 
and serves him, must suffer a great deal, especially in 
his conscience, and gains nothing at last by all this 
service but eternal death. And in this kingdom we all 
are, until the kingdom of God comes unto us. But yet 
there is a difference. 

For those who are following after godliness, are 
daily, while under the power of this kingdom of the 
devil, fighting against sin, and firmly and perseveringly 
resisting the pleasures of the flesh and the allurements 
of the world, and also the suggestions of the devil. But 
although we may thus follow after godliness, yet still, 
destructive pleasure will exercise something of its domi- 
nion in us, and is ever greedily striving to get full domi- 
nion over us, and to have all power in its own hands. 
Thus, the kingdom of God is ever warrfng against the 
kingdom of the devil. — ^Those who in this manner follow 
-after godliness, will attain unto blessedness and be 
saved. And these are they who put up this petition in 
words, in heart, and in deed. And hence it is also that 
St. Paul admonishes us, * That we let not sin reign iit 
our mortal bodies, that we should obey it in the lusts 
thereof/ As if he had said. Ye shall indeed feel and 
endure the power of ungodly pleasure, love, and incH* 
nation to wrath, lasciviousness, luxury, and other things 
of the same kind, which will try hara to allure you into 
the kingdom of the devil; (that is, into sins; which 
spring from thence, but which are nevertheless evils in 
themselves ;) but ye ought by no means to follow these' 
enticements to evil, but rather, enter into battle wiUi 
them and resist them, as the Israelites did the Jebusites' 
and Amorites, &c.; that thus the kingdom of God, 
which is the real land of promise, may be enlarged. 

But there are others in this kingdom of tibe devil» 


Tiffho uo remain thi^Y% as ^ be d^Iig^ted tfierein ; and 
yi\io follow all the desires of the fl^h, the world, aosl 
the devil ; and they would, if they'fcould,- remajui thereiq 
i^or ever. These,, under the ir^u^nce of the devil, 
lightly esteem and even lay waste the kingdom of God. 
iuid, therefore, they scrape tog^tiier i(k^ies,::build mag- 
latently, and search after all thin^ that tiba world has 
t9 give, as if they wished to remain here for ever ; but 
tb^ never rememb^, that, as Paul saith^ ^^ we have 
bere no continuing city." Such utter this Petition with 
tneir lips, but %ht ag^nst it in their hearts ; like the 
pipes of a rattling organ, which sound loud noises every 
where throughout the church, but yet, have neither 
sense nor understaaiding. And perhai>s ^o^e saine 
organs are permitted to be a figure^and representation of 
such chantings and prayers. 

J The Second is the khigdom of Grod: that is, a 
kj^doxn of righteousness and truth : concerning which 
Christ saitib, ^' Seek ye first the kingdom of God aiKl 
his .^righteousness." Apd what is- the righteousness. of! 
God, aiid of his kingdo(a ? — That by which we ate 
made free from all sin 4 and under which al] our mem- 
bers, strength, and fowigrs, are made subject unto God 
aod broudit into his service : so that we are en€U:>led to 
spy with Paul, "I live: yet not I but Christ, liveth in 
njie." Gal. ii. 30, And again to the Corinthiaiobs, '* Ye 
are not your ow%ye are bought with a price : therefore 
glorify ^od in your bodies, which are his." 1 Cor. vi. SO, 
4^ M ^ had, said, Christ bought you.Mth himself; 
tl^efore ye ought^'in right, to be hi^, and to permit him 
tp live and jeigp in* you. And that is done, when no 
^Hi'^Vpl^i^..^y ^bA his gtace,hai3^ dominion, over a$. 
4|nd* thus, the jkjngdom of God is oottiing more or less 
tjjan^ peace,. k>whnQS% ^ Ji wiili4jy^ jiuceTOSSi, love, . awl 
ott^rvjut^tvi^ of 4^.8Am@ kind:^ and,. where there-k nO' 
\}^t|i,^;m> hatr^, ;9$^ bitterbesis, no luist^ nor any otbear 
sjysLdestrwJp^^ pa^siKMk;. ;... ; j , ,0. . r . - - r 
^i vljeip, iik^ Ux. evbry due; ifell . «xaqiine Uibs^,^ 
whethWyhe.fe^loflgritOi Jthfcj sidc:or tbatj thus sHafl. he 
knp^ jin:Tvhk:htP4w^;t>V(^!kinigdojtt9 h^^ stands;. /Ebteigh 


Ituere^is no one who does not feel in himself someliiliig 
of the kingdom of the devil : and therefore it is, tSis^ h^ 
has need to pray ' Thy kingdom come." For tfie kingf 
clom of God only begins here : it is consummated in the 
lite to come. 

In a word, this Petitipn, * Thy kingdom comV 
means, permit us not, O dear Father, to remain ao^f 
longer in this life ; in ord^ that thy kingdom may bk 
perfected in us, and that we may be wholly daUv^E^W 
from the kingdom of the devil. But, if it be thy wiji 
that we should yet live longer in this exile, give unto us 
thy grace, whereby thy kingdom maybe begun and con* 
tinually carried on, and the kingdom of the dq^ 
utterly destroyed. 

And now observe, that there are in this matter. twA 
great errors. 

The one error is of those who run here and ti^m^ 
some to Rome, and others to saint James, that th^y 
may become holy, and ifit to procure to themselves^ t^ 
kingdom of heaven^ and to be saved. This one bu44$ 
a church, that one a something else, and another ft 
something else, and yet none ^f them are willing to cQfis^ 
to the grand and central point of the matter ; that is,. tQ 
yield themselves unto the service of God from the i% 
most recesses of the heart, and to be made his kingdonh 
Thpse persons do many such external works, cm4 
shine brightly in them ; but inwardly they remain ftll^ 
with all evil affections, wrath, hatred, pride, impatjl^cyj 
lust, and other crimes. And it is against $i}(:h:that 
Christ sp6ke, when, being asked when the kingdom o| 
God should come, he answered, '* The kingdom of God 
cometh not with observation : neither shall they say, I^J 
here, or lo there : for, behold, >the kingdom of Gq(^ Ui 
within you." Luke xvii. 20, 2K iSid agfiin Ch^$]^ 
saith, ^^ Then if any man shall say unto you^ Lo her0 i% 
Christ, or there, believe it not. For there shall ari^ft 
false Christs and false prophets." Matt. }^xiv.£%^ 
As if he had said, ^ If thou wouldst kaow wh|<;h is, Um 
kiqgdom of God, thou hast no need to go ^^ s^^r^lii 
of ifsf nor to go ^on pilgrimages aftfr lAii ^pif thm^ 



wfiling) th« kingdom of 6od, is ni^ thee; nay, not offljr 
mgh thee, but also in thee : because, lowlmess of mmd^ 
humility, truth, pureness, and all virtues, (which truly 
are the kingdom of God,) are obtained by no one from 
beyond the seas, but must be found in the recesses of 
his own heart. Wherefore, we are not to pray thus, * 
dear leather, let us find out and come unto thv kingdom; 
(as if we were to run about after it ourselves ;') but, * Let 
thy kingdom come unto us/ For the grace of God and 
his kingdom and all virtues must of necessity come 
unto us, that we may thus obtain that kingjdom : seeing 
that, we have no power whatever of coming unto it of 
ourselves : even as Christ descended from heaven unto 
us on earth, and we did not ascend from earth unto him 
fa heaven. 

The other error is of those, who, in saying over this 
Petition, are only anxious about getting to heaven that 
Aey may be saved ; thinking, that the kingdom of God 
is nothing, else than joy and pleasure in heaven ; which 
is all that they can imagine under their sensual desires. 
Whence it comes to pass, that they are always in fear of 
hell, and therefore, only seek in heaven their own advan- 
tage. — Such know not that the kingdom of God is 
nothing else than a state of perfectness, humility, purity, 
godliness, humble-mindedness, and of the exercise of all 
virtues and graces : a state wherein God possesses in us 
what is properly his own, and wherein he alone lives and 
lipigns in us.. 

This is the state that ought to be desired by us above 
and before all things : for this is to be happy, when God 
reigns in us and we are his kingdom. And, as to joy, 
pleasure, and all other things that can be desired, they 
are not to be sought, asked for, nor anxiously inquired 
after ; because, all these> things will follow of themselves, 
and will ever accompany the kingdom of G5d. For as 
excellent wine cannot be drunk without bringing wrtfi it 
a pleasure even unsought for, and its own "peculiar sweet- 
ness, without any prevention or impediment ; so, much 
more^ where the grace of God and the accompanying 
virtues (which are the kingdom pf.God) are wrought, 


te^re must of tiecessity naturally and freely ^tloiir, 
vrithout any industrious concern of ours, joy, peace, sal- 
Bnettion, and every delight. And hence Christ, to turn 
iiito another direction that eye which is evil and always 
iixed upon its own advantage only, admonishes us t6 
seek after and desire, not those things that accompany 
the kingdom of God, but the kingdom of God itself: 
Whereas, the characters abovementioned, seek first after 
that which is posterior and consequent, and regard noj 
that which holds the first place : or, if they do seek that 
which holds the first place, they do it for the sake of getting 
that which holds the second place : and therefore, they 
attain unto neither : for those who do not rightly desire 
the first, will by no means attain unto the second. 

Third Petition. 

Thy will be dane in earth as it is in heaven, 

^ This Petitio'n also works those two things which w^ 
mentioned under the preceding head. Namely, it humbles, 
and lifts up : it manifests the ungodly, and makes the 
godly. For the Word of God at all times works both 
judgment 'and righteousness ; as it is written, * Blessed 
are they who always do judgment and righteousness.'— 
Judgment is nothing else, than a man's knowing, judg- 
ing, and condemning himself. And this is true humility, 
inasmuch as it is not a feigned humbling of ourselves. — 
And righteousness is nothing else than a man's truly 
desiring and seeking (after having been thus brought to 
a knowledge of himself) the grace and help of God, by 
which things he is lifted up and exalted before God. 
By a view of these two things in this Petition we see, 
First, that we judge and condemn ourselves by our 
own words, and confess that we are disobedient unto 
God, and do not his will. For if we were in that state 
that yve did the good will of God, this Petition would 
be givpn us in vain. And therefore,' this is a thing 
terrible to be heard, when we say, * Thy will be done.^ 
For M'hat can be more awful, than that the will of Go<^ 
is not done in any of our actions, and his commands not 
Tegaitled ? ^ Yet. this is what \w confess -openly against 


ourselves^m thk PetitioD. For it must be trae^.thatut 
do not, and never have done^ the Grod> seeing 
that we pray that it may now be done. .. . ^inbe ther^OEp 
this' Prayer is to- be used by us eyen.tUidD the very eaojl 
of our lives, it follows, that we are found, . evea unto oor 
death, to be transgressors of the divine will. Who then 
can here take pride unto himself, or have a vain confi- 
dence in the merit of his pmyers, by which he finds 
himself to be, and in which he confesses himself with 
his own mouth to be, guilty of disobedience :. for whid li 
he may justly, should God judge him according to the li 
strictness of his judgment, be reprobated and. damned 
every moment of his life ! Thus does this Petition work 
the deepest humility, the fear of God, and self-condem- 
dation, so as to bring a man to rejoice when he is de- 
livered from this judgment of God, and saved by grace 
and mercy only. This is for a man to judge himself, to 
exercise judgment upon himself in the sight of Gtid, to 
know himself, and to accuse himself of thos^ things 
which are comprehended in this Petition. 

Secondly y we see what is righteousness* — ^That, after 
we have in this manner deeply examined and judged 
ourselves, we should not despair on account of the 
judgment of God, (which we find by this Petition we 
justly deserve,) but rather, flee ^unto the grace of 
God, and most firmly believe and trust in him, that 
his will is to deliver us from disobedience and tiie trans- 
gression of his will. For he is righteous before God who 
humbly acknowledges that his rebellion and transgres- 
sion have merited the strictest judgment of God ; and 
who, on that account, seeks grace with all his heart, and 
doubts not that he shall receive it. And tbus,^^ the 
apostle also teaches us, that he is a righteous man who 
can stand before God in the &ith and trusting confi- 
dence, not of another, but of himself ; and whose refuge 
and comfort are, not his own works, but the mere mevcj 
of God. — rOnly observe, therefore, whata powerful blow 
)the present Petition gives to this ftail ; and miseraUB 
life ; — that this same life can be considered as nothinc 
else but a state of rebellion against the will of Gof^ait^ 


1ikerefor«, a atate of l^e most certain^ damnatioii ;^ oor 
psiy hope lying in onr acknowledging this, g^eving on 
account oi it, and pouring out prayers in sincerity from 
our heart. — ^^He that in this way diligently meditates- on 
Aist Potion, together with the rest, and deeply revolves 
tiiem in his mind, will not be mnch taken with the 
iiifiierous pleasures of this life ; and he who is stiU: 
fiDLtangted in and carried away with those pleasures, 
iriainiy manifests^ that he neither understands any thing 
mf the Lord's Prayer, nor of the perils with which his 
ttfe is surrounded. 

i . If it he asked what it is do the will of God. — ^To do 
the will of God is undoubtedly nothing else thaii to keiep 
his commandments, for it is by them thai God has made 
known his will unto us. — Here therefore we rtiust consi- 
der what the commandments of God are, and how they 
are to be understood ; which is a subject that may 
eoEiploy a very extensive explanation. But, to express 
Ae matter in few words, all these commandments enjoinf 
itothing else than that the " old Adam" be killed in us : 
aifsi the apostle teaches us in many places. And, the 
**old Adam" is nothing else than those inclinations to 
Unutb, hatred, lust, pride, ambition, and other thiiigs of 
tbe same kind, which we feel Working in us. For these 
wicked motions and affections are hereditary evils, an4 
y&Bte transmitted to us from our first parent, and engen- 
dered in us from our mother's womb : from which evft 
motions and affections, arise all crimes, impieties, mur- 
,<ienr, aduheries^ thefts, and the like transgressioris of the 
oomniandmehts of God : and thus by disobedience the 
will of God is not done. 

Of I Hence then learn, with what great, necessary, and 
setiiDus perseverance, and, in -a word, with what feeling 
sense of l^art, this Petitibn is to be put up ! And h6\v 
great a thing it is for our will to be mortified and th^ 
ikiil bf God done ! It is in this wgtfy that thou' thxi^tj 
know >thyself, and confess that thoa art a sihner^ who 
i^esisitest sttch lEtnd io grekt a wiH of God ; and thou mtii^V 
la^g help atrid grace thai God would forgive thee thatt 
^^dtt thou hasit fptiled, &nd give thee Heljf) t6 do ttlMI^ 


ho requires of thee. For it mast of necessity be, itiA f 
the will of God be done, our will must come to nou^l^ 
because these two are contrary the one to the other.-iP 
See an example of this in Christ our Lord, who, whfflte' 
prayed unto his heavenly Father in the garden, ^that 
the cup may pass from him/ yet added, ^^ ri^everdieleM^ 
not ray will but thine be done." And if the will of GhriH 
is to be disregarded, (which without doubt was goqd^ 
nay, ever the most perfect,) that the divine will may be 
done ; how shall we poor miserable worms attempt ta 
maintain and have our own will, which is never free iioa 
sin, and always such as ought to be prevented ? — But to 
enter into this more fully, it must be understood, that 
our will is evil in two ways, — 

Itrsty When we openly ^ without any cloak, and with 
our whole will, are carried on to the commission of that 
which is in the sight of all an offence and scandal : sudi 
as being filled with rage, deceiving, lying, injuring our 
neighbour, indulging lust, and doing any thing of the 
same kind. This ready inclination of the will to evil 
discovers and manifests itself in every man, and especially 
when in the act of the perpetration or commission. 
Against this will we have to pray, that the will of God 
may be done ; who wills, that all should be peace, truth, 
purity, and kindness. 

Secondly, When we do it secretly and under tfie 
Itppearance of good. As James and John did, Luke ix. 
when they said, against the Samaritans who would not 
receive Christ, " Lord, wilt thou that we command fire 
to come down from heaven and consume them, even as 
Elias did ? But he turned and rebuked them, and said, 
Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. For the 
Son of man is not come to destroy mea's lives, but to 
save them."— This is the spirit of which all men are; 
who, under the unrighteousness or folly which comes 
upon them or others, rush on headlong (as we say) and 
want to have whatever they have presumptuously planned 
in their own minds done immediately. For they complain, 
saying, * O how good, faithful, and upright, was my 
intention ! O how. I wished to help the whole city by 


'my counsel ; but the devil w6uld not permit it ! Thus 
mtsy imagine that they act righteously and justly, because 
ihey are wrath and morose, and because they put them- 
selves and others in a tumult, and thus spread abroad 
the report that their good intention is hindered and pre* 
vented. Whereas, if they, saw the matter in its true 
light, they would find that all was mere pretence, and 
that they, by that good intention of theirs, sought nothing 
but their own profit and honour, or at least, the pleasing 
of themselves. For it cannot be possible that any good 
will or intention, if it be good in truth, should be dis- 
turbed by any wrath or disquietude, if it should meet 
with hinderance or prevention. Do thou therefore dili- 
gently observe this — that it is an undoubted proof of an 
evil will or intention, when it is indignant that any impe- 
diment should be thrown in its way : for this indignation 
18 that very fruit whereby you may know that this good 
will was full of pretence, deceit, and innate depravity* 
Because, when any really good will meets with impedi- 
ments and is resisted, it always prays thus from the very 
heart, *0 God, I thought that this good intention which 
I had conceived would have been accomplished, but 
since it is not. to be so, thy will be done.' For 
wherever this indignation of a chafed mind boils up, 
there, to a certainty, is no good, how good soever it 
may seem. 

But above and besides these two-fold wills, there 1$ 
another lawful and good will ; but yet, even that must 
not be done, — Of this kind was the will of David when 
he attempted to build a temple unto God ; for which he 
was praised from above^ though God did not permit his 
will to be accomplished. Of the same kind was also the 
will of Christ in the garden, when he prayed that . the 
cup may pass from him ; yet, it was necessary that even 
this gocld will should be disregarded. 

And thus, if thou couldst convert the whole world, 
raise the dead, and mount up thyself, and carry others, 
into heaven, and do all miracles, yet, thou oughtest to 
wish to do none of these things, till thou hast first found 
^ut and preferred the will of God to thine own will, hast 


fteen thine own will bix>ught to noa^t and subsenriMl' 
to his will, and hast been enabled to say, ' O my good 
Lord ! my judgment considers such and such a thin^ 
to be good and right ; if it please thee, let it be done; 
but iif not, thy will be done.* 

This kind of good will of which we have been s 
God will destroy also even in his elect ; that no 
deceiving will might creep in upon us under the appeal^ 
ance of a good will ; and that we may learn that our wi 
however good, is of unspeakably less value than the wil 
of God. Hence it is just, that the vanity and vileaess 
of such a good will as this should yield to the infinite 
value of the will of God, be made subject unto it, and 
be accounted nought in comparison of it. 

But here it will be objected — What ^ has God tiiei 
not given unto us a power of Free-will ! — I answer: 
God has indeed given thee a Free-will ; but why ddflt 
thou make that will to be thine own right ? Why dofll 
thou make a slave of it, and not permit it to be free? 
For when thou abusest that will according to thine owA 
lust, it is no longer free, but rather remains as a slave to 
Ihy appetites. Whereas God never gave a ^11 to thee 
nor to any one else, that it should be made thine own ri^t 
That right had its origin from the devil and our firjjt 
'parent ; both of whom, made that Free-will that wafe 
given of God, their own. But a free-will is that wbicA 
has no will of its own, but commits itself wholly to the 
divine will ; by which also, it remains free, being fixed 
and bound to nothing in particular of itself. 

To conclude : Observe, how God in this Petitioa 
commands us to pray against ourselves; wherein hfe 
teaches us that no one is a greater enemy than we are to 
ourselves. For our own will is a certain mighty eneaiy 
in ourselves against which we ought to piuy, land say, 
* Father, suffer not things to come into that state thai 
I should do any thing according to my own will. Rather, 
break and defeat my will, and prevent the purpose rf 
my heart. And however the matter may turn out unt* 
me, yet, let it not be done according to the purpose of 
my will, but according to thy will only : for to ft'-is il 


Mvea where thera is no self-wfll whatever : and let it 
s^ so also OB eardi.' This Petition, however, and even 
as state of things, is greatly galling to nature. For our 
mnoi will is the most secret and most powerful evil inns; 
or is any thing dearer unto us than our own will, 
lierefore, nothing more or less is sought by this Peti- 
jou. than the cross, martyrdom, and adversity, and what- 
ver other evil may come upon us for the mortification 
£ our own will . And hence, if the lovers of their own will 
iSdy considered this, that they pray against all their own 
e^-pleasing will, they would either hate the Petition 
iltx>gether, or would be brought to tremble at it indeed. 
Here then let us draw these first three Petitions 
|bder one view.— The first is, that God's name may be 
sanctified, and his honour and praise may be in us. And 
imto this no one can attain, unless he be perfect and 
established in the kingdom of God ; because the dead 
lind sinners cannot confess unto God, as David saith in 
the 6th Psalm. And again, no one can be perfect 
unless he be free from sin. And we are only free from 
lun when our will is wholly rooted up and the will of 
God only reigns and rules in us. For when the will, 
which is the head and principal of all the members, is 
beidi^r our own nor evil, then, all our members are 
neither our own nor evil. And therefore this Petition 
Strikes at the very head of all evil ; that is, not our 
hands or our feet, but our very will, which is the head 
fountain-spring of all iniquity. 

Fourth Petition. 

Give us this day our daily bread. 

Hitherto we have been dwelling upon the particle 
)hy * but now, we shall come to the particle our. Let 
115 look into the reason of this. — When God has heard 
lis in the first Three Petftions, and begins to sanctify 
t^-Uoly name in us, he receives us into his kingdom, 
cold implants in us his grace, which begins to make us 
perfect. And when this grace begins to do the will of 
<jr0d,. it experiences the - resistance made l^ the oM 


Admn : even as Paul, Rom, vit., complains that lie did i 
not do what he would : because his own will which he I 
received from his first parent, together with all his 
members, warred against his good inclination. Then !b 
grace in his heart cries unto God against this same 
Adam, and says, * Thy will be done/ For a man ib 
this state feels himself pressed down with the burden of 
himself. But when God hears such a cry as this, he is 
ready to bring help to his own beloved grace, .that bo 
may enlarge the power of his kingdom thus begun : and 
he immediately with his determined and effectual power 
attacks the head of iniquity, that is, the old Adam, aod 
brings upon it the weight of various troubles and evils, 
breaking off all its purposes, blinding it, and quickly 
bringing it into subjection. And this is wrought whea 
he brings upon us various troubles and adversities : to 
accomplish which, malicious tongues, and wicked and 
malicious men are compelled to lend their aid, and if 
these be not sufficient, the devil himself, that thus at 
last our own will together with all its evil afiectioiii 
may be slain, that so the will of God may be 
done, and grace may maintain its kingdom, and tbe 
praise and honour of God reign triumphant. But "whSk 
this is going on to be accomplished, the man is wei^ied f 
down with heavy pressures and straits, and thinks f 
within himself, that the state he is in, is any thing butt 
doing- the will of God, and that he is utterly given up of 
God, and left in servitude to the devil and evil men; it 
seems to him that there is no God in heaven that will 
deign to acknowledge him or hear him. And this is the 
true thirst and hunger of the mind in which the man at 
length bethinks himself and turns to comfort and hdp. 
This hunger is far mbre aflSictive than the hunger of the 
body. And here it is that we begin to get into our ri^ 
place — to seek a relief for our necessities, and to prayt 
* Give us this day our daily bread.' 

But how shall this be done ? — God has left us many 
troubles in this world, and with them no other consola* 
tion than that of his divine Word ; as Christ has d^ 
clared unto us, saying, ^' These things have I spolcea 


unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world 
ye shall have tribulation," John xvi. 33. Aijd therefore, 
let him who has once turned his mind to wish that thC' 
Icingdom of God may fully come, and that the will of 
God may be done, — let him guard against trying to 
obtain any subterfuges, and against seeking any ways 
of escape, for all such attempts will be in vain. The will 
of God is done when thy will is not done : that is, the 
will of God is done the more, the more adversities thou 
sufferest, and especially in the point of death. These 
things indeed sweetly harmonize together, and are im- 
mutably decreed to bte the lot 6f every Christian, — tri- 
bulation in the world, and peace in Christ ! 

In these straits also the wicked are separated from 
the good. For the wicked, who soon fall away and leave 
the begun kingdom of God, understand not the will of 
God. They know not what profit straits and tribula- 
tions of this kind bring to the man, nor how they ought 
to behave themselves under them. Therefore, turning 
back again to their own will, they reject the grace of 
Gt)d; like disordered stomachs that cannot contain 
food. And some, falling into impatiency, revile, curse, 
and accuse, and are driven into utter madness. Others, 
run to this place and that seeking human comfort and 
counsel, so that they may get rid in some way or other 
of their present troubles and difficulties, and overcome 
and get the better of their adversaries, and, in a word, 
that they may become their own helpers and delivierers, 
being unwilling to wait for a little time until God shall 
deliver them from their cross. Such bring upon them- 
selves an unspeakable loss, in that they will not bear the 
saving and good hand of God, but fall back, and still 
retain their malicious and inveterate will, that is, theff 
own will : nay, like the Jews of old, they loose the 
wicked Barabbas, but as it were kill the grace and in- 
. nocent Son of God : as it is said of them Psalm cvii. 13, 
V They waited not for his ciounsel.-' 
. , But the godly and true Christians are wiser. They 
well:know, how good the ivill of God is, that is, a senfi» 
of* troubles upon/ troubles;; Th^ know, tnoiiBOver, what 

VOL. TT. 2 E 


it is their 4uty to do, or, -how tfaey oug^t to behaiw 
themselves under trouble* For they are well persuaded, 
that no enemy is ever conquered by him who betakes 
iiimself to flight ; and that, tiber^ore, neither adversities, I 
nor straits, nor death itself, can be overcome by impa- 
ti^pcy, by flight, or by any sought-out human consola- 
tion, but only by firmly resisting and pa%everme; nay, 
by a,ctively fighting against the. very events of aaversify 
themselves. For there is a true proverb, * He that fean 
hell is surely hastening to it.' And so, he that is afinaid 
of death is swallowed up by it for ever : and he that 
fc^ars adversities is overcome by them. Such a fear as 
this never brings any good : and therefore, in all such 
evils there must be a lively, bold, and firm with- 

3ut you will say, who can do ,thi8 ? — ^This is what 
the present Petition teaches thee. It shews thee how 
thou mayest find comfort, or turn such tribulatioB us 
this into peace. — ^Thou art to pray, * O Father, give ns 
this day our daily bread.' That is, O Father^ console 
9nd comfort me a poor miserable creature of a man^ 
thrown into tribulation by the divine power of thy Word. 
I cannot endure this hand ; which, nevertheless, brings 
me to damnation if I endure it not ; therefore, comfivt 
me that I* might not despair. Thus it is the will of God, 
that when under his will, that is, in our straits and tri- 
bulations, we sliould never haste, nor look to any tlung 
but unto God himself, by no means desiring to be deli- 
vered in our own way, (for that would bring us loss and 
destrucAbn, and would be a hinderance to the divine wfll 
and our profit,) but to be comforted only, and finally be 
brou^t to do this will gjf God. For as no man can 
endure fear and death jmt as he would without God, 
and unless he be comforted nuder the save ; and as no 
creature, especially man, either singly or with maay to- 
gether, can bring any help or comfort when it is soudit 
or needed, but rather must bring desolation, ana ai 
weakening of powers ; therefore, it is the Word of God 
s^ly and only, or, " our daily bread '^ wkeseby we must 
and c^n alone be comforted ; as God hims|Blf spedis^by 

' 411 

Tsaialiy " The Lord God hadi given me - the tongu^ joSf 
fixe learned, that I should know how to speak a word in 
§^on to him that is weary,'^ chap. 1. 4. And agaiii^ 
Matt xi. 28, ** Gome linio me, all y^ that labour .aiji^ 
are heavy laden, and I will give you rest." The Holy 
Scriptures abound, and are stored, and full of testimo- 
nies of this kind. • 

But you will ask a^ain by whom, and tl^rough 
wfebin does this Word come?— ^It comes in two way^. ; 

IlrsL by man ; when God makes his Word of con- 
Ablation to be heard from th^ preacher in the churcl^ or 
from any other person; which so comforts him that 
hears it, that he can feel in his mina that which is saidi 
" Fear not ; be strong." For the Word of Gojd, whep 
ft comes in truth, gives " a certain sound " in the heart* 
And therefote, all ol^i women, and old women^s pratings 
sbd fables, are to be kept and driven away as far ai 
f)dssibie from sick and 4ying beds • who will say,, ' Mjf 
dearest father, my dear John, there is no ferth^ 
danger. You will soon get well, and will come off qui^^ 
safe, and become prosperous.^ By which kind of wor^s 
hearts are rendered fearful, weak, and unstable. Whereas^ 
ft is written concerning the Word of God^ * Jhat it js ^ 
bread that strengtheneth the heatt of mdxi.' I theydfbre 
would say to those thus comforted, ^' My dear fathe^i 

f* 6 on to feed lipon and swallow down your miserabk 
lisks. -t expect a daily bread which strengthens nay 
heart.' And it is in this latter way only that those tha^, 
dire weak are to be comfortfed and powerfiiUy str^ngtl^Eif^ 
agaiiist death, and confirmed in all tribulations, ^d ^gif 
mated more and more unto the enduring of greater 
troubles. And if they should dbjeci that they should not 
be able to endure greater, this Petition is to be set 
before thena, that they may beg of God, (who will be 
in'quired of for all mese ihi'^gs^^ to give them that 
which shatf be sufficient fpr them. . .^ 

Stcmdttfy it comes from trbd himself, when ng 
4jSliises abroad in the man'steait labouring undeit thp^jB 
Durdeiii^ file comfort of his Word, Whereliy he is siip- 

2 E 2 


ported and enabled to endure all things ; because tbe ^ 
Word of God is of a power above all things. 

But what word of God is this, (you may ask) when 
there are so many ? — I answer : No one can detetmlne 
to a particular certainty what Word it is : for as oar 
sicknesses and burdens are manifold, so are the words 
of God manifold also. One word is indeed to be used 
in dealing with the fearful, and another when dealing 
with the hardened and presumptuous : we -are to alann 
the latter, but to comfort the former. But a§ we are 
now speaking of those in whom the will of God is done, 
that is, who are oppressed with tribulations and straits, 
we must bring forth those words which may strengthen 
them; as Paul does to the Hebrews in his 12th chap- 
ter. But since the Word of God is not in man*s power 
either to bring forth or to handle profitably, but in the 
power of God only, it is therefore necessary that we asJc 
nim in order that we may obtain it ; begging of him^ 
that he would grant unto us his holy ^ord either by 
himself or by some man. — And now it will be evident 
that he who has never yet been exercised with any 
burdens, and has never yet experienced the power of the 
Word of God, and how effectual it is to administer . 
comfort, is altogether ignorant of what is asked in this 
Petition. To such an one the Word pf God can have 
no savour at all, because he knows nothing about any 
other comfort or help, and has never tasted any other, 
but that of creattires and of his own producing. — ^But 
now let us take each of the particulars in their order, 
end thA search out the inward and real contents of this 
Petition, for it is very deep. — We take then. 

The first particle^ 

** BREAD.'^ 

The holy Word of God, on account of its number- 
less virtues and efficacies, goes by many names in the 
scriptures ; because it is indeed itself all things, and 
has a power over all things. It is called " the sword of 
the Spirit," whereby we resist the devil and all spiritual 


enemies. It is called a light, early and latter rain, hea* 
venly dew, gold, silver, medicine, an ornamehtal gar- 
ment, and it goes by many other appellations of the 
same kind. And so, it is also called " bread," because 
the soul is by it nourished, comforted, sustained, aud 
fattened. Nor are we to understand by the term bread, 
in this place, bread only. But as the scripture by the 
term, bread, for the body, means all kinds of food for 
the body, how exquisite soever it may be ; so, by spiri- 
tual bread, it signifies all the nourishments of the soul ; 
which are innumerable, because, there are many different 
souls upon earth, and each one has a different want, 
and is in a different state ; and yet, the Word of God 
can abundantly supply, and administer to, the wants of 
all th^se souls. For if the various meats of all the kings 
that ever have been, or ever will be, should be all 
gathered together in one place and in one heap, they, 
could not in the least be compared to the least of the 
words of God. Therefore, the Lord Christ calls it in his 
Gospel * a icing's supper,' and by Isaiah " a feast of fat 
things," a delicious and choice feast. 

What then is this bread, or this Word of iGod ? — 
This bread, this Word, this food, is none other than our 
Lord Jesus Christ himself; as he himself says, by John, 
chap. vi. " I am the bread of life that came dowiv 
from heaven and giveth life unto the world." Therefore, 
let no one suffer himself to be led into error by words, or. 
by any outside show of hypocrisy. All sermons and 
doctrines which do not bring with them Jesus Christ, 
and set him before us, are not a "daily bread," nor 
any food for our souls, nor can they afford our souls 
the least help under the least necessity or temptation. 

The second particle^ 

" OUR." 

This word shews, that the bread which we princi- 
pally ask is not that common bread of which even the 
Heathens eat, and which God without being asked 
gives unto all men ; but that peculiar bread of the sons 
(which sons we are) of the heavenly Father. We ask, 


therefore, not the earthly bre^d^ but t^e tru^ hes^veolj 
and sphjtual bread ; and we do not askl^ oi an Wt^, 
btrt 9? our heavenly Father ; which bread is Qjirs, aiiii 
betoiigs to, and is i^e^sary for, us heavily sons, K 
these things were not so, it woujd be superfluous to saj 
* Oiir daily bread i' Because the bread foj^ the bodj 
would be abundant;ly expressed by thes^ woijds only, 
^'Oive us daily bread/ But God would teach us, as 
his sons, to have a greater care for the soul d)an for thp 
bi^dy: nay, he forpi^ls our bemg cajrelt^^ ^bout tl^bse 
things that are to be e^ten and qrunken by tUe b64y- 

*^ DAILY." 

This particle " daily " is in tl;^e Greek of this passage 
ezr/ovcr/ov, which is variously rendered ; some translating 
it ' superessential,' others * choice and peculiar,' ^a 
others, hebraically, * to-morrow's bread:' that is,^ that 
which shall be ready to si^pply the necessity o^ to- 
morrow. But these various renderings need r^aise ^ 
scruple in no one's mind, for they all tend to the sa^ifi^ 
thing, if the genuine meaning and nature of this bi^ad be 
rightly set forth. 

First y it is called suppressenticU hreajd ; because, the 
Word of God refreshes man, not accox;|ding to the 
nature of thi^ body in, its mortal state, but immortally, 
siiperessentially, ahd far beyond this state, unto an, 
etfemal life : as Christ saith, * He tl;iat eateth of this 
bread shall live for ever.' Hence, the n^e^ing of this 
Petition Is, * O Father, give unto us superesseijtial, im- 
ifaortal, and eternal bfead. 

Secondly J it is called choice j soft^^ ^vA savoury bread; 
which is full of all pleasure and of the most sweet taste 
And, as it is writtei>,of the h^q^y^nly manna, that '^ It 
was serving to the appetite of the eater, and tempered 
itself to every, man's tstste,' Wisdom )jvi, 21; ^o, this 
Oiir heaverjly bread, is far more noble, deliqate, and 
saVoury, and more full of ajl virtues aqd excellencies, thafi 
earthly bfead. Nay, it may moreover be called iselect 
bread, aa being excel|ent^ p^culjar^ a^d proper : tbat^;, 


* " ' . 

peculiariy 8iid properly set apart for, and given to, us 
me sons of God ; and as the Apostle saith to Hbs: 
Hebrews, ** We have an altar whereof they have no 
right to eat which serve the tabettiacle,'* Heb, xiii; 10; 
so, we have, in the same mannet, a peculiar and proper 

And, thirdly, it is called hebraically, to-fnorraw^s 
bread. It is a peculiarity of the Hebrew language, that^ 
what we call to-day's they call to-morrow's. And more- 
over, that is called daily, which is prepared and ready 
to hand day after day, even though the same may not 
be in continuah use. THus, we are accustomed to say^. 
Such and such a thing is necessary for me to have to- 
day, or to-morrow, or every day, so tliat, if I have any 
occasion for it, it may be ready at my hand, because 1 
know not at what hour I may want to use it. And' it is 
just the same meaning that the Hebrew idiom has in 
the words to-morrow or to-morrow's. Thus, Jacob said 
to Laban, Gen. xxx. 33^ ** So my righteousness shall; 
answer for me to-morrow:" that is, to-day, or to- 
iijorrow, or whensoever it shall be necessary, my right- 
eousness shall answer for me and shall give satisfaction^ 
And therefore, the sense of this Petition is, that we 
pray, '' O God, do thou condescend to give us superes- 
sential, peculiar, proper, and daily bread : daily bread, 
I say, that we may have it always at hand as need 
shall be; and that, if any straits or tribulations shall^ 
happen unto us, (which is what we ought to expect 
every day,) we may have wherewith to be comforted,, 
lest perchance we be overcome, and, from the want of 
that bread, despair, waste away,, and finish in eternal 

Here then^ take notice how rich we Christians ought, 
to be, how great a provision of this bread we ought t<>. 
have, and how ready and jprepared^we dUght to be, that 
the Word of God may be daily reaidy to diir hand uqider 
every' temptation j whereby we may cdtafort botli our* 
selves and others, according to those examples which we* 
see in the letters and lives of saints: Aiidj it is our own 


fault, when, because we do not beg this bread pf Godf 
we have none at all. Hence it is also, that we are com- 
pelled to have all those ignorant bishops, priests, and 
monks, who have nothing whatever wherewith to feed 
us. And when this is the case, then, what was bad, we 
make still worse ; we hate these, and revile and slander 
them. Behold, therefore, into what a state the wrath erf 
God has brought us. 

The fourth particle^ 

" GIVE." 

No one can of himself obtain Christ Jesus, who is 
the bread, either by study, or by learning, or by hearing, 
or inquiring, or searching. All die books in the world are 
too few, all teachers ineffectual, all the powers of rea- 
son too feeble, to attain unto the knowledge of him : he 
must be revealed by the Father only, and freely given 
unto us : as Christ himself saith, John vi. 44, " Na 
man can come unto me, except my Father which hath 
sent me draw him." And again, verse 65^ " No man 
can come unto me except it were given him of my 
Father." And again, verse 37, " All that the Father 
giveth me shall x:ome unto me." And therefore also, the 
same Christ now teaches us, that we ought to pray for 
this saving bread daily, saying, ' Give us this day,' &c. 
^ But this our bread, which is Christ, is given unto us 
two ways, 

Fi7\st^ externally, by men, as ministers and teachers. 
And this also is done two ways. First, by a sermon ; 
secondly, by the sacrament of the altar ; of which two 
Mays, much may be said. But, to be brief, it is a certain 
reat gift of grace, when it is granted, of Godj that 
Ihrist should be preached and taught. Though nothing 
else ought to be done throughout the whole world, than 
the preaching and proclaiming of Christ, and the 
begging of God that daily bread. Christ is received in- 
deed in the sacrament, but that sacrament is in vain, un- 
less there be a distributing and teaching of the Word at . 
the same time. For it is the doctrine of the Word that 


-brifigs Christ forth unto the people, and makes hitn 
.known to their hearts, without which, he can never be 
nmderstood in the sacirament. 

Secondly, internally, when God himself sheds abroad 
the power of his own doctrine. There must be this in- 
/temal communication of the divine Word added to that 
which is done externally, or else all the external act of 
preaching will be attended with no fruits. But when the 
external act is rightly performed, (as it ever ought to 
be,) then the internal eifFect will not be wanting ;^ be- 
cause, God will not permit his Word to pass by without 
being attended with fruits; for he is ever present, and 
teaches that within, which is brought forth by the mi- 
nister without ; as he himself saith by the Prophet 
Isaiah, " As the rain cometh down, and the snow from 
heaven, and retumeth not thither, but watereth the 
earth and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may 
give seed to the sower and bread to the eater : so shall 
my Word be that goeth forth out of my mouth : it shall 
uot return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that 
which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing where- 
Hnto I sent it," Isaiah Iv. 1 0, 1 1 . Hence they who 
know Christ and feel and taste him by inward expe- 
rience, — such are made true Christians ! 

But' you will say, What is it to know Christ j and 
what does that knowledge signify and comprehend ? — I 
answer : To^ learn Christ, and to apprehend him by 
knowledge, is to understand and know Avliat the Apqstle 
saith of ChHst, 1 Cor. i. 30, " Who of God is made 
unto us wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, arid re- 
demption." And this thou then understandest when 
thou art brought to know, that all thine own wisdom is 
damnable foolishness, all thy righteousness damnable 
unrighteousness, all thy sanctification damnable un- 
cleanness, and all thy redemption miserable damna- 
tion: for in this way and by this knowledge thou wilt 
find thyself, in truth, one that is a fool, a sinner, un- 
clean, and damnable: and then, thou wilt declare, not 
only in words, but from thy inmost soul and by thy 
works, .that thou hast none other consolation and salya- 


Xion left hut that which God. haa maA» dhiktt tt> be tttt U 
thee: in whom, thou wilt see tha neeessity of belienii| W^ 
and thus, of partaking o^ the blessings in >him : w I'' 
thus, his righteousness done may save thee. Andfcnrdusp 
righteousness thou wilt call upon him» aad place ia I" 
whole trust in him* : nor wilt thou have fmy odier QMS- Ifl 
dence but in the eating of this bread : as Christ saiA 1^ 
by John, " My Father giveth you the true bread firooft. |' 
heaven," chap. vi. 32. ^ -' 

But you will say, Who knows* not that we mt 
nothing but sinners, and are saved by ChrisI ak>ne ?— I 
answer : It is indeed a great grace to be able to know 
this, to confess it in words, and to hear of it. But, 
there are few of those who know and confess tl^se 
things, whose knowledge is attended with the reality and 
feeling sense of them. And this, experience proves. For 
if at any time they be held up to contempt^ or looked 
upon as fools and sinners, they cannot bear it. They 
immediately find out some wisdom and sooie moral 
goodness of their own, out of Christ; and especially, 
when their conscience accuses them either in life or is 
death ; and then, it is entirely gone from their eyes thai 
Christ is their righteousness ; and therefore^ they fly to 
this thing and that, in order to deliver and oom^fort theic 
consciences by their own works and virtues ; and when 
they find these bring no help, (which they in lealitf 
never can,) then they fall down into the gqlph. dt 

You see, therefore, how much ought to be said upon: 
these things, and how all sermons ou^t to set tibese 
points forth. For if Christ wene set fortbx in this wecfj 
and that excellent bread thus, distributed, their scnus: 
would embrace him,^ and would endeavour to exerdac 
themselves in the use of him under all: those tribulatioDf; 
which may. come upon them by the divine pernussioo;^ 
and thus? they would be filled with confidence asd 
strength, and would fear neither their own sina^. their 
own conscience, . nor the devil, nor death.: — ^You . see^. 
ther^efore, what effects are wrought by ihi^ daily breai^^ 
which is truly Christ himself. Jput tboni canst, dnuf^ d0^ 


now 4^^ any ^vantage whatever frQ^^ |^.^ 
unless 6pd set him rortk before thee ia the Word, s(f 
piajt thou mayest be able to hear him, and understanc) 
and know him. For i^hat wiU it profit thee to know ^hat 
lie sitteth V^ heay^ or tha^ he is sigi^iified under thie 
Sf^reo/ bread? He ^lust b^ distriboited to th^e^ set 
before thets, and brpught unto thee in tl;i? Word,Tr-tha^ 
Word which teacheth inwardly while it soundeth out-: 
wardly. Behold this is, in truth, the Word of God [ 
Ghrist is the bi;e9.d— the Word of God iS: t}he bread ;---: 
find yet, all, are one, and o;:ie bread! Becaitse, Cbris^ 
is in the Word, and the Word ip Christ! And, ii^ 
a word, to believe in the Word, is to eat this bread. 
And, tQ whomsoever God giveth this bread, he shall 
live ifor ever I 

Thejifth particky 

'' us." 

Here every Qne is admonished that he should most 
widely open his heart ujato all Christians, and pray both 
I9r himself and all men; and especially? for ministers 
who handle the Word of God. For as in the Three Pe- 
^tiQps which form the First Part, we seek after and de- 
sire those things which are God's, that he would con- 
^spend to restjore and maintain his kingdom in us ; so, 
now we pray, for all Christians. For nothing is more 
necessary and useful to the whole of Christianity, than 
daily bread; that is, that God would condescend tO/ 

rt his ministers the grace of instruction, and cause 
Word to be preached, and heai;d throughout the 
wimple world* For in proportion as the priestly dignity 
and the Word ofjGo4 flouri^ in their proper state and 
holiness, so, Christianity thrives and flourishes. And he 
I^limself has enjoined us. to ask tbi? of him, where he 
says, " Pray ye therefore the lord of the harvest, that 
he- would send forth labourers into his harvest." Where- 
fpre, according to. the right rule of chari|y,/vve ought 
above all things tp pray for all Christiaps : in which, we 
do, a somptjiing grieater. than in praying fop oursjslves 
cflly* Foi; ^s Chffysogtom. says,. ' He tljat .grays for all: 


'■" " • lit)] 

Christians lias his prayers repaid by the prayers of 
Chrfetians : and therefore in the same, prayer in wl 
he prays for all Christians he prays for himself/ 
indeed it is not a truly good prayer, in which any poson 
prays for himself alone. I would have thee dier^ore 
think and Consider, that it was not in vain that Christ 
taught us to pray for all men thus, ' Our Father.* He 
does not say, My Father. And again, * Give us this day 
our daily bread.' Not, * Give me this day my dafly 
bread.' And he puts also in the plural number, as a 
noun of multitude, "owrd^bts," " owr debtors," "lead 
us not," " deliver w^," &c. 

The sixth particky 


This particle teaches us, (as we have before ob- 
served,) that the Word of God is not in our own 
power. Here therefore all false confijdence, all acuteness 
of mind, all reason, all skilfulness and wisdom, must 
fail and give way. For in the time of temptation Grod 
must speak to us himself, console us with his own Word, 
and keep us safe. For even if any one were furnished 
with such an abundant knowledge of the scripture that 
he could teach the whole world, being himself in peace 
and quiet, yet, if God did not come to him when Uie 
storms and waves began to rise, and teach him inwardly 
by himself, or speak to him by some other man, w 
whole would be in a moment cast into oblivion, and his 
ship would at length sink and be destroyed : as it is 
described in the 107th Psalm, " They reel to and firo, 
and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wit's 
end." That is, their wisdom is so wholly swallowed up, 
that they seem to have no understanding whatever 
left. — Since, therefore, this our life is full of perils, and 
we have to expect at all times various tribulations, and 
also the straits of death and pains, of hell, we ought 
always to go on in fear, and pray that God would not 
delay his Word, but that we may have it to-day, even 
immediately, and daily, a,nd continually close to us, and 
that he would by it give us our " daily bread ;^' and, as Paul 

Kith to ]9ie Ephesians, that he would grant, that Christ 

Kay be in us and may dwell in our inward man ; not to* 

j^orrow only- or any time afterwards, as if we wished to 

pass to-day in security and without fear, but to-day 

also. Nay, that it is better said to-day than to-mprrpw, 

experience itself teaches u^, if at any time an occasion 

happens wherein the will of God is done in us, and all 

^our own self-pleasing will is driven to destruction by the 

most pressing straits. Then^ we in truth wish, that God 

would give us that bread, not only that day, but in that 

hour and moment. 

To conclude this Petition, then, the sum of it is 
this. — ' O heavenly Father, as no one is able to endure 
thy will, and as we are all too weak to destroy eflfectually 
our own will and the old Adam, we beg of thee that 
thou wilt feed us, comfort us, and console us by thy holy 
Word, that thou wilt give us thy grace, and that thou 
wilt, by the preaching of the Word, diffuse abroad that 
fieavenly bread Jesus Christ throughout the whole world, 
|:hat we may hear of it and known it in our hearts, and 
that at length all pernicious, heretical, erroneous, and all 
human doctrines may cease, and thy Word alone, which 
is the true bread, be spread abroad.' 

But you will say, Do we herein pray also for the 
earthly bread ? — I answer : Most certainly, that bread 
which is necessary for the body may also properly be 
understood as comprehended in this Petition : but it is 
principally Christ the spiritual bread of souls that is 
here intended. And therefore, he has taught us not to 
be careful about the food and raiment of the body, but 
to think only about the necessity of the present day's 
food ; as he himself saith Matt, vi., " Take no thought 
for the morrow, for the morrow shall take thought for 
the things of itself: sufficient unto the day is the evil 
thereof." And this would indeed be a good exercise of 
feith, if a man should learn to pray for to-day's bread 
only, and should know how to trust God for all things 
besides. Not that we ought not to labour for our tem- 
poral food and profit ; but that an over-anxious care 
m^y not distress ,us; as though we could not be . fi^ 


without out being filhed with cares sud straite dbdut it 
Thatthas, out labour itself may hb taote t S6rVicfe rf 
God, a&d undertaken to avoid idlienediS, aftd io fulfil ihlS 
comm£indment which God gave Unto our fif^t par^^ 
' In the sweat of thy btow shall thoU eat thy brfead •'— 
It should be rather thus, I gay, than th&t we shbUld be 
filled with cares and anxieties jibout the way in v/hiiii 
we are to be sustained : for God will properly provide 
for that, if we do but labouf simply and accoMiiig t6 hS 

The Fifth pExirtoN. 
And forgive us our debts ^ as we forgive our debtori. 

This Petition may b6 understood two Wftys. — first, 
God pardons the faults of some secretly, when thley 
themselves have no experience of the same : evien afe he 
imputes the sins of many unto them and reserves th6to 
for punishment, while they neither knoW not care anjf 
thing about it.— Secondly, he pardons them openly, hM 
experimentally : even as he marks out the sins of man^ 
Experimentally and openly, they themselves knowing 
nothing of the same. 

But you will say. What is the meaning of all this? — 
I answer, it is this : God most lovingly favours stimt 
tAeiLy and forgives all their sins from hi§ gracious tiefift,^ 
and yet, says nothing to them about it, but so deals witn 
them both outwardly and inwardly that they iBdagine tof 
themselves that they have any thing but a gracious GdA, 
and that God will damn them both tetfaporally aUd 6^f- 
riaily, as he is thus striking them frdni without, and fillW 
them with terror from Within. One df th6se was Dft^ 
when he says, PiSalm. vi. 1 , " O Lbrd, rebiike the iiOt ik 
thine anger, neither chasten me in thy hdt displeasUi^.' — . 
. And so als6, on the contr aty, he reseives the sitis of MSnV,' 
aSs beihg their en^ttiy. And yet, h6 tells theto n6thffig| 

a:bout mis ; so that they taay think within thfeiMself eft 

that they are his deafest sons. They live hdppily wlth- 
6ut, and all is joy within, and a certainty of he^v^TV 
felicity. These are dei^ribed, t^salin x. 6. '' H« hmi 


tttd tn his heart, I shall not be moved, for I fihall tk(^ 
be in adversity froto generation to generation." 1 knoi^ 
(^th he) that no one will ever drive me away with any 
vic^ent force, or hurl me out of my place.* I shall be 
free fiDm all peril and adversity. 

But again, God sometimes condescends to shed 
abroad freely in the conscience the experience and con- 
solation of joyful confidence in his grace, that the man 
may be comforted by that grace, and -fully ttust in his 
comforter when he comes into any straits of conscience, 
— On the contrary, God sometimes permits the con- 
science to be terrified and cast down with sorrow, in 
order that the man may learn to fear God even in the 
time of prosperity. 

The first of these pardons is more bitter and afflict- 
, ilig to us ; but it is, in truth, the more noble and gracious. 
The latter is more simple and easy. Christ gives us an 
example of both in Mary Magdalene. — Of the first, 
when he turns his back towards her, and yet talks with 
Simon, and says to him, " Her sins which are many 
are forgiven her." But at this time she was destitute of \ 

peace. — Of the second, when turning his face towards 
her he said, " Thy sins are forgiven thee, go in peace.'* 
Here she was made partaker of peace. Thus by the 
former we are clean ; but it is the latter that brings 
peace. The forfeer is attended with labour and distress-; 
the latter with quietness and peace. And yet, there is 
between these an immense difference. The former stands 
in naked faith ; the latter in experience. God uses the 
fbnner in dealing with men of a great spirit ; the latter 
in dealing with those that are weaJk, and as yet labouring 
in their beginning. 

Being therefore thus taught by grace, we are to be 
tl^ider the persuasion, that every man is a sinner against 
God, and has also others sinners against, or debtors 
to, him • 

'' First y we are sinners against God, and that in great 
and damnable Sins from which few of us^ are found to 
be fr«e. And even if any one be of such amoral good- 
ness that he be i\pt as yet polluted )vith these greater 





sins, yet, he is still a debtor , to God : for he does not 
fulfil the precepts of God beyopd what they require, 
nor indeed does he show forth one duty, so as to return 
the least gratitude or thanks unto God for all the gifts ^, 
and benefits that he has received above others : who, L 
nevertheless, has sufficient reason to praise God for the 
coat or cloak that he wears every day, (to say nothing 
about his life, his health, his honour, his riches, his use 
of reason, his friends, and numberless other benefits of 
God.) And therefore, if God should contend with him, 
that which Job saith would be proved to be true, ' That 
man cannot answer God one of a thousand/ Job ix. 3. 
And he would then find, that it would be better for him 
to put up this prayer unto a gracious judge that David 
did, when he said, " Enter not into judgment with thy 
servant, O Lord, for in thy sight shall no man living bis 
justified," Psalm cxliii. 2. For there is no man so 
morally good and perfect, who has not some of the stink 
and dregs of the old Adam remaining ; on account of 
which, God might justly reprobate him. And hence, it 
is humility alone that keeps even those safe who live 
under grace ; whose own sins are not imputed unto 
them, because they judge and condemn themselves, and 
supplicate for pardon, and mercifully pardon their 

Secondly, there are also debtors Mvtp us. For thus 
does God permit, in his management of things, that some 
one or other should rise up who may trouble or injure 
our property, or fame, or any thing else of the sime 
kind belonging unto us ; and thus give us an. occasion 
for repenting of our sins and pardoning our debtors. 
And even \\ a person has none of his troubles arisii^ 
from injury done him by others, (which is by nb means 
a favourable sign,) yet, he finds in himself some feelings 
of disgust, suspicion, and loathing with which he ,is 
moved a^^ainst others. And as the blessed Augustine 
saith, * £very man is a debtor unto God, and has man 
& debtor unto him.' And if any man believe that he has 
not a debtor, he is blinded in mind^ and do^s not rightly 
ki^ow himself. ^ , 


Here then, behold what n picture ti>ts colamiUms 
fe presents unto us : that there is neither food^ ^mfort, 
or help foi; the soul to be found in it : as the precede, 
ig Petition plainly shows us. And to this we'are to 
dd our own state by nature, . which is diligently to be 
onsidered, and on account of which we are fiilly de- 
ervitig.of damnation : which will come upon us, if we 
»e not sunned by this petitiw and refreshed witii tM 
reely-granted mercy and grace of God, And thus the 
najesty of the Lord's Prayer shows ui^to us the whole of 
his life as full of disgraceful sins and shame; so that 
we are well nigh being weary, and tired oi it. 

And here also, calumniator, do thou attend. Turn 
hy judgment upon thyself, "hnd commune with thine 
^wn heart. See. who and what thou art. Putthii^e 
land into thine own bosoin, and then thou wilt forget 
iU the evils of thy neighbour, because thou thyself wilt 
ind both thy hands full of, yea running over with, thine 
>wn evils. 

Sixth Petiti6n. 

Lead us not into temptation. 

From this short Petition we again leam how miser* 
Lble this life upon earth is, seeing that, it is a state <tf 
lemptation onlf! And therefore, he that promises' to 
limself peace and security therein is the greatest of mad-, 
oen, because he can never attain unto them. And 
pven if we were all fired with this desire of peac^, :an4. 
iU:>directed our efforts unio the- attainment of i^ jt j^^wli^ 
be to no putp(^ :; this life i^ a. state of temptations {'and 
M> it will remain. Hence, we do not say, ' I'ake away 
RroiB us temptation,' but/ Lead, us not into temptation.' 
^ if it were said, W^t adre surrounded with tejipptations 
pa Qvcury; side : but Q, our Parent, be.ithoa ouk help, th^it 
m^ J^ l^ot^led into them : that, is, thtit;, we ; consenjt not 
iin^; i^^iiti^: laud thus bis taken abd , overcome by tl^em. 
F^Jb^:t^t with his; will inclii^ and consents : unto sici, 
iftH 8in<|(»,ia|id made, as Paid saithr " tt^ilNryant.of ^siq." 
H^nce^ agreeably .to. the words of .din^Jidessed, Jpl^j 



thiisr life te nothing dM. thad a state of vravfare and of 
didtr^^ittg cohfK(;< with s^^ viliere that heHldb dl^|g* 
asi^nlts ttd Mithout cessiltion, and ^ideavoulft id devdOP 
nai in his ntisatiable Jaw&. And therefore FMef* teitl^ 
'* Be sober, be vidlant: because ydtii- adversjury dtf 
devil, as a roaring Hon, walketfi about seeking whom 'he 
teay devour/' Here observe, how oll# belovlBd:iiEKdMr 
am faithful shepherd Peter tells us, thai we isfe soi^ 
after bj this our adversary^ and thiit, rkn in one {d^^S^ 
but in all places and eVery where. And' this is doM^ 
when he sttird up, puts in motion, and urg^ on, o# 
members and sens^, inWahlly by eVil suggestion^ and 
Mtwardly by ettticibg fbinns and images, aMd also by 
wc^, by actionis bearing a bad eltampde, by tueil, and 
by k\\ bl-eaturteis ; wh^n, I toy, by ail die^ means, ftad 
in this WiEty, hcf excites us^ and stirs u& on t6 lust^ tokngo*,- 
^ ^rjde^ Bind to covetoui^ness ; whei^> he drttws ^ 
rtikhbri With the wh^ consent of his will When> tii^ 
fore, a man sees and feels these things, he ou^t M- 
mediately to lift up his eyes unto God and say, ' Behold, 
O God and Father, how I am moVed and urged on 
unto these shameful things, and am thereby prevented 
from doing the good work which I have before me. 
Drive away these things, O dearest Father ; assist me by 
Ihy help, and permit me not to yield and be ovetxioasev 
O how bles$ed would be the man who^ i^hould always 
e jcereise hini^lf in such a form of petiti^ aod pray b 
such a manner! But there are not H fbw^ w4io an 
busied in ^ide^ouring to kbow whether o^ not they aMi 
teiofiptedy and what th^ ought to do tinder temptatkHii ' 
But you may ask, ^at is temptation P-^Temptafien 
is twofold. ; . i. 

The (me khid of temptation is /hm^ the kjt hmAf 
which drives tis on to wrath, hatr^i bitt^rtiess^-slbdii 
di^ust^ dxid implitience; luid partitularly b6^ W:lMt'iili& 
are iri iH health or in poveir^i when 1^' are tf^tedwitt 
di^rtispect, or when we are under any of tho6ia liifilg^ 
which bring grief and distress 10 the raAnd ; ^tteMe 
es^ially, wfa^n at any time our will is o]^ipi986d 'Or Mr 
pitf^ose broken bff, or when ow ofribsoi^, t^iMfieJ^ cB^ 


m^. For ^i ikme things w» cqwwoi? jo.^iis li^^ 

id G^ permite th^pa tojake plage, by npea^ift (rf iftft- 
eow$ flwao, Qy Qf the cjeyil hims^f. An<Jj' w}^ apy 
^PQ of this kind fai^gms tp b^ ^XirJP^ MR i^ us, w|^ 
ive Deed of the wisest circwmspeciioft ; poji shoyld ^jUj^ 
W i)Q' filled )yjith ;(^'PG(<^r9 ^eoiqg .^at this is the jia^ture 
jthQ pi^^ot life ; fejit ratiiien PWypr is tp be ppjirecj 
Bkh^ and every grs^n pf th^e vwipvis ipQtipjis i^ to .be 
l»fWly wp.tched, and w§ prajf, .sayjng^.'Q 
%tbpr^ ti».s tempSatipn come» uppq pae I knpiy by fhy 
iltoission; send mp feeip, thiji* .it :Qy0rcoine «vp POt^^gq? 
iw weawfty.' . 

Uiider Jl^is. t^paptatiw in/ep. fpo^ishly err in Jj^p 
iy3.— I© the one, whpm they W» ^l^ wQuld willipgl^ 
iMftte myself ^Q hpliDess ^.n^ pj^ty, .aiijd ayoid c^ngej:, if 
wiuJdi.dp it peaciB?kWy and quieily,-rln thq pther, wh€» 
ay ceass not ^tp >Keary bptfo Q/pd wd his sftiftts.wjtji 
ifttering players, un[til they ar^e delivered fropi tlieir 
aapt^tion, <).ne wants his leg cured ; another wf^j^ 
te allpwed to r/efeain his pwnr,righ^pusne8s; saiQ^f 
WBt^ hig^ W^lth .incF^^sed. N^r dp .tbfiy; .^yer .o^a.t^ 
?.il^/iati ppsdbk iftPai^, hpfe: l)y tfieffl^lFe^. Wd 
TOUgb .others, that they >m^j b?:est«ficated jBtp4.lii?%^S^ 
J t of A^r Pfesept . eyA* ; tteas beppming ., ,^lptl^ J;)^ 
J8e0er^, and cowaijdjy ^pl^iefis^ M^hp; a^re ujnyilli^ 
tbe«^ to b^ (tempted Pf to ,figbt,;wd who tjier^pfie.flfp 
*to be: crp?«aed : ,©^,?-atter, ;ift^ fall into thflt,teqii|Hr 
dofti/^bidbt.isiFpmv&e right fefl^wd^ of lyhic^.WP^IwaH 
«ak i pi!e$elitlyw Wb^l^, if- Bfta^ters w^re ijg^ is^ii 
em they woUl4 QPt with impunity endj^ftj^ofjjr^i^Oj^ 
fc^l^C:^ ayoWitejjipitfttiQn, ,l^t r^ PfPfW>»^ to 
dM3^c» a:;cpnqu0S(t;oxar lit by bwd warfare : for s^^^i 
^ lk% dmmcters tQ ^iii^m Jtlwi sawit, Jpb^ alludes, >yit>iw 
i JWyi^i "': Th^ life; of :»a» is* TOWfwB, (pf. t^a^j^^m^ff 
llktiwii.cU . :! . -t. ■ i ■ .r >i 

ii/fi^.d^e.QrjSLjii^ t|y>.wh^D^:^PM>^Wi#P 

itfeflu werowae; mx. tjsJce^i 4Wfty ; .i)ut ipto wWcU thf^y 
kig; fted ; di^p» . 9Aii ; deeper grp^^ r 6«ioiK jwith. mg9fy 

2 F 2 









and ^ve themselves up wholly to the devil; pronn^i^i 
both by their words and actions, that they are duefBiii^ 
and robbers, revilers, backbiters, cursed children, a^||ri 
in a word, the perpetrators of all evil, because temptaln |^ 
has overcome them : they follow the whole bent of tfaeir 
depraved will in all things, and call not upon God 

Since therefore our life is called a temptation em 
by God himself, and since we must of necessity be 
exercised with adversities and injuries in our body, oar 
property and our honour, we ought to bear these adver- 
sities patiently, and conduct ourselves prudentiy under 
them, saying, ' Well ! this is the nature and pecuiiir 
state of tne present life ! How can I alter it or make it 
otherwise ? It is a temptation, and a tenoiptarion it wil 
remain. This life cannot be, and ou^t not to ix^ 
otherwise. Help me therefore, O God, that the temp- 
tation may not so move me as to entirely overcome me.* 
Thus, behold, no one can be free from temptations ; bot, 
a man may easily resist these ev9s, and wisely esca^ 
them ^ though it must be by prayer and by imploring | ] 
the divine aid only. — We have it related in the lives « 
the ancient fathers concerning a certain younger brother 
among them, that he expressed his desire to be iree from 
the plague of his evil imaginations. To whom one of 
the elders replied, * Thou canst not, my dear brodier, pre- 
vent the birds in the air from flying over thy head, but 
yet, thou canst prevent them from buflding their nests in 
thy hair.' And again, the blessed Augustine said), 
^ We cannot avoid temptations and adversities, but we 
can, by prayer and calling upon God for his divine aid, 
take heed that they do ncit overcome us.' 

The other kind of temptation is from the right hand, 
and is that which drives us on to lust, pleasure, {Hide, 
avarice, and vain-glory, and, in a word, to all those tilings 
which are sweet and pleasant to us : and this temptation 
is the strongest, when any one is left to do without 
restraint whatever he pleases, accbl*ding to the inclination 
of his will ; when his words, opinion^ and works are 
praised ; when honour is paid him, cUid he is made of 
t))e greiitest consequence. This is th^ most destructive 

temptatioBy and most properly represents the timos of 
Antichrist ; concerning which David saitb, Psalm xci. 7f 
*^ A thousand shall fall by thy side^ and ten thousand at 
diy right hand." And this temptation universally pre* 
vaols in our times. For now, the only things that the 
world seeks after are riches, honours and pleasures : and 
being wholly intent upon these; things, in this our day, 
it learns not to resist lustful pleasures and temptation ; 
and therefore, it easily falls and is overcome. But that 
is accounted no disgrace, because the whole world is 
every where filled with the jests of play-houses^ with 
amourous songs, and with pimps and harlots, as if all these 
things were right and proper. All which things ought 
to be looked upon as signs of the terrible wrath of God, 
who thus permits the world to be led into temptation, be* 
cause no one calls upon him. This kind of temptation 
is indeed powerful and too much for youth, when the 
devil, breathing into their whole flesh, inflames their 
very marrow, their bones and all their members, and 
also allures them outwardly by sights, by gestures, by 
dancings and lascivious motions of the body, by dress, 
by conversation, and by the enticing appearances of men 
and women : for, as Job saith of the devil, " His breath 
kindleth coals," chap. xli. 2 1 . Thus the whole world now 
is arrived to a pitch of madness in dress and ornaments ; 
but it is not impossible to overcome all . these things if 
any one give himself unto prayer and calling upon God, 
in such a way as this : * O Father, lead us not into temp- 
tation.' And in the same manner also are we to pray 
under temptation to pride, when we are exalted with 
praise or loaded with honours, when our riches are in- 
creased, or when we are filled with, or abound in, any 
other worldly pleasures. 

But you will ask, why does God permit man to be 
urged on to sin by temptations. — I answer : That man 
may thereby come to the knowledge of himself and of 
God; and may arrive at that knowledge of himself 
which may convince him, that he can do nothing but 
isin and do evil, but that the grace of God i$ more 
pbwerful than all creatures ; and that he may at length 


i^am to abhor himself, and to prais^1b<!l lliud tfie;p^ y 
rfGod/ For there have febeh sbfflfeiifttblia^fe ^fS^ V 
ifeuredto Wat with ^'d subdie lufe^ in*drtiWfi;Sfre] 
l)y fasting and ^bAut, ttnd ^et, .ftfey coiild Wit . 
What they Wished, ev^ thoteh \fiey eJcIiabsf^ fell the 
][)()wers of their body, and left thisnrsdves thin and fai- 
Serable. For there is iiothirfg httt the ^c»ven!fy cfews ^d 
showers 6f divine grace that can still, subdue, arid extin- 
guish, the burning flame of natute's tftst. 

To conclude. After God has fdrgiveh tis tetfr debts 
there is nothing that we have so devotedly to Siriftch 'an3 
fiiard against, 'tfs thiit We fdl ^6t' ^'gain fjatb the -Jiafte 
nlth. Since therefore;^ as David saith, there 'ctfe in the 
great and extensive sea of this world " things CreSpibg 
innumerable;" that is, temptations arid TidVersfries, 
Which strive to bring us tmder debts again ; Ve hjive 
fteed to pray without intermission from the inmo^ re- 
cesses of our heart, * p Father, lead us not itito tempta- 
tion. I pray not that I may be utterly delivered from £(B 
temptation, for that wduld be a fearful state, (for %"& 
far more destriictive than ten other temptations vfh^h a 
temptation arises from the right handy) but that I msty 
hot run and fall against thee, nor tratisgress agaiiist my 
neighbour. And it is in the ^ame way that'James exhorts 
us, saying, " My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall 
into divers temptations," chap. i. 2. Arid why? Be- 
cause they exercise man ^and teach Him|humility and pa- 
tience, and make him acceptable linto God as a dearest 
son : and blessed are thcJy who can receive this doctrine 
into their hearts. But alas K we all in this day s^ek after 
rest, pleasures, peacJe, and our own advantage in the 
whole of our lives. Wherefore, the poWer of Antichrist 
is at our doors, if it be not come already ! 


But deliver us from tviL Afnen. 

Here, carefully observe, that it is 'ii/ ike endj that we 
'aV6rt by this prayer, and are tsiu^t to avert, the eVils 
theihselves: that is,^fires,'i5editions, feililfae, Wars, f esti- 

f^qtil fa«Mi body. Fo^ we n^ay iiegef Gpd ^^ t^^ eyi^ 
iQtay be aveilied, bat yet, the petition mas^ be ip its due 
Mrder, and 9} ^e l^st place. And why ? ^ecjoiu^e the^ 
V0nQt ^few who bonoui: fjod ^d pmy vjiplio hi^ x^dy 
tbat tkeym^y be delivered from e^^, and tjha):,is all they 
isee^ afy^. ^eh never think any tlUng aibi>ut l^e Firsjt 
Petition, — that they are 4q prefer the bojoo^^ j^ajD^,an4 
'jvill of God to every thing else. And. thefefqie, i^y 
j9eejk their own wjU ooly^ and thus pervert t^ ,^^^119)^ 
order of this PetiticHi^ c<9pmen^ing at .the ^nd.^ ^nd 
,Qever coming up to tike beginning at aU. They want ftp 
jfeie delivered from their troubles whethqrGpd >will orpo, 
And whether it is to his honour or not. Wherea^, a truly 
-God-fearing man prays thus, ^* O dearest Father, ^he 
affliction of this evil that is come upon ;m^ bwdens ;an<d 
distresses me much, and I suffer much adversity ^d 
disquietude of mind : and, in a word, I am under feints 
of hell also. Deliver thou me jtherefore from Jthese e\^& : 
..and yet, in no other way than in that which a»ay redoTOd 
-to thy glory, honour, cmd praise: not my will, but 
.thine be done. For the honour and will of thy divide 
Majesty are dearer to m^ than all my own peace or ad- 
vantage, either temporal or eternal.' Behol^, this |s ^ 
: consistent and^right prayer, fwhich will ^without doubt ^l^e 
-heard in heaven : but if thou pray in any qtber way, w 
rfrom any other motives, such a. prayer ^will neither 
.please God nor be heard at all. 

Since therefore the is nothing^n 
a state of misery :and evil, from which sflso .tempt3.tiops 
spring innumerable, we ought to pray, to, ^e delivered 
from evil unto that end, that temptation , and sin may 
cease together ; that thus, the will of God may be done, 
and that his kingdom may come, unto the ;prai^ iaqd 
.glory of his holy name. 

Concerning the particle^ _ [ 


This particle Amenris an Hebrew word, jand sig^i^f s 
^ certairily ' or * truly.' It is ^ .t#rm wi?fftKy pf part^Mlf^r 


ootiee, because it is expressive of £buIIi, which fiddrkii 
necessary that we have in all oor petttiona : far OmA 
said, ^< Therefore I say unto you, "wbBt tlm^ soever ]fe 
desire when ye pray, believe tibat ye receive them and ye 
shall have them/' Mark xi. S4. And ag^, in another 
place, *^And all things whatsoever ye shall asic m 
prayer, believing, ye shall receive," Matt. xxi.-28. And 
thus that gentile woman received what she asked for be- 
cause she did not cease from prayer, and because she 
firmly believed : and therefore the Lord said unto her> 
** O woman, great is thy iaith, be it unto thee e^fen as 
thou wilt,*' Matt. xv. 28. And thus also Jaodes saitfa, 
^* If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, tfatt 
giveth to all men liberally and uplnraideth not, and it 
shall be given him. But let him ask in faith nothing wa- 
vering : for he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea 
driven with the wind and tossed. For let not that man 
think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord,-* 
chap. i. 6 — 8. And therefore, as the wise man saith, 

* The end of prayer is better than the beginning.' Be- 
cause, when at the end thou sayest Amen with a heart* 
felt and full persuasion and faith, then, most certainly, 
thy prayer is accepted and heard. Hence, he that is 
about to pray, ought to try and examine himself whether 
he believes or doubts that he shall be heard. If he 
finds himself to hang in doubt, and to fluctuate in an un- 
certainty of mind, then he may be sure, as much as if 
he knew the event, that his prayer is come to nou^t 
For how shall it please God, who has most certainly 
promised us that we shall receive whatsoever we shall 
ask in prayer, if we by our udbelief make him a liar, 
and, in the whole of our prayer, act within against th^ 
prayer itself, and derty that truth of God on which we 
call in our prayer ? 

This particle Amen therefore signifies * certainty,' 

* surely,' * firmly,' and is a term expressing a solid soul- 
faith : it is as if one should say, I do not doubt, O divine 
Father, since these things are certain for which I have 
prayed, ^hat they will be done and accomplished : not, 
however, because I have poured out my prayer for 


thihgs, bat bedauee ihcMi hast cmvaaiicted^tblii 
thdy should be pmyed for^ and faaat promised that tJbKilu 
wilt 'bestow theotu Thei^fefe, I atn certaitf that. thdw art 
trueiand xanst not lie. 'And thcorefore alw, it is bpt/the 
worthiness of my prayer; but the all fiiji persuasion of 
tiiyttrath, that makes me to belieV!e,and to be persuaded 
he^pdod all doubt; that all is, and wiU be, Ami^. 

Here some greatly err : they do not cdohe up ,tD this 

i9t their prayer, but pour out multitudes of pi^yers 

from their tongue, though never from their heart : : and 

.fliat, . because they wiU not believe before they are 

heard,, andiivill not i^now and Judge whe^er or not they 

haver, prayed rightly: ^nd thus, they build upqii them* 

whres and iipon the sand.. AU such charaicters ar^ 

niidier condemnation : for it is not possible that such 

prayer can in itself be worthy of being heard, of God^ 

becansejaU prayer must most firmly rest upon the truth 

and promise, of God : for if God had not commabded 

us to pray, and had not promised us before hand that he 

would hear us, all creatures together could not obtain 

one single grain of profit by all their prayers, how urgent 

soever fliey may be. — ^Therefore, carefully observe, that 

prayer is not good and right because it is nluch, or 

long, or pleasant, whether it be put up for temporal or 

eternal things. But, because it most firmly builds, and 

most confidently believes, it is therefore heard, (how 

common, plain, suid unworthy soever it may seem) be* 

cause of the all-true promise and pre-<leclaration of 

Gpd. It is the Word of God and his promise, and not 

thy devotion, that makes the prayer good. In such a 

ri^t prayer, the faith rests upon the Word pf God, and 

the posture of mind is right ; without which things, all 

other states and strainings of mind in prayer are mere 

errors and deceptions* 


SouL. — O our Father who art in heaven, M^e thy 
children i;pon earth are driven into es^ile fix>m thef? : for 


Omte is > tgmt'dMk between iteb tMdwf Oinif 
ihatt M^ ever rataiti ODto tiiee en^tplief «Ar sdEMabvl i ; 

%«nt his nmster^ if ^en I be « fttifatr^' ^l^inn iisitiufli 
tioMttr? and If I be « teaBter, allege: 16 siy ifiettr}' 
^ And my <iiame coiortiiMiaJlj every day k tflaeplMidl 
both by you and among you/' AfalaichitLiiS^ iayniikjS, 

#SS[>t0/.^-^Alas ! It IB true, O Fatkee, aud ^we et>ti&8s 
oor fault. But do thou condescend to be wnto ui aui» 
cifbl Fallier, and enter ndt iiifto judgmeiititfor idontenl 
^ith QS^Ibot grant us thy graoe, that oai' life BMyiie siHb, 
ijiat thy most holy name may be sanctified in ns^ ^- 
mit us not to think, speak, do, ha^ or pixipose anj 
thing but that which Ms for its objects ithy ^ry and 
honour ^ that thus, before atR lyings, tby ixmoiir :and ibt 
glory of thy name, and not our 'own vain ■ honour and 
name, may be sought by us; Grant unto iuto, t 
Mm loveth his father, soHve may lov^ thee, veverenoe 
thee, and fear thee ! " 

"GoS. — 'How can >my tionom* ^nd-tname be sanctified 
•in you when ye are ca|)tives under iniquity, and ^ivfaen 
Hihe motions - and imaginations of your hearts -are prone 
'to evil ?>^' No one can sing imy sotig in.a strange land'! 

Soul.— These things, O Father, are true. We fed 
^by experience that our members are prone to evil, and 
that the world, the iJefehjiand the devil, ivish to'have the 
-dominion over us ; that they may thus driive.arway thy 
^honour, and the iglory^of thy name. Wherefore, we pray 
'that we may be defivered from this State of e&ile, and 
that thy kingdom may come unto us, that, ein being 
'driven away far from us, *we may become holy, pore, 
' and well-^pleasing unto thee, and thatthou aione mayest 
"reign in us, and we may be made thy ' kingdom by:tbe 
obedience of all our powers both outward andinwanl. 

God. — Whom I design to help, him I first destroy ; 
and whom I design to make alive, happj, rich^. and holy, 
him I kill, reject, bring tp want, pnd . reduce to nothiiig. 
But this my counsel and work ye will not endure. How 
.then shall 1 bring you help, orwhatmore oughtvL^b do? 

Soul.^^We ^lepeM- of these our ^Ittdc^^-^^^tiiat we 


^Si^ \ifii3Mkmid tt6r «bijKuti thy itt^ htM: <^m 
grace, O Fatil«»; tad Iblr^ i^ Itt()^, >dl» ^e kiiy 
^ m^l of tby iliVi«^ M«j<^ Vo t)^ cbiM 't^ us. 
tiSi^fi tHb6, hb^ paMfbl ddi«Ve» it toky b(i Hititb ^i^ 
[''vmi #hat fh^ M« ■ddlkig.i^^otiVititte «4, i^CJI^Wii 

%=tts; biiMii^ ! 1&6 T^t thtdti wife, idAV^tlht ;«^id,-ieiid 

> not suffer us to •{)yeSttMe utodeir bi/r .Wi^<^tbhi 
» to ktte(fthplish 'biit- 'ovttt judgraetit, >*rilJ, ur "tiMHisel. 
Sr % tfin «id '^iMri MWays op)f>6sc 'efticli tttJifer. Tfrjr 
m. i« billy "^d eVih ^fm^ it ddbs 'iidt App^Ht, Mt 
br Will is di/fy eVileVfeh"\M<id6'Jt bpjjdars in itsbSHgHtest 
a*rt¥s. ■' 

' igiM— Jt'lia& dfteti happented th«t toafiytaVe loved 
fe Wieh dwiii- tadoth, '&n<l 'lied lintt) ' itlfc 'rt^th = tHefr 
tagtfe.Vhne^ii-'heaft ^as hdt'right #ith fflejlMit f«* 
tffey froih trie. Wlio, whe6 I tb6k theA in hantJ, re- 
aWed afid w^ht itfadk a^sSfl, asybu r«ad in thte7Sth 
'ialtti, vier. 9, '* Th^ tUragd back in the day df battle.** 
llese, thbilgh Ihey "began w^ll, yet ttfftied 'bacSc from 
ii, a:nd fell anew Ihto sin aWd itito >the di^hotrouirii^ 
f tny liaiu^. 

-Soul. — Ah, Flathfer! art th^se things ttfetttDe. "'By 
trength shall no man prevail," 1'^. Who ca* 
Ktod bdfdife thy pOwi^r, if thoti 'dost not thyself'coinfort 
Ad Wftesh us With 'tfonsolatibn? Wherefore, <iiiid^ 
BVihg Father, take us liito thy hand, aiiti accomplish all 
hy will in us, that'itfc'ttiay'bemade «hy'kiii«dom tothe 
^oty^aiid'praisie of !hy li&txie. 'Gife us, O dear 'Father, 
tfih^th' uhder all this'fhy Work; and -by the sanctifying 
jdwer'of thy^^di^gitiBuS'dih- dailybreaid. Iteffress 
fpbnoiir Htai'ts^the'ittiage of 'tlty fle^irly b^lOVed 'Son 
P€fetasChi?8t, the ■ti-ute'hea'v^edly 'bread ; 'that,<being'COin- 
bhed through h«ft, "we' itoay bte teiftitiled 'to bear antl 
ake joyfully the desitwdtiofa and toonJficittimj ■ <rf •our 
iHU, and ttle 'atfednftiUshttftnt df thy^^dipleasure. Tea,. 
*!Vfc "^ttfee linto all >GhriStialis : %«nd 'uiitotte -priesls 
iM pr6a*efe 'thtit eyCatV m awtriBfe,' #ho ito' thiir teach- 
li%^<teAy^t-'belbit u5,"ri^t "btfsks^ 'atid^hdif, find '^ 


0ifld dnssyms of q\d wives faUes^;hyti)|hjq,|K)ly doctrine 
of thy . Goapc^' and Jesus Christ, ^in^^ , ^ 

CrQ4.-^I% i^ Bot igood and hp|y ,tot taJ^e; the childten's 
bread aiid .cast it. 'unto the dogs^ T^; daily epractue 
i^uityK, And wh^n I myseif have' sent unto you the 
praftcMng of my Wo9m1^ and it has been before you ni^ 
foid day, ye neither hear it,, nor pi^ctise what ye hesTi 
fmd thus my Word is set at nought i 

Soul. — O Father, we are implicatecl in this faoltf ] 
but grant us mercy : and do not, on the account of that ^ 
pur sin, deny us the blessed bread. Alas, we repent 
-(hat we have not done thy holy Word, and we beg of 
thee to have patience wim us thy miserable children, 
and forgive this our debt : and' enter not into judgment 
with us, for in thy sight shall no flesh living be justified. 
Remember thy promise according to the direction of 
wJlich we have from our hearts forgiven our debtors, and 
Hi lyhich thou hast said, that thou wilt forgive us who 
i^are thus endeavoured to forgive others, yiot that by 
t this our forgiveness we are worthy of the grace of thy 

promise, but because thou art true, and liast by the 
preaching of thy Word promised that pardon to all who, 
with free kindness forgive their nei^bours : in which 
promise we confidently trust. 

God.—l do freely forgive you and grant you deli- 
verance, but ye by no means constantly persevere. Ye 
are of little faith : ye cannot watch and endure w ith me 
one moment : and ye quickly fall into temptation. 

Shut. — O Father^ we are weak and destitute of 
strength, and there is a great and various temptation 
from the flesh and from the world. O dear Father, pre- 
/ serve us and do not permit us to fall into temptation and 
4p sin again ; but give us grace to persevere and fight 
/manfully unto the end of our life ; for without diy 
grace and help we can do nothing. 

God. — I am righteous, and my judgment is just ! 

and therefore, sin cannot remain without punishment. 

. Ye must therefore endure evil, that there may arise there- 

. from a sufficiency of temptations. But all this hajppens 


im your own faults, which force me to punish and 

Soul. — Since then evil affords a cause for transgres- 
Du and temptation, O dear Father, deliver us from it ; 
lat, being freed from all sins and evils, vrh may be able 
I become thy kingdom according to the good-pleasure 
* thy divine will, and may praise thee continually, bless 
tee,- and declare thee to be all-holy. Amen! — And 
Qce thou hast taught and commanded us to pray thus, 
id hast moreover promised to hear us, therefore, 
' most loving Father, we hope that thou, for the sake 
: thy glorious truth, wilt in goodness and mercy grant 
I all these things ! 

But here, auer all, some one may perhaps object, 
ut what if I cannot believe that I am hesurd ! — I answer : 
^o as the father of the possessed son did, Mark ix. 
3, 24 ; who, when Christ said unto him, '* If thou 
inst believe, all things are possible to him that be- 
eveth," immediately exclaimeid, " Lord, I believe, help 
lou my unbelief!" 










Martin Luther of Wittemberg, of the Augus- 

John Duke of Saxony, Landgrave of Thuringa, 
Marquis of Misnia, his kind Lord and most de- 
voted patron IN the sacred cause, sendeth greet- 
ing, AND WISHETH happiness. 

Illustrious Prince, and kind lord ! I would long ago 
have given your kind Grace proofs of that obedience 
which becomes ray humt)le station, and of those duties 
which are due from me in ray ministerial capacity, had 
I not, when I considered my poverty, always found it 
loo great to hope, that it would ever be enabled to find 
out any thing that should be worthy of being offered to 
your illustrious Grace, But since that my most gracious 
Prince and Lord, Frederic Duke of Saxony, Archmarshal 
of the sacred Roman Eifipire, Elector and ProreXj 
Landgrave of Thuringa, and Marquis of Misnia, the 
brother of your illustrious Grace, did not only not 
despise a little work of mine which I dedicated to his 
most illustrious Grace, but most kindly received it, and 
afterwards, (which was a thing that I never thought of,) 
printed and published it; I took courage from so gra- 
cious an example, and persuaded myself, that as your 
Graces were allied, and the same, in princely blood, so 
I should find you also a princely mind, in benevolence, 
and in good and gracious kindqess; and therefore I 
hoped, that from your samehe^ of blood and of 
kindness, this my poverty, how great soever it may be, 
would not be contemptible in the ey^s of your illustrious 
Grace. For how insignificant soever this little treatise 
may be, it is perhaps more importantly worthy of being 
published than any of my other works or sermons which 
I have produced ; since there lias arisen such great and 
transcendently important questions concerning good 

VOL. 11. S G 


WORKS. In which questions, as there are found by far 
more numerous arts, deceits, and frauds, than in all 
other creatures put together, so the unexperienced and 
simple man is easily deceived by them. And hence it 
was, that Christ our Saviour commanded us to beware 
of false prophets, who come unto us in " sheep's 
clothing," but who inwardly are " ravening wolves." 
For neither silver, nor gold, nor jewels, nor any other 
precious thing, may be made so pure and valuable, or 
so adulterated and worthless, a3 good works. Because 
they are of that nature, that they must be of the one 
same unadulterated goodness; for without that, they are 
mere false colouring, outside show, and crafty deceit. 

I know there are many, and 1 daily hear them, who 
despise my poverty in point of good works, and say, tfiat 
I do nothing but put together a few poor commentaries 
and Sermons in the German language for' the com- I 
monalty and laity. Though that does not at all move me : 
for I would that I may be able with the labours of the 
whole of my life, and with all my powers, to be useful but 
to one of the laity unto his salvation ; I should then be 
content, and, would give thanks unto God, and willingly 
permit all my poor productions to be accounted nou^t 
For whether or not it be profitable to the kingdom of 
Christ to labour out with art a number of huge books, 
let others judge. I however am persuaded, that if I shonld 
set about compiling a load of huge volumes, according 
to their art, I should find it a task much more easy to 
accomplish, (God granting me health and strength,) 
than they would find it to compose one of my little ser- 
mons after my manner/ For if it were as easy to surpass 
as it is to persecute, CMst would long ago have been 
cast out of heaven, and God hurled from his throne. 
But however, though all cannot do the works of others, 
yet they will judge. And let them have, for aught I 
cdre, all the glory of their great deeds ; I will willingly 

E've it up to them, and will still go on, mot feeling the 
ast shame, to write and preach in German to the poor 
laity. And though I can do that but in a very simple and 
ignorant way, yet I am persuaded that if this , kind of 



teaching ever had been down to this time, and still 
should be hereafter, more frequently found, a much 
greater increase of Christian faith would have followed 
, it^ than ever has been produced by all those highly 
learned and great volumes ahd treatises which are 
written and handled in the schools only. Eut I have 
never entreated or forced any man either to hear me or 
reajdmy books. I, hftv^ freely laboured for the service of 
all^ according . to the ^ift which X haye received iftom 
above ; and he that does not like my productions, let 
him read and hear Othfefs. It is dfiOugh for me, yea, 
more than enough, that some of the laity, and those the 
ntio^ excellent ampijg them, have aujbmUtqd themselves 
to read my sermons. And if there were nothing else to 
encourage me, this would be quite sufficient, — that these 
little works of ipiae in the German language please your 
illustrious Grace, and that you, are most desirous of un- 
derstanding the nature both of Good Works and of Faith : 
whom, it became ijcie to serve >yith. all humble submis- 
sion. Wherefore, I entreat your illustrious Grace, that 
you w ould receive this little work graciously, how insig- 
nificant soever it may be, untilj Jiaving by the good gift 
of God obtained time for so dbingjI-sh^^U have cleajriy 
feet forth the whole of ^aith. It is my degigij;^ 
present occasion to teacli how faith Ought to be e^^r- 
tised in all good works, and J^hat we ought to consicfer 
faith itself as the most excellent of all works. And if 
God permit, I will, at spnie other time treat of faith 3er 
p3.rately/ and show how we ought daily to pray a;i^. Wj^lk 
according to it.-^Thus,* illustrious frince, 1 conjin^hfi 
lipiyself to your Grace* . . . , « , 

. Wittember^, 
ike i^ih day of March, l^^O. 

' > 

{ . 

2 g2 






Bt martin LUTHER. 



Thou shaU have none other Gods but me. 


We are to know, first of aH, that nothing is a good 
work, but that which God has commanded : and again, 
that nothing is sin, but that which God has prohibited 
and forbidden. And therefore, we have need of nothing 
else unto the understanding and doing of good works, 
than a knowledge of the commandments oi God 
Hence, Christ saith. Matt. xix. 17 y ^ If thou wilt enter 
into life, keep the coipmandments." And again, when 
the young man, Luke x. 19, asjced him what he should 
do that he might inherit eternal life, he set before him 
the Ten Commandments. Hence, we must learn to dis- 
tinguish between good works, from the commandments 
of God, and not from their external appearances of the 
works themselves, or from their magnitude or multitade. 
No 1 nor even from the opinion or judgment of men; 
nor after the manner of human laws, inventions, or tra- 
ditions; nor from any reason that is obvious to our 
natural views ; as it has ever been the case hitherto, 




iand ever will be, if we follow our own blindness, to the 
great contempt of the commandments of God. 


The first greatest and most exalted of all good works 
is faith in Christ: as he himself saith John vi. 9,9. For 
when the Jews asked him saying, " What shall we do 
that we may work the works of God," he answered, 
" This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom 
he hath sent." But we, when we hear this or preach of 
it, pass over it in a hurry, thinking it a trifling mattear 
and easy to be done ; whereas, we ought to make a 
stand, and duly weigh the point and meditate upon it ; 
for all works must, if they be right, spring from this 
work, and from thence derive as from a fountain aft 
their goodness. We must therefore set this forth in a 
full and particular manner, that it may be clearly under- 
stood. For you will find many who fast, build, and do 
this work and that, and live a good life before men ; and 
yet, if you ask such men whether they be certain that 
their works please God, when they live in this manner, 
they will answer that * they do not know,' or that * they 
are in doubt about it.' And moreover, there are some 
teachers who corrupt and seduce such, and say, that 
there is , no necessity for their being certain upon this 
point; and yet, such do nothing else all the while but 
teach good works. Behold, all such works are done 
wiUiout faith ! For such as a man's fisuth and conscience 
a^e toward God, such are his -works. And where there 
is no faith and no good conscience toward God, there, 
the main thing in all the works is wanting, and all such 
an one's life and goodness are nothing at all ! Hence it 
comes to pass, that when I make faith to be of such ip- 
finite importance, and reject the works of all those who 
are destitute of faith, many quarrel with me, and accuse 
me of prohibiting good works ; whereas, there is nothing 
that I so ardently desire, as to teach the good works of 


Again, when you ask such persons further whether 


they consider and ^eem th^t, io kpfi, good worji^, \i ho) 
they perform any wprkrWth thw baftdat when they, stai^ 
walk, eat, drink, or sleep, or do any thing of the same 
kind, either to the nourismnent of their body, or as a 
duty to the state; feind whether they^believe that they 
please God in those works; you will imd tbein say, 
no ! and th^y will so degrade and si^t at nought these 
works, that they u411 acknowledge none tOf be good 
works but praying in the churched, fasting, giving 9im!&, 
imd assisting die poor ; they look upon all other works 
as vain and of no account, a^d consider that God payis 
no regard to theni. And thus, by the - roost damnable 
perfidy, they rob, strip, and . pldnder Grod- of his! sen'ke 
and worship ; because, he is served 1:^ «very thing that 
Is of faith, whether it be* a work or a thou^t: for thus 
he has taught us Eccles. ix. 7, '* Go thy way, eat thy 
bread with joy, and drink thy wine with a merry heart: 
tor God now accepteth thy works^ Let thy garments be 
always white, and let thy head lack no Ointment. .. IAh 
joyfiiiiy with the ^nfe whom thou lovest, all the days (rf 
the life of thy vanity which he hath given thee under the 
^n/' — Here, having our garments always whit6,;sigpir 
<w^, all our works being go^, of whatever diflferent 
name or kind they may be. For then are my. garments 
white, when I am certain and believe ikiol all my work3 
please God. And thus also my souFs head will never 
iack the oil of a glad and joyful conscience: And hence 
It was that Christ said, John viii* 29, " I do: always 
4>hdi0 things that please hina," How could ha do those 
things always^ when he at their proper times ate, drank, 
and slept? Andi hence again, Johrisaith, *' Hereby we 
know diat we are of the truth, and shall assure our 
hearts before him. For if our heart copdemn us, God 
is greater than our heart and knoweth aUr things. JBe- 
loved, if our heart condemn us. not, iiaen- have we coor 
fid^iice toward God: And whatsoever we -ask we reeeiye 
of him : because we keep his commandments and do 
those things that are pleasing in his sight." 1 John iii. 
19 — 22. And again, ''whosoever is born of God," 
(that is, who believeth and tru&teth in God) '^doth not 


ftommit sin;" and cannot commit sin, 1 John iii. 9i 
And again, ^^ None of them that trust in him shall be 
desolate," Psalm xxxiv. 2S. And again '^ Blessed are 
all they that trust in him," Psalm ii. 12. And if this 
be true, then it must of necessity follow, that whatsoever 
they da is good, or that, if they do any thing that is sin, 
it is immediat^y paidoned and forgiven them. Here 
then, behold again the reason why I so much exalt faidi 
and' refer all good works unto it ;< and. why I reject all 
thoae works that do not spring from it. 


Hence, every one may easily examine and know 
when he does any thing good, and when he does not do 
any thing good, jfor when he finds in his heart that 
confidence, that he can believe that he pleases God, then 
the work is good, even though it be so small and incon^ 
siderable . an act as picking up a straw. But if this 
confidence or hope in God be wanting, then the work is 
not good, even though the man .should raise the dead or 
give himself to be burned. Thus .Paul has taught lis 
Rom. xiv. 23, " Whatsoever is not of faith is sin." For 
we are adorned with faith, and no other work,- that we 
may be called Christians, being denominated as. it w^ere 
from the chief x)f all works : because, even a Heathen, a 
Jew, or a Turk, that is a sinner, may do every other kind 
of work ; but, to be persuaded and to believe firmly 
that he. pleases God, is not possible to any man but to a 
Christian, illuminated and established by the grace of 
Gfod. And the reason why treatises of this kind are so 
rare, and why I am accused by many heretics on ac- 
count of this particular, is, because they^ following blind 
reason and heathen science, have placed faith, not above, 
but on a level with, all other virtues, only attributing to 
it a peculiar and proper work separately from the works 
of all other virtues. Whereas, faith alone, both make^ 
all other works good, and also acceptable and wdl*- 
pleasiiQg unto God ; because it trusts in him, and doubts 
not that whatsoever the person doeth is well pleasing unto 
him. Nay, these characters, have not permitted faith 


to be a work^ but (according to their term) have made 
it a habit : whereas, the whole sacred scripture calb no 
work whatever divinely good, but faith only. It is fio 
wonder therefore, that these same persons are made 
blind and leaders of the blind. For this faith, as it 
immediately brings with it love and peace, so it brings 
ailso jOy and hope : for he that believes and trusts io 
God, to him is immediately given the Holy Spirit : as 
Paul testifies to the Oalatians, where he saiQi^ ' Ye re- I 
ceived the Spirit,. not by your works, but by bdUeving 
the Word of God.' 


All works that are done in this faith, are equal and 
alike, and the one the same as the other. Here, there- 
fore, all distinction between works fells to the ground, 
whether they be great or small, long or short, many or | 
few. For the works are not pleasing unto God in them- 
selves, but because of the faith in which they are doodi 
which is the same, and lives and works without any dis- 
tinction in each work and in all works, how many and 
fUflferent soever they may be ; just as all the niembers 
live, operate, and have their name from the head, and no 
one member can either- live, operate, or have its name^ 
without the head. Hence also this farther follows, — 
that a Christian who lives in this faith does not want any 
teacher of good works, but does whatsoever comes into 
his hands, and all his works are then good. Thus we 
read of that saint, Hannah, the mother of Samuel, that 
when she believed the priest Eli holding forth to her the 
grace of God, she returned home in joy and peace, and 
her countenance was no more sad : and then, all things 
whatsoever she did after that were equal and the same. 
And St. Paul also sailii, * that all things are free wheare- 
soever the Spirit of the Lord is.' For faith does not 
permit itself to be bound by any works, nor, on the other 
hand, any works to be taken from it : but it will, as it is 
written in the first Psalm, " bring forth its fruit in due 
season :" that is, wheresoever it comes or turns. 



Let us set this forth by a plaiH example drawn 
from carnal things, and we shall clearly see its nature. 
— If any man or woman can persuade themselves that 
• they shall receive every thing that is kind and affectionate 
from another, and if they firmly believe that, whom do 
they want to teach them how they are to conduct them- 
selves, what they are to do or not to do, what they are 
to say or not to say, or what they are to think ? Their 
affection and confidence alone will teach them all 
things, and are more than necessary ! And then also, 
such an one makes no difference between his works. He 
does things great, long, and many, as willingly as he does 
small, short, and few. And, contrary to every thing that 
is on the other side of the question, he is of a glad, 
peaceful, and sweetly persuaded heart, and of a mind 
entirely free. Whereas, where there is any thing of 
doubt, there is a disputing about which is the best work 
among the whole, and then a difference of works begins 
to be made, and there is an inquiry about which are the 
best means to obtain grace; and moreover, the man 
enters upon all this like a captive with a heavy heart, 
feeling it a troublesome task, and is more than half in 
despondency and despair, and often becomes quite an , 
idiot under his toil. But the Christian who lives in this 
hope and confidence in God, knows all things, can do 
all things, and undertakes all things that he feels H^ 
ought to do : and does all these things with gladness 
»and in liberty, not to collect and heap up a stock of 
merit and good works, but, (which is his heart's delight 
and greatest pleasure,) to please God, and to serve him 
purely, freely, and gratuitously ; content and happy in 
this alone, — that he pleases God ! Whereas, on the 
other hand, that man cannot walk and be in harmony 
with God, who doubts whether he pleases him or not, 
and who is ever inquiring and anxiously considering, 
how he shall be able to satisfy God and to move him by 
a multitude of works. Such an one, is ever running to 
St. James, to Rome, to Jerusalem, to this place and 


that, and up here and down there, saying over the 
prayers of St. Brigitta, and this prayer and that, fasting 
this day and the other day, confessing here aUd con- 
fessing there, and inquiring of this maqi and tjiat; and 
yet, he can find no . rqst nor quietness, for he does all 
these things with toil, doubt, and indignation o£ beait 
And therefore, the scripture calls all wgrks of this kind, 
in the Hebrew amal aven ; which you may interpre^t, 
labour and toil. And after all, these works are not good, 
but all lost, all vain, and all a thing of nought. And 
hence, many have grown so mad widi rage under them, 
that, from anguish of mind, they have fallen into every 
kind of calamity: and they are thus spoken of in the 
Book of Wisdom, ** We have wearied ourselves in the 
way of wickedness and destruction : yea we have gone 
through deserts where there lay no w^y : but as for the 
way of the Lord we hav6 not known it r and the sun of 
righteousness hath not shined upon us,^. Wisdom v. 6.7- 


And since faith is considered by them to be so vile, 
unimportant, and weak a thing in these their works, let 
us ask them farther, whether, when they are pressed 
with calamity and adversity, either in their bodies, their 
property, their honour, their friends, or any thing else 
that they possess; — let. us ask them, I say, whether 
when under these circumstances, they still believe tfiat 
they please God, and that it is he that sends upon them 
all these calamities and adversities, whether great or 
small, in a way of mercy ? For this is the next degree and 
property of real faith, — for all our senses and our under- 
standing to have a good confidence, even when God is 
shewing himself angry, and to promise to ourselves 
better tnings of God than his present carriage of himself 
towards us would outwardly seem to indicate. For God 
is ever hidden : as the spouse saith in the song, " Be- 
hold he standeth behind our wall, he looketh forth at the 
windows, shewing himself through the lattice," Song 
ii. 9 ; that is, he stands hidden behind sufferings and ad- 
versities, which, like a wall or partition, seem to strive 

' 451 

to geparat^ U3 firom bim, but yet, he never leaves us, bi)^ 
3tU]l,]:)t^ lus eye upon u&: for be there still st^ds re^dj 
tp help us by his grace, and permits himsel£ to be qb- 
^xjiir^ly pe^n through the windows of faith. So J^emialf 
^^th^ " He doth not fifflict willipgly, nor grieve^ th^ 
cljiild)ren pf iiaen,'' Lament, iii. 33. — But of this faitlj 
tbey know nothing at all, who consider that they ai^^ 
fpr^akeix pf God, and that God is their enemy, t]^^y> 
y&^y rather think tbat these evils are sent upon theip . by 
nign, and by evil spirits ; a^d tbus^ they have no confi-^ 
dqhce whateyer in God. And therefore, the calamitief^ 
and sufFmngs of such, as they are ever offensive untp 
tbiem, are al^o a loss ; nevertheless, they still go oij 
doiijg their gpod works, as they consider them to be, yej 
p^yijqg no regard whatever to, nor caring any thing 
aijout, this fajtn. But those who, under all such evils and 
calamities, still believe, and maintain their confidence 
that they please God, — to such, these their evils and 
adversities are thipgs the most precious, and the most 
valuable of all blessings, though esteemed so by none 
others of iportal men. For faith and confidence in God> 
n^ate all things that come from him most precious, 
though they be in the estimation pf all other men most 
destructive. Thus it is written concerning death, '^ Pre^ 
qious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints," 
Fsalm cxvi. l5. For the more pure, the higher, and 
tKe stronger this kind of faith and confidence are, by so 
i^wch the more valuable are all sufterings that are borne, 
and all the works that are done in the same faith.—r 
Thus works and sufferings of this kind are inconceivably 
different from those on ^the other side of the question^ 
and are of a more exalted kind, degree, and value. - 


But farther : the highest degree of faith, is, when it 
rests in God, not under temporal evils and sufferings 
only, but in death and, under the pains of hell, and when 
sin is punishing the conscience and almost denying 
grace and mercy, and appearing as if it would rage and 
damn for ever. But these are things that few men expe- 


rience. Yet David, Psalm vi. 1, corfiplains thus, ^'0 
Lord, rebuke me not in thine anger." And, to believe, 
when in this state, that we please God, is the greatest 
work that can be done by, and in, the creature: of 
which, all justiciaries and holy work-mongers know 
nothing whatever. For how should they promise to 
themselves the goodness and mercy of Goia in such cir- 
cumstances as these, when they doubt and hesitate in 
the least matter of faith ? Behold, then, these are the 
reasons why I have ever so much spoken of, and so ex- 
'toUed faith, and why I have ever rejected all works that 
are not done in this faith ; and have maintained, that 
men are to be called away from those false, feigned, 
Pharisaical works done without faith, (with which all 
monk-herds, temples, houses, and all religious orders, 
high and low, abound and are full,) unto works that are 
righteous, true, fundamentally good, and done in faith. 
In which work, no one runs against and opposes me, 
but unclean beasts, whose hoof^ (as the law of Moses 
saith,) is not divided, and^who will not suffer any distmc- 
tion to be made between works. For such win so rush 
on, according to the impulse of their nature, that they 
will have that every thing is good where there has been 
a certain portion of praying,, fasting, building, con- 
fessing, and making satisfaction; although there was 
not, in the doing of all these things, the least &ith 
whatever in the grace, goodness, and mercy of God. 
Nay, they rather consider those to be good works only 
which have been many, great, and long. And hence, 
they do not hold that we are to seek alone the pleasmg 
of God in our works : — they do not place their confi- 
dence in the divine grace, but in their own working: 
that is, they build upon the sand : whence they must at 
last meet with a terrible fall ; as Christ saith. Matt. vii. 
27. But it is the good-will and favour of God on which 
our confidence ought to stand; which good- will and 
favour the angels proclaimed in the night of our Lord's 
nativity, singing, " Glory to God in the highest, and on 
earth peace, good-will towards men ! " 




Behold ! this is the work of the First Command- 
ment, ^Thou shalt have none other gods but me/ 
Which signifies, Since I only am God, thou oughtest to 
place all thy confidence, hope, and faith in me, and in 
no other. For that is not having One God, if thou 
mention his name outwardly with thy mouth only, or 
adore him alone with bendea knees and other gestures. 
But, having One God, is, trusting in him from thy 
heart and soul, and promising to thyself grace, good- 
ivill, and all good things, not less under sunerings and 
adversities dian when doing good works, not less in 
death than in life, not less in hard and bitter times than 
m times that are pleasant and joyful: as the Lord 
Christ saith, John iv. 24, to the woman of Samaria, 
*' God is a Spirit, and they that worship him, must 
worship him in spirit and in truth," And this con- 
fidence, hope, and faith of heart, is the true fulfilling of 
this First Commandment : without which, there is no 
work whatever that can in any way fulfil it. And as this 
is the first, the highest, and the greatest of all the Com- 
mandments from which all others flow, from which they 
all proceed, and according to which they must all be di- 
rected and ruled ; so, its work, that is, a hope and con- 
iidence in the grace of God, is always the fiarst, highest, 
and greatest of all works; out of which all the rest 
arise, and according to which they must all proceed, 
continue, and be directed and governed. All the other 
works therefore without this, are, just what all the other 
Commandments would be without the First : for then, 
there would be no God ! And hence that saint, Augus- 
tine, greatly saith, * The works of the First Command- 
ment are, to believe, to hope, and to love.' Nay, if we 
look into the matter in its true light, love is the first 
work ; or at least, it is equal with faith. For I cannot 
trust in God unless I think that his will is to be merci- 
ful unto me, propitious, kind, and tender. For it is then 
.:hat I am led to love him in return, to trust in him from 


my heart, and to persuade myself that I shall receive 
every best thing from him. 


By this time then you see, that all those who do not 
at all times trust in God, and who do not protnfe^ to 
themselves his grace, favour, and good- will, irf ail theilr 
works and sufferings, in life and in deaths but \i^lio 'seek 
what they want lironrr something else, or from , them- 
selves ; — you now see, I say, that such do not keep the 
First Commandment, but follow a real idolatry ; aid 
that they would not keep it even though they should tlo 
the works of all the rest of the Commartdiiients, and have 
all the prayers, the fastings, the 9bedience, the pdtience, 
the chastity, and the innocence, of all the saints put tdgp- 
ther. For they have fiot the principal and grand wbrk, 
^'ithout which, all the rest are nothing whatever but 
mere outside glittering, show, and colouring: concfeming 
which characters, the Lord has given uS a caution, 
Matt. vii. 15, " Beware of false prophets which come 
to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are raven- 
ing wolves." And such are all those who, by their 
many good works, attempt to conciliate God (as they 
term i^ and make him their friend : thus batgaining as 
it were with God for his grace and favour : as ii GtA 
^ete a tjrader, a hawker, and one thH wotiM sell'TiiS 
Wares for any thing to get a p^nny by them, and who 
would nevfer give away his grace and favour gratis. 
These are the most perverse of dl mortal tnqn upon 
the face of the earth, and who can with diffictllty, of 
never, be converted to the right way. And* the sam6 
likewise are those, who under their calamitiies aild ad- 
versities, run here and there and this way and that vfkj, 
seeking every where counsel, help, arid comfort ;'. Ifeav- 
ing God entirely qut of the question, froitt whom jfife^ 
tire especially commanded to seek these things. Stffc 
characters the prophet Isaiah rebukes, chap, ix.' t^: 
^ This foolish people tumeth not unto him thtit sttiit^th 
them : ' that is, the Lord has smitten them "Atvi sent ott 


i^m sufferings, calamities, and adversities, that'boUnd 
•filism in every way, that they might run utito him and 
<rii9t in 'him ; but th6y run unto men, at '6he time into 
"Efgypt, at another into Assyria, and sometiriie^ e>ven 
^nto Satan himself and an evil spirit. Concerning which 
idolatry, many things are read both in the same prophet 
and also in the Books of Kings. And in the satti6 Way 
also do all these holy hypocrites act in our day: for 
whenever thfey are oppressed with any adversity, ' they 
■do not run to God, but from him, and shun him, think- 
ing only about this, — ^how they shall, by themselves, or 
by human help, be delivered from their distresses ; and 
yet, they all the while, not only accc^urit theftiselves 
*to be good men, but permit themselves to be so ac- 
counted by others. 


This is the sentiment of Paul in many places, in 
which he ascribes so much unto faith :— -he says, " The 
just shall live by faith," Rom. i. 17. For faith is that 
very thing beciaiise of which a man is accounted right- 
eous before God. If therefore, righteousness stand in 
faith, it is evident, that it is faith alone that fulfils all 
the Commandftients of God; and that makes all works 
'righteous. For no one is righteous but he who fulfils all 
the Commandments of God ; and, on the oth^r hand, 
no works justify a man without faith. And therefore it 
is, that St. Paul rejects full-mou%hed all works, and 
commends and extols faith. So that some may say, 
• Well then ! we will do no good workfe at all ! ' But he 
rebukes such, as erring, and by no means understanding 
the matter. And so it is at this day. Wheii we reject all 
those great and splendid works -that are done without 
faith in this our day, they say that all they have to do is 
to believe, and that they have no need to do any good 
MTorks at all. For what they call the works of the First 
Commandment in these our times, are chanting, read- 
ing aloud, thumping' the organ, -or doing ot celebrating 
scwnething divinely appointed; praying over matins, 
-vespers, and prayeri3 at stated hours; founding, and oW 


kiametiting churches, altars, and monasteries; increase 
ing the number of bells, garments, ornaments, and trea- 
sures ; running to Rome and to different saints ; and, 
clothed in these fine garments, falling on the knees 
and praying over rosaries and psalteries; and doing all 
this, before the holy cross, or before some images of 
saints which they have made ; — all this, I say, is what is 
called worshipping and adoring God according to the 
^le First Commandment, ' Thou shalt have none other 
gods but me ! ' Whereas, usurers, adulterers, and sinners 
of every kind can do these things, and really do th^ 
every day. — When we do these things in faith, and 
believe that they please God, then, they are laudable; 
not for what they are in themselves, but because of Ae 
faith in which they are done ; by which, all works, (as we 
have before observed) are equal. But when we are in 
doubt, or do not think that God is merciful and pro- 
pitious unto us, and that we please God, then, all t^se 
things are but mere cheats, impostures, and deceptions; 
a worshipping God outwardly, but inwardly making 
ourselves our own idols. This therefore is the reason 
why I have frequently spoken against the pomp, osten- 
tation, and multitude of all such works, and why I 
wholly reject them : — even because it is evident and ma- 
nifest, that they are not only done in doubt and without 
faith, but that there is scarely one man out of a thousand 
who does not put his confidence in them ; persuading 
himself that he shall because of them obtain the grace 
and favour of God, and shall be beforehand with bis 
grace, and make a market of it. But this is what God 
cannot bear, because he has promised that he will give 
his grace freely, and wills that we should begin by his 
grace to trust in him, and in the same confidence do 
'all our works of what kind or denomination soever they 
may be. 


Do thou then from these things consider, what a 
wide difference there is between doing and fulfilling 
the First Commandment by external works, and doing 


and fulfilling it by internal faith and confidence ! For it 
is the latter that makes us the true children of God : the 
ibViher, makes the worst idolatry and hypocrisy that is 
practised by all the idolaters and hypocrites upon the 
&uce of the earth. The latter characters moreover Ittid 
thousands of mortals into their ways by their blaza of 
external show, and permit them to remain without faith ; 
iuid thus, most miserably deceive them, leaving themi to 
rest in external noise and appearance. Concerning such 
Christ saith, Matt. xxiv. 23, '*If any man shall say utito 
you, Lo here is Christ, or lo he is there, believe it not" 
And again, John iv. 23, " Woman, believe me, the hour 
Cometh when ye shall neither at Jesulaleqi, nor yet in 
tins mountain, worship the Father. But the hour 
eometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall 
worship the Father in spirit and in truth, for the Father 
deeketh such to worship him." — Scriptures of this kind, 
aa they moved me, so ought they to move all, to cast away 
all that Papal pomp, together with the bulls, the seals, 
.the standards, the indulgences, &c. by which the mi- 
serable commonalty are drawn on to building churches, 
to almsgiving, to founding, to praying, &c.;. whereas 
fiiith all the while is suppressed and passed by in 
silence, yea, utterly opposed and persecuted. For, as 
fiuth makes no difference between w orks, one work 
cannot, according to that faith, be greater than another, 
how pompous and mighty soever it may be. Because; 
fiedth only has for its objects the worship and honour of 
God ; nor will it allow any work to have any name or 
honour, but that which it (toithyT^ives unto it itself; and 
this honour it gives, when the work is done in and 
Jby faith.— This evil of works withottt faith is shown 
forth in the Old Testament, in the Jews deserting the 
temple and offering up sacrifices in other places, in 
groves and on mountains. And the same do these in 
our day : they are busied about, and ready to do, every 
kind of work, yet, all the while, never do this principal 
work of faith. 

VOL. II. 2 H 


Where c^re those then, who will yet inquire, wh^tgpo^ 
works they ought to do, and how they are t^ \jj&ooxp^^ 
^ghteousr Nay, where are those who, will now say^ 
ths^ when we preach faidi, we dp not teach works, aqdi 
have no need to do works ? Does not this Firs^ ^Vk' 
mandment set before us mor^ workj^ thiin evj^r any o^ 
will be able to dp ? For if one m^ were a. thousa^ 
men, or all men, or all creatures^ yet^ tUs Command-' 
ment would give him enough to do, and more than h^ 
could ever perform; namely, th^ he is always. to liy^ 
^6l to do all thingSyin faith and cppfidenceiaQod^a^ 
to place his faith in^ np. one £^;id. northing ejbe^, ai(id.tbu|h 
to have but One God ! — Since, therdtore, l^unian 1^ 
and nature cannot b? one moment,, witbput eijdber bdiog 
employee! in works, or doing nothing;, (for/we, sise d$^ 
this life is never in a st£^te of utter, nonr^ntity ;), Let e.y^]^ 
oi^e, who would b^ righteous aiKi fuU of gpcx^ ^Pi^ 
remain continually in. thi§ faith,; let hd/n leam^pergeh 
tuaUy to dp and omit all things in this faith , ai^ coc^^ 
dence ; he will then find how much he ha^ tp dp, per- 
ceiving that all things stand in faith ; and he will se^ 
that np one can be utterly without any. tlung to do^ l^e-^ 
cause the very omission of works naust be aa exerdsci 
and work of faith. And in a word, npthiog can take; 
place in us^ or be done; by us, notl)ii)g can cease 01; 
be dome* away with, without faith, if .we, believ^.that aft 
we dp shpuW please Go^l \ apd ^j^lje^ 3.IV titings a?^ 
done thus, thep they l^^pS b^; gop^. Tt^a- St* Pia^; 
Sdith) 1 Cor, x> 3.1, " ^hejiif^ therefore, ye eat ot: 
drink; orwhatspever yP;do, dp all ^tp .the glpry of <jcrf :" 
b4t, all tbe§§ things cpinpt be,.d.9)D^:tp tlie sanie endji 
m^less they be don€( iu the same faith,, An4 j^ga^be^ 
saith, Rom. viii. 28,; " \^e know tl;iat all things wc^k 
togiBiiier for. good to theni that lov^ Gpfi." Therefoa^ 
for men tp. sfiy tha|; we prohibj^t r gppd; wprk^, whj^ ^ 
thus preach faith only as the principal things is Just af^ 
if, when a physician should say to a sick man, * When 


thou ha^ ^tten hiealtb thou ivilt have aE the works of 

th^ Hmba, but without that Ae works of all thy limb«^ 

wdi-he noifiing at aiU;' the man should understand 

' l^'ias prohibiting all the operations of the lim